Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering

Content

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2012 | No 1 |

Abstract

A computational approach to analysis of wave propagation in plane stress problems is presented. The initial-boundary value problem is spatially approximated by the multi-node C⁰ displacement-based isoparametric quadrilateral finite elements. To integrate the element matrices the multi-node Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto quadrature rule is employed. The temporal discretization is carried out by the Newmark type algorithm reformulated to accommodate the structure of local element matrices. Numerical simulations are conducted for a T-shaped steel panel for different cases of initial excitation. For diagnostic purposes, the uniformly distributed loads subjected to an edge of the T-joint are found to be the most appropriate for design of ultrasonic devices for monitoring the structural element integrity.

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Abstract

The objective of this investigation was comparing the penetration of chloride ions in ordinary and air-entrained concretes containing a waste material Fluidized Bed Combustion Fly Ash (FBCFA). All concretes were tested with 15% and 30% cement replacement by FBCFA, with the same water-binder ratio of 0.45. Two kinds of fly ash coming from fluid bed combustion in two power plants in Poland have been used.

In this study the rapid chloride permeability test – Nordtest Method BUILD 492 method – was used. The microstructure of the concrete was analyzed on thin polished sections and the measurement of air voids sizes and their distribution, using digital image analysis, was carried on according to PN-EN 480-11:2008.

Obtained results have shown a significant influence of partial cement replacement by FBCFA on the chloride ions movements in concrete. It has been found that this kind of addition reduced considerably the chloride ion penetration. The influence of air entrainment on the chloride diffusion coefficients was also measured and it was shown that application of air-entraining admixture for concretes with FBCFA reduce the chloride diffusion coefficient but it should be used with caution.

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Abstract

The paper presents a dynamic analysis of the damaged masonry building repaired with the Flexible Joint Method. Numerical analysis helped to determine the effect of the applied repairing method on natural frequencies as well as values of stresses and accelerations in the analyzed variants of numerical model. They confirmed efficiency of the proposed repair method.

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Abstract

The use of fly ash as a material for earth structures involves its proper compaction. Fly ash compaction tests have to be conducted on separately prepared virgin samples because spherical ash grains are crushed during compaction, so the laboratory compaction procedure is time-consuming and laborious. The aim of the study was to determine the neural models for prediction of fly ash compaction curve shapes. The attempt of applying the artificial neural networks type MLP was made. ANN inputs were new-created variables – principal components dependent on grain-size distribution (as D₁₀–D₉₀ and uniformity and curvature coefficients), compaction method, and fly ash specific density. The output vectors were presented by co-ordinates of generated compaction curve points. Each point (wᵢ, ρdi) was described by two independent ANNs. Using ANN-based modelling method, models which enable establishing the approximate compaction curve shape were obtained.

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Abstract

A continuous contact layer exists between the top and bottom layer of concrete composite reinforced floors. The contact layer is characterised by linear elasticity and frictional properties. In this paper a model of single degree of freedom of composite floor is determined. The model assumes that the restoring forces and the non-conservative internal friction forces dissipating energy are produced within the contact layer. A hysteresis loop is created in the process of static loading and unloading of the model, with the energy absorption coefficient being defined on this basis. The value of the coefficient is rising along with the growing stiffness of the composite.

A critical damping ratio is a parameter describing free decaying vibration caused by non-conservative internal friction forces in the contact layer and in the bottom and top layer. The value of the ratio in the defined model is rising along with the lowering stiffness of the element representing contact layer.

The findings resulting from the theoretical analyses carried out, including the experimental tests, are the basis for the established methods of determining the concrete layer state for reinforced concrete floors. The method is based on energy dissipation in the contact layer.

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Abstract

This paper describes the analyses of the fatigue life of the asphalt pavement reinforced with geogrid interlayer under traffic loading. Finite Element ANSYS package with using nCode applications, as well as macros specially designed in APDL programming script and VBA were used to model the considered problem. Our analysis included computation of stress, fatigue life, damage matrix and rainflow matrix. The method applied was the one of fatigue calculation: stress – number of cycles in short S-N. On the basis of the performed high cycle fatigue analysis, the influence of the location of the used geogrid and of its bond with asphalt layers on the fatigue life and the work of the asphalt pavement structure were determined. The study was carried out for three temperature seasons i.e. spring and fall (assumed as one season), winter and summer. The variability of the traffic conditions were taken into account by assuming weekly blocks of traffic loading. The calculations were made using the real values of loading measured in field tests on the German highways by means of HS-WIM weighing system. As a result of the performed tests, it was proved that the use of geogrid-reinforcement may prolong the fatigue life of the asphalt pavement. However, it is required that: the geogrid should be located in the tension zone as low as possible in the structure of the asphalt layers. Moreover, it is necessary to provide high stiffness of the bond between the geogrid and the asphalt layers.

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Abstract

The article presents numerical analysis of the portion of concrete airport pavement that consists of two concrete panels connected with dowels, subjected to thermal and service loads, in terms of changes in base rigidity, plate thickness and diameters, and spacing of dowels. Modifications of the thickness of the plates, diameter and spacing of dowels, and base rigidity were considered by assessing the level of stress and displacement in the analysed concrete plate, as well as normal and tangential stresses in dowels by using finite element method. On the basis of an analysis of examples, an optimal solution of dowelling connections in concrete plates with established loads was proposed. The results of the calculations were presented as a contour level distributions and comparison tables.

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GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS

1. Preparation of the paper

General: Author is responsible for the Paper contents including copyrights and text formatting. The manuscript should be written in English. It should be typed using 12 p TNR font with 1.5 line spacing, on single-sided A4 sheets with 2 cm margins. The paper should not exceed 10 pages including tables and figures plus 2 pages of an extended summary (TNR 10 pt. justify align), started from new page at the end of the manuscript. Summary in Polish for Polish natives only, others - summary in English.

The first page and the main text: The first page of the article should contain: (1) the title of the article, (2) the name, academic merits, affiliation and e-mail of each author, (3) the name and the address of the author to whom correspondence, proofs and reprints should be sent, (4) a summary of 50-150 words, (5) a list of key words (not to exceed 8). The main text should be divided into numbered (1, 2, etc.) and titled sections and, if needed, into subsections (1.1, 1.2, ... in Section 1, 2.1, 2.2, ... in Section 2, etc.). The abstract of 50-150 words is required on a separate sheet. Polish natives authors only are requested to enclose Polish translation of the abstract, others - abstract in English.

Tables and figures: Tables and figures should be inserted into the text (black-and-white figures and glossy photographs),numbered consecutively and titled. They should be referred to in the text as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, ..., Table 1, Table 2. A list of figures and tables captions (TNR 11 pt. left align, in Polish - for Polish natives only and in English) should be provided on separate sheet(s) at the end of the manuscript beforean extended summary. Colour figures will be accepted only if the colour is essential for the explanation.

Units and mathematical formulae: SI units and abbreviations are obligatory. Mathematical formulae should be typewritten and centred. The formulae referred to in the text are to be numbered consecutively in each Section, i.e. (1.1), (1.2), ... in Section 1, (2.1), (2.2), ... in Section 2, etc. The numbers should be placed in parentheses ( ) at the left margin. The formulae are to be referred to in the text as Eq. (1.1),, Eq. (1.2), ..., Eq. (2.1), Eq. (2.2), ..., etc. The formulae not referred to in the text should not be numbered.

Bibliography: References are to be listed at the end of the paper in the alphabetical order and consecutively numbered. A reference to a published paper should be referred to in the text by the last name(s) of author(s) and the reference's number in brackets [ ]. Each item should contain full bibliographical data in the format illustrated by the following examples:

[1] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds. Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC: NBS, 1964, pp. 32-33.

[2] M. Gorkii, “Optimal design”, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961.

(Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York: INTERSCIENCE, 1962, Ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127-135).

[3] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

[4] E. F. Moore, “Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines”, in Automata Studies

(Ann. of Mathematical Studies, no. 1), C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy, Eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1965, pp. 129-153.

[5] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials”, in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47-160.

[6] L. Stein, “Random patterns”, in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.

[7] Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Staff of Technology and Science, Aerospace Div.), Integrated Electronic Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

[8] G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics”, in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.

In special cases, other formats related to codes, reports, dissertations, etc. will be accepted.

Layout of the text can be downloaded from ace website: http://ace.il.pw.edu.pl

2. Submission of the paper

Two electronic versions of the manuscript (DOC and PDF file) and License to publish should be submitted and sent directly to the Editor-in-chief by e-mail to: ace@il.pw.edu.pl

Signing license agreement is required.

3. Proof read: Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author to correct any typesetting errors. Alterations to the original manuscript at this stage will not be accepted. Corrected proofs page must be mailed to the Editorial Office as soon as possible.

4. Copyright: Submission of a paper to Archives of Civil Engineering implies that the material is an original and unpublished work, not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If permission for publication of any material is required, it should be obtained from appropriate sources by the author. The corresponding author is responsible for the other authors' approval of the paper publication.

5. Reprints: The corresponding author will receive ten reprints and PDF file of the published paper free of charge.

6. Other information: Apart from research papers, other articles such as review papers, brief notes, discussions and reports may be published in the journal. Monographic papers and state-of-the-art papers are accepted after prior approval of the Editor. Reports on important conferences held in Poland may also be published. Editor decides whether the paper fulfil all requirements i.e. formal and scientific. Editor nominates two reviewers, who shall forward reviews of the accepted publication.

The paper will be published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. If reviewers have some comments authors have to correct the paper. Papers are subject to open discussion. All letters should be addressed to the Editorial Office and will be published together with the authors' response.

7. Fees: Submission of the paper is free of charge. Submitted papers are accepted for publication after a positive opinion of two independent reviewers. When publication accepted Author will be informed by email about article processing charge incl. amount and payment deadline. ACE is non for profit and all fees are calculated to cover operational costs only. Payment is required to the following bank account:

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