Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering


Archives of Civil Engineering | 2012 | No 2 |


A method of detecting honeycombing damage in a reinforced concrete beam using the finite element model updating technique was proposed. A control beam and two finite element model srepresenting different severity of damage were constructed using available software and the defect parameters were updated. Analyses were performed on the finite element models to approximate the modal parameters. A datum and a control finite element model to match the datum test beams with honeycombs were prepared. Results from the finite element model were corrected by updating the Young’s modulus and the damage parameters. There was a loss of stiffness of 3% for one case, and a loss of 7% for another. The more severe the damage, the higher the loss of stiffness. There was no significant loss of stiffness by doubling the volume of the honeycombs.

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Creep compliance of the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) is a primary input of the current pavement thermal cracking prediction model used in the US. This paper discusses a process of training an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to correlate the creep compliance values obtained from the Indirect Tension (IDT) with similar values obtained on small HMA beams from the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR). In addition, ANNs are also trained to predict HMA creep compliance from the creep compliance of asphalt binder and vice versa using the BBR setup. All trained ANNs exhibited a very high correlation of 97 to 99 percent between predicted and measured values. The binder creep compliance functions built on the ANN-predicted discrete values also exhibited a good correlation when compared with the laboratory experiments. However, the simulation of trained ANNs on the independent dataset produced a significant deviation from the measured values which was most likely caused by the differences in material composition, such as aggregate type and gradation, presence of recycled additives, and binder type.

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For solving a partial different equation by a numerical method, a possible alternative may be either to use a mesh method or a meshless method. A flexible computational procedure for solving 1D linear elastic beam problems is presented that currently uses two forms of approximation function (moving least squares and kernel approximation functions) and two types of formulations, namely the weak form and collocation technique, respectively, to reproduce Element Free Galerkin (EFG) and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) meshless methods. The numerical implementation for beam problems of these two formulations is discussed and numerical tests are presented to illustrate the difference between the formulations.

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The technology of recycling with foamed bitumen is a new technology of road rehabilitation. Due to the climatic conditions in the Central European countries, road pavement structure should be moisture and frost resistant. Because of its specific production conditions, this is especially important for pavements rehabilitation with the cold recycling technology. Determining the physical and mechanical properties, as well as moisture and frost resistance, depends on binder and filler contents. They are the key elements before its use for road building. The tests presented here have been performed on mineral recycled base mixes with foamed bitumen. The material from the existing layers was used. The content of bitumen binder amounted to 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0% and 3.5%, while that of cement to 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%. The results were subject to the optimization process. This allowed to state that with the use of 2.5% foamed bitumen and 2.0% of cement, the base had the required properties, as well as the moisture and frost resistance.

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The paper deals with application of the Gumbel model to evaluation of the environmental loads. According to recommendations of Eurocodes, the conventional method of determining return period and characteristic values of loads utilizes the theory of extremes and implicitly assumes that the cumulative distribution function of the annual or other basic period extremes is the Gumbel distribution. However, the extreme value theory shows that the distribution of extremes asymptotically approaches the Gumbel distribution when the number of independent observations in each observation period from which the maximum is abstracted increases to infinity. Results of calculations based on simulation show that in practice the rate of convergence is very slow and significantly depends on the type of parent results distribution, values of coefficient of variation, and number of observation periods. In this connection, a straightforward purely empirical method based on fitting a curve to the observed extremes is suggested.

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Several previous investigations on failure of a certain type lattice girders railway bridge (on so called BJD line) have not convincingly explained reasons nor have they described potential hazards. This paper attempts to provide an answer, employing static, dynamic, and fatigue analysis of the structure, focusing on previously not analyzed vibrations of elements constituting a lattice node. Detailed models of two types of such nodes – damaged and non- damaged were compared, inside carefully defined limits of applicability.

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People living in buildings may be exposed to dynamic actions. In the diagnosis and design of buildings there is an increasing need of taking into account these activities and verification of compliance of the building requirements for vibration comfort of people residing in buildings. This study presents the results of analysis of such criteria in the following standards: Polish PN-88/B-02171 [1], British BS 6472-1 [2], German DIN 4150 [3], and ISO international standards [4,5]. Basing on the results of this analysis and on the review of selected items of literature, the application of standards recommendations in diagnosis and design of buildings, as well as areas for further research on this subject is indicated. This article is an extended version of the conference paper [6] presented on the conference Urban Transport 2011.

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1. Preparation of the paper

General: Author is responsible for the Paper contents including copyrights and text formatting. The manuscript should be written in English. It should be typed using 12 p TNR font with 1.5 line spacing, on single-sided A4 sheets with 2 cm margins. The paper should not exceed 10 pages including tables and figures plus 2 pages of an extended summary (TNR 10 pt. justify align), started from new page at the end of the manuscript. Summary in Polish for Polish natives only, others - summary in English.

The first page and the main text: The first page of the article should contain: (1) the title of the article, (2) the name, academic merits, affiliation and e-mail of each author, (3) the name and the address of the author to whom correspondence, proofs and reprints should be sent, (4) a summary of 50-150 words, (5) a list of key words (not to exceed 8). The main text should be divided into numbered (1, 2, etc.) and titled sections and, if needed, into subsections (1.1, 1.2, ... in Section 1, 2.1, 2.2, ... in Section 2, etc.). The abstract of 50-150 words is required on a separate sheet. Polish natives authors only are requested to enclose Polish translation of the abstract, others - abstract in English.

Tables and figures: Tables and figures should be inserted into the text (black-and-white figures and glossy photographs),numbered consecutively and titled. They should be referred to in the text as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, ..., Table 1, Table 2. A list of figures and tables captions (TNR 11 pt. left align, in Polish - for Polish natives only and in English) should be provided on separate sheet(s) at the end of the manuscript beforean extended summary. Colour figures will be accepted only if the colour is essential for the explanation.

Units and mathematical formulae: SI units and abbreviations are obligatory. Mathematical formulae should be typewritten and centred. The formulae referred to in the text are to be numbered consecutively in each Section, i.e. (1.1), (1.2), ... in Section 1, (2.1), (2.2), ... in Section 2, etc. The numbers should be placed in parentheses ( ) at the left margin. The formulae are to be referred to in the text as Eq. (1.1),, Eq. (1.2), ..., Eq. (2.1), Eq. (2.2), ..., etc. The formulae not referred to in the text should not be numbered.

Bibliography: References are to be listed at the end of the paper in the alphabetical order and consecutively numbered. A reference to a published paper should be referred to in the text by the last name(s) of author(s) and the reference's number in brackets [ ]. Each item should contain full bibliographical data in the format illustrated by the following examples:

[1] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds. Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC: NBS, 1964, pp. 32-33.

[2] M. Gorkii, “Optimal design”, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961.

(Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York: INTERSCIENCE, 1962, Ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127-135).

[3] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

[4] E. F. Moore, “Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines”, in Automata Studies

(Ann. of Mathematical Studies, no. 1), C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy, Eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1965, pp. 129-153.

[5] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials”, in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47-160.

[6] L. Stein, “Random patterns”, in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.

[7] Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Staff of Technology and Science, Aerospace Div.), Integrated Electronic Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

[8] G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics”, in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.

In special cases, other formats related to codes, reports, dissertations, etc. will be accepted.

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4. Copyright: Submission of a paper to Archives of Civil Engineering implies that the material is an original and unpublished work, not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If permission for publication of any material is required, it should be obtained from appropriate sources by the author. The corresponding author is responsible for the other authors' approval of the paper publication.

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6. Other information: Apart from research papers, other articles such as review papers, brief notes, discussions and reports may be published in the journal. Monographic papers and state-of-the-art papers are accepted after prior approval of the Editor. Reports on important conferences held in Poland may also be published. Editor decides whether the paper fulfil all requirements i.e. formal and scientific. Editor nominates two reviewers, who shall forward reviews of the accepted publication.

The paper will be published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. If reviewers have some comments authors have to correct the paper. Papers are subject to open discussion. All letters should be addressed to the Editorial Office and will be published together with the authors' response.

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