Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering


Archives of Civil Engineering | 2010 | No 1 |


The ductility of High Performance Concrete (HPC) can develop both in tension and compression.This aspect is evidenced in the present paper by measuring the mechanical response of normalvibrated concrete (NC), self-compacting concrete (SC) and some HPCs cylindrical specimensunder uniaxial and triaxial compression. The post-peak behaviour of these specimens is definedby a non-dimensional function that relates the inelastic displacement and the relative stress duringsoftening. Both for NC and SC, the increase of the fracture toughness with the confinement stressis observed. Conversely, all the tested HPCs, even in absence of confinement, show practically thesame ductility measured in normal and self-compacting concretes with a confining pressure. Thus,the presence of HPC in compressed columns is itself sufficient to create a sort of active distributedconfinement.

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Beam-to-column end-plate joints can be classified as rigid (fully restrained), semi-rigid (partiallyrestrained) or pinned, depending on their type, configuration and the connector arrangement. Fullyrestrained joints are needed for rigid frames in which there is assumed that the frame joints havesufficient rigidity to maintain – under the service state – the angles between the intersecting mem-bers, ensuring the full moment transfer. In contrast in semi-continuous frames, partially restrainedjoints are characterized by relative rotations occurring between the intersecting members so thatthe bending moment can only be transferred partially. In recent years, the idea of using partiallyrestrained, unstiffened joints in building structures has gained momentum since this idea appearsto be more practical and economical. Semi-continuous frames can resist actions by the bendingmoment transfer in partially restrained joints, allowing in the same time for a certain degree ofrotation that enhances the overall ductile performance of these structures. One of the effective waysthat affects ductility of end-plate beam-to-column joints is to use thinner end-plates than those usednowadays in practical applications. In the current study, a certain class of steel-concrete compositejoints is examined in which the thickness of end-plates is to be equivalent to approximately 40-60% of the bolt diameter used in all the composite joints investigated in the considered joint class. Thispaper is an extension of the authors’ earlier investigation on numerical modelling of the behaviourof steel frame joints. The aim of current investigations is to develop as simple as possible andyet reliable three-dimensional (3D) FE model of the composite joint behaviour that is capable ofcapturing the important factors controlling the performance of steel-concrete end-plate joints inwhich the end-plate thickness is chosen to be lesser than that used nowadays in conventional jointdetailing. A 3D FE model constructed for composite joints of the considered joint class is reportedin this paper and numerical simulations using the ABAQUS computer code are validated againstexperimental investigations conducted at the Warsaw University of Technology. Comparison betwe-en the nonlinear FE analysis and full scale experimental results of the considered class of compositejoints is presented which conclusively allows for the accuracy assessment of the modelling tech-nique developed. Comparison between the FE results and test data shows a reasonable agreementbetween the numerical FE model developed and physical model of experimentally examined jointspecimens. Finally, practical conclusions for engineering applications are drawn.

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This paper presents the results of research on high performance concretes (HPC) modified by theaddition of polypropylene fibres
(PP fibres). The scope of the research was the measurement of theresidual transport properties of heated and recooled concretes: gas permeability and surface waterabsorption. Seven types of concrete modified with fibrillated PP fibres were tested. Three lengths: 6,12 and 19 mm and three amounts of fibres: 0, 0.9 and 1.8 kg/m3 were used. The research programmewas designed to determine which length of fibres, used in which minimum amount, will, after thefibres melt, permit the development of a connected network and pathway for gases and liquids.

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The first order variation of critical loads of thin-walled columns with bisymmetric open cross-sectiondue to some variations of the stiffness and location of bracing elements is derived. The con-siderations are based on the classical linear theory of thin-walled beams with non-deformablecross-section introduced by Vlasov [1]. Both lateral braces and braces that restraint warping andtorsion of the cross-section have been taken into account. In the numerical examples dealing withI-column, the functions describing the influence of location of the braces with unit stiffness on thecritical load of torsional and flexural buckling are derived. The linear approximation of the exactrelation of the critical load due to the variation of the stiffness and location of braces is determined.

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The subject of the paper comprises a cohesive soil response to a cyclic loading applied in the rangeof small strains (10⁻⁵ ÷ 10⁻³). To this end tests of undrained cyclic shear in a triaxial compressionapparatus were carried out on homogeneous material – kaoline from Tułowice. The tests werecarried out on a modernised test bed, enabling full saturation of samples using the back pressuremethod, as well as a precise, intra-chamber measurement of small strains. Maintaining a constantdeviatoric stress amplitude for NC and OC soils, the effect of its size (A = 0.75∆q or A = 0.375∆q) as well as the influence of strain rate on material characteristics “deviatoric stress (excess pore waterpressure) – axial strain” and effective stress paths were tested. While analysing the results obtained,a phenomenon of closing and stabilising initially open and moving loops were found, in contrast toproposal by Jardine [8]. The observed increments in the axial strain during cyclic loading operation,at the same levels of lateral effective stress, were greater for normally consolidated than for over-consolidated soils. At the same time, at each next cycle, these increments were smaller and smaller,assuming even the value equal to zero for the tenth cycle. Similar relationships occurred during theincrease in the pore water pressure during the cyclic load action. For the set number of cycles n = 10 they were that small – max. 46% (and decreasing with each consecutive cycle) that they did notresult in weakening of the material. Taking the trend of decreasing ∆u increments into account itwas possible to accept that the conclusion considered was right irrespective of the cycles’ number.

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