Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2012 | vol. 38 | No 3 |


Archives of Environmental Protection is the oldest Polish scientifi c journal regarding environmental engineering and protection. It has been published by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of PAS in Zabrze since 1975. The Committee on Environmental Engineering of PAS became its co-publisher in 2011. The quarterly publishes original articles (earlier, also announcements) concerning broadly understood areas of the environmental engineering and protection. The subjects include: air, land and water protection; technologies of fl ue gases, soil and wastewater treatment; transformations and transportation of pollutants in the environment; measurement techniques used in research and engineering as well as environmental monitoring. The published articles also focus on the reclamation and management of derelict lands, environmental management and other questions related to the environmental engineering and protection. The journal has been abstracted by Thomson Scientific since 2006 in the following databases: Science Citation Index Expanded, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews. Moreover, the journal was given the impact factor (IF) in 2010. The following article presents statistical data as well as a brief history and description of the journal.
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In the study suitability of water quality index approach and environmetric methods in fi ngerprinting heavy metal pollution as well as comparison of spatial variability of multiple contaminants in surface water were assessed in the case of The Gediz River Basin, Turkey. Water quality variables were categorized into two classes using factor and cluster analysis. Furthermore, soil contamination index was adapted to water pollution index and used to fi nd out the relative relationship between the reference standards and the current situation of heavy metal contamination in water. Results revealed that surface water heavy metal content was mainly governed by metal processing, textile and tannery industries in the region. On the other hand, metal processing industry discharges mainly degraded quality of water in Kemalpasa and Menemen. Furthermore, Kemalpasa region has been heavily affected from tannery and textile industries effl uents. Moreover, pollution parameters have not been infl uenced by changes in physical factors (discharge and temperature). This study indicated the effectiveness of water quality index approach and statistical tools in fi ngerprinting of pollution and comparative assessment of water quality. Both methods can assist decision makers to determine priorities in management practices.
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Zinc plant residue is a hazardous waste which contains high quantity of nickel and other valuable metals. Process parameters such as reaction time, acid concentration, solid-liquid ratio, particle size, stirring speed and temperature for nickel extraction from this waste were optimized using factorial design. Main effects and their interactions were obtained by the analysis of variance ANOVA. Empirical regression model was obtained and used to predict nickel extraction with satisfactory results and to describe the relationship between the predicted results and the experiment results. The important parameters for maximizing nickel extraction were identifi ed to be a leaching time solid-liquid ratio and acid concentration. It was found that above 90% of nickel could be extracted in optimum conditions.
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Aeromonas hydrophila is a valuable indicator of the quality of water polluted by sewage and pathogens that pose a risk for humans and cold-blooded animals, including fi sh. The main aim of this research was to evaluate anthropogenic pollution of river water based on genetic diversity of 82 A. hydrophila strains by means of RAPD, semi-random AP-PCR (ISJ) and the rep-BOX conservative repeats test. Genetic diversity of A. hydrophila was HT = 0.28 (SD = 0.02) for all DNA markers (RAPD, semi random and rep-BOX). None of the analyzed electrophoretic patterns was identical, implying that there were many sources of strain transmission. The presence of genes for aerolysin (aerA), hemolysin (ahh1) and the cytotoxic enzyme complex (AHCYTOGEN) was verifi ed for all tested strains, and drug resistance patterns for tetracycline, enrofl oxacin and erythromycin were determined. The most diverse A. hydrophila strains isolated from river water were susceptible to enrofl oxacine (HS = 0.27), whereas less diverse strains were susceptible to erythromycin (HS = 0.24). The presence of the multidrug resistance marker (ISJ4-25; 1100 bp locus) in the examined strains (resistant to three analyzed drugs) indicates that intensive fi sh cultivation affects the microbiological quality of river water.
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The role of fungi in the treatment of wastewater has been extensively researched. Many genera of fungi have been employed for the dye decolourization either in living or dead form. In this study, the removal of an acidic dye, Indigo Carmine (IC), from an aqueous solution by biosorption on dead fungus, Pleurotusostreatus, was investigated. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, amount of dead biomass, agitation rate and initial pH on dye removal have been determined. Experimental results show that an increase in the amount of dead biomass positively affected the dye removal. The highest removal was obtained at 150-200 rpm. Slightly lower removing activities were found at lower agitation rates. The dye adsorption effi ciency was not affected by pH except minor variation in the pH of 2-8. Color removal was observed to occur rapidly within 60 minutes. The removal of dye by dead biomass of P. ostreatus was clearly dependent on the initial dye concentration of the solution. Dye removal was reduced from 93% to 64% as concentration was increased from 50 to 500 mg/L Indigo Carmine. This study showed that it was possible to remove textile dyes by dead biomass of P. ostreatus.
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A forecast of the negative impact exerted on the environment by selected trace elements in “Bełchatów” Power Plant has been prepared on the basis of the results of investigations into these elements’ distribution carried out as part of earlier research on coal from “Bełchatów” Field and the data on updated analyses of the content of these elements in 55 brown coal samples from test boreholes. Work in “Bełchatów” Power Plant, which is supplied with coal from “Szczerców” Field, will be accompanied by trace elements transfer. On the basis of the conducted investigations it has been found that the biosphere is most threatened by mercury emissions. As shown by the presented results of analyses and calculations, the emissions of mercury in “Bełchatów” Power Plant are low. Mercury is accumulated chiefl y in gypsum produced in the FGD plant. The content of mercury in slag and ash is low.
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The study was to determine the effect of water activity (0.850; 0.900; 0.950; 0.995; and 0.999 aw) on the growth of T. lanuginosus on solid media containing different cellulose substrates (crystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose - CMC, fi lter paper, and sawdust) and xylan. The growth of isolates from coffee beans and garden composts were compared. All isolates did not grow on media with aw < 0.950. On media with aw > 0.950, the hydrolysis zones were only observed on xylan and CMC. The highest daily growth and hydrolysis zone rates were mostly obtained at 0.995 aw and the lowest values were observed at 0.950 aw. The coffee beans isolates at 0.950 aw had the CMC hydrolysis coeffi cient 1.7-times higher than that for xylan. The fungal growth (FG) coeffi cient data indicate that the coffee beans isolates were able to utilize CMC and crystalline cellulose for growth and the highest growth rate was obtained at 0.999 aw. Subsequently, the compost isolates were able to grow on all substrates but the highest growth rate was obtained on CMC at 0.950 and 0.999 aw. Thus, coffee beans and composts provide T. lanuginosus isolates with various growth and hydrolytic zone rates in the range of 0.950−0.999 aw.
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In the paper, a numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of sewage sludge gasifi cation syngas in a hard coal-fi red boiler was done. Two different syngases (SS1 and SS2) were taken in consideration. Additional (reburning) fuel was injected into the combustion chamber, which was modeled as a plug fl ow reactor (PFR). The molar fl ow rates ratio of reburning fuel is assumed to be 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, 12.5% and 15.0% of the whole exhaust. The simulations were conducted for constant pressure equal to 1atm for temperatures range from 600 to 1400 K. It was assumed that a fl ue gases which enters the reburning zone contains 300 ppm of NO and that during combustion only NO is formed without other NOx. Results show that that gas from sewage sludge gasifi cation gives reburning effi ciency of up to 90%. Calculation shows also an optimum value of temperature reburning for gas from sewage sludge gasifi cation which is equal to 1200 K. The type of the sewage sludge has no strong infl uence on the NO reduction.
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This article presents ways of possible utilization and application of fl uidal combustion wastes as active additives to hardening slurries which are used to seal environment protection structures, i.e. cut-off walls in waste dumps and wastewater treatment plants. Cut-off walls are often exposed to fi ltrating action of eluates - polluted (aggressive) waters. Results of hydraulic conductivity tests of slurries after their long-term (210 days) fi ltration with eluates from a municipal waste dump and with tap water are presented. Porosity tests were also conducted to show the porosity structure of the fi ltered slurries. Additionally, compressive strength of slurries maturing in tap water and waste dump eluates was tested in parallel.
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When identifying the conditions required for the sustainable and long-term exploitation of geothermal resources it is very important to assess the dynamics of processes linked to the formation, migration and deposition of particles in geothermal systems. Such particles often cause clogging and damage to the boreholes and source reservoirs. Solid particles: products of corrosion processes, secondary precipitation from geothermal water or particles from the rock formations holding the source reservoir, may settle in the surface installations and lead to clogging of the injection wells. The paper proposes a mathematical model for changes in the absorbance index and the water injection pressure required over time. This was determined from the operating conditions for a model system consisting of a doublet of geothermal wells (extraction and injection well) and using the water occurring in Liassic sandstone structures in the Polish Lowland. Calculations were based on real data and conditions found in the Skierniewice GT-2 source reservoir intake. The main product of secondary mineral precipitation is calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and calcite. It has been demonstrated that clogging of the active zone causes a particularly high surge in injection pressure during the fi rst 24 hours of pumping. In subsequent hours, pressure increases are close to linear and gradually grow to a level of ~2.2 MPa after 120 hours. The absorbance index decreases at a particularly fast rate during the fi rst six hours (Figure 4). Over the period of time analysed, its value decreases from over 42 to approximately 18 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours from initiation of the injection. These estimated results have been confi rmed in practice by real-life investigation of an injection well. The absorbance index recorded during the hydrodynamic tests decreased to approximately 20 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours.
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A novel herbicidal controlled release formulation composed of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) chemically bonded to biodegradable (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid oligomers was investigated. The synthesis of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid oligomers was carried out via the ring opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone initiated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic potassium salt in the presence of complexing agents. The formed oligomers were characterized by size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance and electrospray mass spectrometry in order to fi nd out their molar mass distribution and molecular structures. An assessment of biological effectiveness of the obtained herbicidal formulation was carried out in the greenhouse vs. Sinapis alba var. Nakielska. A promotion of the controlled release formulation with decreased water solubility and with low vapor pressure of the active ingredient, instead of traditional formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid may help to ensure a greater safety for workers and reduce the risk of dissemination of the active ingredient in the soil profi le.
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Editorial office


Czesława Rosik-Dulewska

Editorial Advisory Board
Michał Bodzek
Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
Korneliusz Miksch

Assistant Editor
Katarzyna Panz


Editorial Board:

Lucjan Pawłowski

Brian A. Bolto (Australia)
Hubert Bril (France)
Bart Van der Bruggen (Belgium)
Zhihong Cao (China)
Pen-Chi Chiang (R.O.C.)
Wolfgang Frenzel (Germany)
Reinhard F. Hüttl (Germany)
Piotr Kowalik (Poland)
Joanna Kyzioł-Komosińska (Poland)
Rajmund Michalski (Poland)
Anuska Mosquera Corral (Spain)
Takashi Nakamura (Japan)
Józef M. Pacyna (Norway)
Wim H. Rulkens (The Nederlands)
Corrado Sarzanini (Italy)
Hans Martin Seip (Norway)
Jan Siuta (Poland)
Jerzy Sobota (Poland)
Joanna Surmacz-Górska (Poland)
Jadwiga Szczepańska (Poland)
Christopher G. Uchrin (USA)
Tomasz Winnicki (Poland)
Xiaoping Zhu (USA)
Jerzy Zwoździak (Poland) 


Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences
M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
Tel.: +48-32-271 64 81      Fax: +48-32-271 74 70

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.


The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:

- Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;

- Wastewater treatment and utilization;

- Waste management;

- Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;

- Soil protection and remediation;

- Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;

- Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;

- Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to: or

Preparation of the manuscript

The following are the requirements for manuscripts submitted for publication:

• The manuscript (with illustrations, tables, abstract and references) should not exceed 20 pages. In case the manuscript exceeds the required number of pages, we suggest contacting the Editor.

• The manuscript should be written in English.

• The manuscript ought to be submitted in doc or docx format in three files:

– text.doc – file containing the entire text, without title, keywords, authors names and affiliations, and without tables and figures;

– figures.doc – file containing illustrations with legends;

– tables.doc – file containing tables with legends;

• The text should be prepared in A4 format, 2.5 cm margins, 1.5 spaced, preferable using Time New Roman font with no less than 12 point. The text should be divided into sections and subsections according to general rules of manuscript editing. The proposed place of tables and figures insertion should be marked in the text.

• Legends in the figures should be concise and legible, using a proper font size so as to maintain their legibility after decreasing the font size. Please avoid using descriptions in figures, these should be used in legends or in the text of the article. Figures should be placed without the box. Legends should be placed under the figure and also without box.

• Tables should always be divided into columns. When there are many results presented in the table it should also be divided into lines.

• References should be cited in the text of an article by providing the name and publication year in brackets, e.g. (Nowak 2019). When a cited paper has two authors, both surnames connected with the word “and” should be provided, e.g. (Nowak and Kowalski 2019). When a cited paper has more than one author, surname of its first author, abbreviation ‘et al.’ and publication year should be provided, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019). When there are more than two publications cited in one place they should be divided with coma, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019, Nowak 2019, Nowak and Kowalski 2019). Internet sources should be cited like other texts - providing the name and publication year in brackets.

• References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:

Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title of the article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages, DOI.

For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330.

2. Book:

Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title, Publisher, Place and publishing year.

For example:

Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Sudies, Zabrze 2019.

3. Edited book:

Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.

For example:

Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:

Surnames and initials or the name of the institution which published the text. (publication year). Title, (website address (accessed on)).

For example:

Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, ( (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.

Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

6. Materials published in language other than English:

Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.

For example:

Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

Submission of the manuscript

By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article. The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at Authors are asked to propose at least 4 potential reviewers, including 2 from Poland, together with their e-mail addresses. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Review Process

All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline. Reviewers receive a text of the article (without personal data of Authors) and review forms applicable in the journal. In justified cases, reviewers receive additional questions regarding the article. Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.

After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and - if both reviews are positive - asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript

The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction

All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or - in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.

After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

Article publication charges

The publication fee of an article in the Journal is:

• 20 EUR/80 zł per page (black and white or in gray scale),

• 30 EUR/120 zł per page (color).

Payments in Polish zlotys

Bank BGK

Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Payments in Euros

Bank BGK

Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

IBAN: PL 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001


Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice.

Open Access policy

Archives of Environmental Protection jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

Archives of Environmental Protection is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-SA 4.

Additional information

Abstracting & Indexing

Archives of Environmental Protection is covered by the following services:

AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library)



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EBSCO Discovery Service

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Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb

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Web of Science - Biological Abstracts

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