Applied sciences

Archive of Mechanical Engineering


Archive of Mechanical Engineering | 2007 | vol. 54 | No 1 |

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Using a highly sensitive and precise apparatus, series of spatial movements of human cervical segments (C3/C4) were measured. They followed cyclic varied pure torques for axial rotation, lateral flexion, and flexion-extension in the presence of axially directed preloads as running parameter, whose force lines were shifted over the segments. By successive resections of the uncovertebral and zygapophysial joints as well as ligamental structures, the reach of these guiding structures for segmental kinematics and stiffness could be evaluated. For the first time, the biomechanical significance of the uncovertebral joints could be substantiated. In axial rotation and in lateral bending, the instantaneous helical axis (IHA) was found to be not stationary. Its position depended on the size of the rotational angle. The ensemble of the skew IHA formed a ruled surface with a waist. Torque and unit vector of the IHA were found to be parallel only for flexion-extension. In this case, all four joints were in guiding function, whereas in axial rotation and lateral flexion the joints alternated with each other. IHA included with torque Tz(t) for axial rotation ≈+30deg, and with torque Tx(t) ≈−30deg: These motions were coupled. Resection of all ligaments did hardly influence the kinematical structure.

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Authors and Affiliations

Martin M. Wachowski
Anne Ackenhausen
Clemens Dumont
Jochen Fanghanel
Dietmar Kubein-Meesenburg
Hans Nagerl
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In the presented work, the author introduces the ballistic energy absorbed by the shield mpV2BL/2 to elaborate the results of firing on homogeneous plates and multi – layered constructional shields. The introduced criterion V2BL is used to determine ballistic thickness hBL and ballistic velocity VBL under normal firing 7.62 mm ŁPS bullets.

The experimental tests were performed on an unified test stand to investigate ballistic resistance of materials in field conditions. The stand was developed at the Naval University of Gdynia and then patented. The design of this test stand was based on the construction of ballistic pendulum arranged for measuring: the impact forces, the turn angle of ballistic pendulum φ, initial and residual velocities of the bullet. All the measurement data were transmitted to a digital oscilloscope and personal computer. The energy absorbed by the shield was subject to further analysis of V2BL[R] according to Recht’s and Ipson’s method and of V2BL[Z] according to author’s method. The verification of the above-mentioned dependences was based on the results of the tests. The ballistic velocities VBL[R] and VBL[R] of the steel and steel – aluminium alloy shields with air interlayer thicknesses of 0, 6, 12 mm were approximately equal, however, they were quite different for aluminium alloy multi – layered shields, according to the results of firing 7.62 mm ŁPS bullets. These properties were confirmed by the average mass coefficients α2s and average effectiveness coefficients βs of the V2BL for the tested methods.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zdzisław Zatorski
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The paper presents the mathematical model of a pipelay spread. In the model, elasto-plastic deflections of the pipe, its large deformations and contact problems are considered. The modification of the rigid finite element method (REFM) is used to discretise the pipe. The problem is analyzed in two stages. First, the quasi-static problem is considered. The tip of the pipe is pulled from the reel to the tensioner. Then, dynamic analysis (during ordinary work) of the pipelay spread is carried out. Some results of numerical calculations are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Szczotka
Stanisław Wojciech
Andrzej Maczyński
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The paper presents application of guidance system for small, smart mortar missile. The presented control system is simple and inexpensive. It is based on a set of one time used impulse control engines and linear coordinator rotating with controlled object. Engines are mounted around the missile. There are no movable devices on the projectile board. The correcting impulses from rocket engines are perpendicular to main symmetry axis of the flying object and influence directly the centre of gravity of the guided missile. In the paper, authors describe the whole control system of the missile. Particular attention is focused on seeker and control devices. Numerical analysis presents some cases of the missile controlled flights.

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Authors and Affiliations

Robert Głębocki
Ryszard Vogt
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The motion of a ring pack on a thin film covering a cylinder liner has been analysed. In contrast to the previous papers [30], [31], which considered a primary hydrodynamic phenomena (including mixed lubrication), in the present paper an additional degree of freedom of a ring i.e. a twist motion is also taken into account. Equations describing the twist of rings are presented and used in simulation. The twist phenomena of a single ring have been analysed in the past [25]. In this paper, the twist effects of separate rings forming a ring pack are considered. In the pack configuration, the twist of the upstream ring strongly influences the operation of the downstream ring. The phenomenon commonly treated as secondary effect seems to be influencing the ring motion strongly. Differences between results obtained applying and neglecting ring twist motion are analysed and discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Wolff
Janusz Piechna

Editorial office


Prof. Marek Wojtyra, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland


Editorial Board

Prof. Krzysztof Arczewski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Prof. Janusz T. Cieśliński, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Prof. Antonio Delgado, LSTM University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany

Prof. Peter Eberhard, University of Stuttgart, Germany

Prof. Jerzy Maciej Floryan, The University of Western Ontario, Canada

Prof. Janusz Frączek, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Prof. Zbigniew Kowalewski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

Prof. Zenon Mróz, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

Prof. Andrzej J. Nowak, Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Dr. Andrzej F. Nowakowski, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

Prof. Jerzy Sąsiadek, Carleton University, Canada

Prof. Jacek Szumbarski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Prof. Tomasz Wiśniewski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Prof. Günter Wozniak, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany


Assistant to the Editor

Małgorzata Broszkiewicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland


Editorial Advisory Board

Prof. Alberto Carpinteri, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

Prof. Fernand Ellyin, University of Alberta, Canada

Prof. Feng Gao, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China

Prof. Emmanuel E. Gdoutos, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece

Prof. Gregory Glinka, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Prof. Andrius Marcinkevicius, Vilnius Gedeminas Technical University, Lithuania

Prof. Manuel José Moreira De Freitas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Portugal

Prof. Andrzej Neimitz, Kielce University of Technology, Poland

Prof. Thierry Palin-Luc, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Institut Carnot Arts, France

Prof. Andre Pineau, Centre des Matériaux, Ecole des Mines de Paris, France

Prof. Narayanaswami Ranganathan, LMR, Ecole Polytechnique de l'Université de Tours, France

Prof. Jan Ryś, Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Prof. Adelia Sequeira, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal,

Prof. Józef Szala, University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, Poland

Prof. Edmund Wittbrodt, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Prof. Jens Wittenburg, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany

Prof. Stanisław Wojciech, University of Bielsko-Biała, Poland


Language Editor

Lech Śliwa, Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland




Editorial Office:

Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw University of Technology

Nowowiejska 24, Room 132, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland

Phone:  (+48) 22 234 7448, fax: (+48) 22 628 25 87,


Instructions for authors

About the Journal
Archive of Mechanical Engineering is an international journal publishing works of wide significance, originality and relevance in most branches of mechanical engineering. The journal is peer-reviewed and is published both in electronic and printed form. Archive of Mechanical Engineering publishes original papers which have not been previously published in other journal, and are not being prepared for publication elsewhere. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. The journal accepts papers in English.

Archive of Mechanical Engineering is an Open Access journal. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Original high quality papers on the following topics are preferred:

  • Mechanics of Solids and Structures,
  • Fluid Dynamics,
  • Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Combustion,
  • Machine Design,
  • Computational Methods in Mechanical Engineering,
  • Robotics, Automation and Control,
  • Mechatronics and Micro-mechanical Systems,
  • Aeronautics and Aerospace Engineering,
  • Heat and Power Engineering.

All submissions to the AME should be made electronically via Editorial System - an online submission and peer review system at:

More detailed instructions for Authors can be found there.

Open Access policy

Archive of Mechanical Engineering jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Archive of Mechanical Engineering is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

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