Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Content

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2020 | vol. 65 | No 1 |

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Abstract

In the present paper, elemental Fe, Cr and Ni powders were used to fabricate nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders by using high energy planetary ball milling. We have studied the effect of milling atmosphere like wet (toluene) and dry (argon) milling of elemental Fe-18Cr-13Ni (duplex) and Fe-17Cr-1Ni (ferritic) powders for 10 h in a dual drive planetary mill. Stearic acid of 1wt. % was added during milling to avoid agglomeration. The dry and wet milled duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and particle size analysis techniques. We have found that both the milling atmospheres have great influence in controlling the final particle morphology, size and phase evolution during milling. It was reported that dry milling is more effective in reducing particle size than the wet milling. The Nelson-Riley method of extrapolation was used to calculate the precise lattice parameter and Williamson-Hall method was used to calculate the crystallite size and lattice strain of both the stainless steel milled in argon atmosphere. Dry milled duplex and ferritic stainless steel were then consolidated by conventional sintering method at 1100, 1200 and 1300°C temperatures under argon atmosphere for 1 hour.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Shashanka
Orhan Uzun
D. Chaira
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Abstract

The research article address, the mechanical properties such as fatigue, impact strength and tribological properties of Austempered ductile iron (ADI) has been investigated. The samples of ADI iron were austenitized at 927°C for 2 hrs and later it was under austempering process for 2 hrs at a temperature range of 240°C to 400°C. Experiments under axial loading has been carried out on three different compositions (without Ni(X), 0.22 wt % Ni (X1), 0.34 wt. % Ni (X2). Fabricated test bars were converted in to as per ASTM standard samples for different tests. In order to study the influence of chunky nickel morphology studies on fatigue life and impact strength were carried out on a second set of specimens without any microstructural defect. Metallurgical analyses were performed on all the samples of heat treated samples (AF – Ausferrite, MB – Mixed bainite, M – Martensite, RA – Retained Austenite and N-Nodule) were found and compared. It was found that a mean content of 22% of chunky nickel in the microstructure (with respect to total Ni content) influence considerably the fatigue and impact strength properties of the cast iron. Moreover tribological properties of the specimens were also studied under dry sliding conditions at various sliding speed and load. The wear resistance and coefficient of friction were found to increase with increase in load and sliding speed.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Ramkumar
S. Madhusudhanan
I. Rajendran
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Abstract

In the presented work, the numerical simulations results of the liquid steel flow in the one strand tundish were shown. Influence of the modification and immersion depth in the liquid steel of the ladle shroud and subflux turbulence controller on hydrodynamic structure of the liquid steel movement in the working space of tundish were examined. The ladle shroud shape modification consisted on the decompression and compression of the main supplying stream of the tundish. The mathematical model used in the numerical simulations through physical modeling and industrial trials were validated. The numerical simulation results (using four variants of the modified ladle shroud immersion depth in the liquid steel) in the isothermal conditions using laboratory experiments on the water model were verified. Whereas, the numerical simulation results (using one of the tundish research variant) for non-isothermal were compared with the results from the industrial measurements. Three turbulence models: Realizable k-ε, RNG k-ε and SST k-ω were used in the computer calculations (performed via the Ansys-Fluent computer program). In order to obtain the actual view of the liquid steel flow hydrodynamic structure in the examined tundish for the two mathematical models using different turbulence models, which were most similar to the laboratory experiments and industrial measurements, the numerical simulations were performed in the non-isothermal conditions. The application in the computer calculations of the SST k-ω turbulence model caused the smallest differences between the numerical simulations, laboratory experiments and industrial measurements. Performed tests showed that ladle shroud can be used as a flow control device and the modified ladle shroud immersion at a depth of 0.1 m in the liquid steel caused the shortest range of the transition zone among the tested cases.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Bartosiewicz
A. Cwudziński
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Abstract

The effect of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated in the artificial saliva solution (MAS). It has been revealed that the thermal annealing treatment temperature favors the cathodic reactions and reduce the protective properties of passive film. The heat treatment causes the enrichment of β phase in vanadium. The lowest corrosion resistance in the artificial saliva revealed the Ti-6Al-4V alloy heated for 2 hours at 950°C. Heterogeneous distribution of vanadium within the β phase decreases the corrosion resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Ryba
M. Kawalec
E. Tyrała
H. Krawiec
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Abstract

The article discusses tests concerning the assessment of the corrosion resistance, properties and the structure of TIG braze welded galvanised steel sheets. Test butt joints were made of 0.9 mm thick galvanised car body steel sheets DC04 (in accordance with EN 10130), using a robotic welding station and a CuSi3Mn1 braze (in accordance with PN-EN 13347:2003) wire having a diameter of 1.0 mm. The research-related tests aimed to optimise braze welding parameters and the width of the brazing gap. The test joints were subjected to visual tests, macro and microscopic metallographic tests, hardness measurements as well as tensile and bend tests. The corrosion resistance of the joints was identified using the galvanostatic method. The tests revealed that it is possible to obtain high quality joints made of galvanised car body steel sheets using the TIG braze welding process, the CuSi3Mn1 braze and a brazing gap, the width of which should be restricted within the range of 0.4 mm to 0.7 mm. In addition, the joints made using the aforesaid parameters are characterised by high mechanical properties. The minimum recommended heat input during process, indispensable for the obtainment of the appropriate spreadability of the weld deposit should be restricted within the range of 50 kJ/mm to 70 kJ/mm. At the same time, the aforesaid heat input ensures the minimum evaporation of zinc. Joints made using the TIG braze welding method are characterised by high resistance to electrochemical corrosion. The galvanostatic tests did not reveal any traces of corrosion in the joint area.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Górka
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Abstract

The aim of the present work was to determine the influence of the microstructural evolution of copper single crystals with the initial orientations of <001> and <111> after cold drawing on their corrosion resistance. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron backscattering diffraction were used to characterize the microstructural changes. To evaluate the corrosion resistance after deformation, open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization analyses were conducted. The microstructural observations showed the presence of dislocation cell structures and shear bands in deformed sample with initial orientation <001> single crystal, as well as a strongly-developed substructure in sample <111>. The material with initial orientation of <001> was more resistive in analyzed medium than material with the initial orientation of <111>.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Koralnik
A. Dobkowska
B. Adamczyk-Cieślak
J. Mizera
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Abstract

The paper aims was assessing risks of mandible fractures consequent to impacts or sport accidents. The role of the structural stiffness of mandible, related to disocclusion state, was evaluated using the finite element method. It has been assumed, that the quasi-static stress field, due to distributed forces developed during accidents, could explain the common types of mandibular fractures. Mandibular condyles were supposed jammed in the maxillary fossae. The force of 700 N, simulating an impact on mandible, has been sequentially applied in three distinct areas: centrally, at canine zone and at the mandibular angle. Clinically most frequent fractures of mandible were recognized through the analysis of maximal principal stress/strain fields. It has been shown that mandibular fracture during accidents can be analyzed at satisfactory level using linear quasi-static models for designing protections.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Żmudzki
G. Chladek
K. Panek
P. Lipiński
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Abstract

Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a modern manufacturing method with many applications in medicine, aerospace and automotive industries. SLM processed materials are characterized by good dimensional accuracy and properties comparable or superior to materials obtained by traditional processing methods. In this paper an SLM process was used to obtain 316L stainless steel parts. This paper presents the microstructure, chemical and phase composition, physicochemical and electrochemical properties of 12 groups of tested samples, differentiated by the SLM processing parameters. Based on the investigation, it can be inferred that the selection of the appropriate SLM parameters is very important to determined final material properties. The samples produced with the energy density E = 600 J/mm3 were observed to possess optimum properties – a homogeneous structure, density closest to the desired one, good wettability and pitting corrosion resistance.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Woźniak
M. Adamiak
G. Chladek
J. Kasperski
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Abstract

The level of degradation of reinforced concrete bridges was evaluated based on the in-situ measurements performed on five reinforced concrete bridges under service located in the Czech Republic. The combined effect of carbonation and chlorides with respect to the corrosion of steel reinforcement, namely the pH and the amount of water-soluble chlorides, were evaluated on drilled core samples of concrete. Based on these parameters, the ratio between the concentrations of Cl– and OH, which indicates the ability of concrete to protect reinforcement, was calculated. All the data were statistically summarized and the relationships among them were provided. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the non-proportional effect of the amount of chlorides per mass of concrete on the risk of corrosion initiation and to localize the “critical” locations in the bridges that are the most affected by the degradation effects.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Konečný
P. Lehner
D. Vořechovská
M. Šomodíková
M. Horňáková
P. Rovnaníková
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Abstract

Peri-implantitis is a pathological condition occurring in tissues around dental implants, characterized by inflammation in the peri-implant connective tissue and progressive loss of supporting bone. In the treatment of peri-implantitis, a laser surgical technique is used. Lasers are a safe and gentle alternative to traditional dental tools. They allow oral surgeons and dentists to accomplish more complex tasks, reduce blood loss, decrease post-operative discomfort, reduce the chance of wound infection, achieve better wound healing and perform some procedures in close methods without access flap. The aim of the work was to determine the impact of laser surface treatment of titanium dental implants on its electrochemical behavior in artificial saliva at 37°C. The study used an Er,Cr:YSGG laser and diode lasers 810 nm and 980 nm for debridement of titanium implant surface. In the research, the thread on the surface of implant was scanned with the diode laser beam of energy 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 2 W, cw and Er, Cr YSGG: 1,5 and 2W, pulse 30Hz.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Biedunkiewicz
E. Dembowska
P. Figiel
W. Biedunkiewicz
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Abstract

To obtain anti-corrosive thermo-diffusion zinc coatings, the authors use highly effective zinc saturating mixtures. This technology makes it possible to obtain coatings with a high zinc content in the δ-phase as well as a zinc-rich phase of FeZn13 (ζ-phase) on the coating surface. As a result of long-term studies into the corrosion properties of thermo-diffusion zinc (TDZ) coatings conducted by the authors, a number of features of their corrosive behavior have been established. The corrosion rate of those coatings in desalted and chloride-containing media is lower than those of galvanic or hot-dip zinc coatings. The corrosion behavior depends on the content of zinc on the surface and the texture features of the coating. The results showed that on the surface of thermo-diffusion coatings in the corrosion on media containing chloride ions, zinc hydroxychloride (simonkolleite – Zn5Cl2[OH]8[H2O]) has been formed. Compared to coatings obtained by other methods, the rate of simonkolleite formation was higher on TDZ coatings, which might have a positive effect on their resistance in aggressive atmospheres.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Biryukov
R. Galin
D. Zakharyevich
A. Wassilkowska
A. Kolesnikov
T. Batmanova
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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to create a research methodology that allows a quick analysis of the structural state of high alloy austenitic steels using non-destructive ultrasonic tests, in contrast to destructive standard methods. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) are used to generate and receive the ultrasonic wave and detect the microstructural changes caused by sample sensitization in elevated temperature, even after 0.5 h in high temperature exposition. Different acoustic response for reference sample and sensitized samples were recorded. In this work, changes in share wave amplitude were measured.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Cieslik
K. Darowicki
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Abstract

Corrosion of water distribution system is a significant issue causing problems with quality, safety and continuity of distribution. The changes of corrosion rates of the water distribution systems in Cracow made of carbon steel were investigated by analysis of online corrosion monitoring system results. Corrosion rates were determined using the linear polarization method. The impact of rain, temperatures, conductivity, dissolved oxygen content on corrosion rate were characterized. The corrosivity of different water sources like mountain water, underground water or river water were indicated. The possible actions for reducing corrosion losses were characterized. Results show that pollution of the environment in the form of acid rain and runoff from agriculture as well as the type of the source water has significant influence on corrosion of water distribution system. Corrosion monitoring system gives possibility of controlling corrosion rate by mixing waters from different sources in the way to obtain less corrosive mixture (see Fig. 8).

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Jażdżewska
M. Gruszka
R. Mazur
J. Orlikowski
J. Banaś
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Abstract

The paper presents a 3D model and simulations of corroding reinforcement bars in a concrete element. Electric potential distributions are calculated in the concrete matrix and on its surface for two rebars arrangements with one or three active (anodic) sites to assess the reliability and identify possible problems when standard test measurements for corrosion assessment in concrete structures are used and conclusion on the corrosion state is inferred. The values of the potential strongly depend on a concrete layer thickness and beyond the threshold of 5-7 cm it is hardly possible to detect the number of active sites on the rebar. Also conductivity – which is not constant in real world constructions – is an important factor. Thus without estimation of the state of concrete it is difficult to draw reliable conclusions on the corroding activity from shear potential measurements on the surface.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Filipek
K. Szyszkiewicz-Warzecha
J. Szczudło
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Abstract

Nifedipine, a pyridine derivative was investigated as corrosion inhibitor for API 5L X-52 steel in 2 M HCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Statistical tools were used to compare results of the experimental methods. The results showed that nifedipine is capable of inhibiting the corrosion of API 5L X-52 steel in 2 M HCl solution. Potentiodynamic polarization results reveal that nifedipine functions as a mixed-type inhibitor and presents an inhibition efficiency of about 78% at 500 ppm. Impedance data reveal an increasing charge transfer resistance with increasing inhibitor concentration and also shows comparable inhibition efficiency of about 89-94% at 500 ppm. Thermodynamic parameters imply that nifedipine is adsorbed on the steel surface by a physiochemical process and obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated molecular properties namely the highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, chemical hardness, energy gap, dipole moment, electronegativity and global nucleophilicity index all show a positive relationship to the observed corrosion inhibition efficiency.

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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalene Edet Ikpi
Fidelis Ebunta Abeng
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to compare the corrosion resistance of X37CrMoV5-l tool steel after nanostructurization and after a conventional heat treatment. The nanostructuring treatment consisted of austempering at 300°C, which produced a microstructure composed of nanometric carbide-free bainite separated by nanometric layers of retained austenite. The retained austenite occurred also in form of blocks which partially undergo martensitic transformation during final cooling. For comparison, a series of steel samples were subjected to a standard quenching and high tempering treatment, which produced a microstructure of tempered martensite. The obtained results showed that the corrosion resistance of steel after both variants of heat treatment is similar. The results indicate that the nanocrystalline structure with high density of intercrystalline boundaries do not deteriorate the corrosion resistance of steel, which depends to a greater extent on its phase composition.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Skołek
J. Kamiński
S. Marciniak
W.A. Świątnicki
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Abstract

In order to enhance bioactive properties of titanium 99.2 used in implantology and various biomedical applications, numerous methods to form tight oxide coatings are being investigated. Some of these interesting techniques for generating TiO2 coatings include: electrochemical methods with anodizing, electric discharge treatment, plasma methods (PVD) and diffusive methods (i.e. oxidation in a fluidized bed). Each method aims to create a thin homogenous oxide coating characterized with thermal stability and repassivation ability in the presence of body fluid environment. However, new methods are still sought for increasing the biocompatibility of the substrate following a change in the intensity of depositing on the oxide coating compounds with high biocompatibility with body tissues, including hydroxyapatite, which constitutes the basis for subsequent osseointegration processes. The article presents investigation of HAp formation on titanium substrate surface after hybrid oxidation process. Hybrid surface treatments combine methods of fluidized bed atmospheric diffusive treatment FADT with the PVD surface treatment realized with different parameters (FADT – 640°C / 8h and PVD – magnetron sputtering with TiO2 target). In order to investigate the effects of hybrid oxidation and the formation of HAp molecules, SEM-EDS, SEM-EBSD, STEM-EDS, RS, nanoindentation and Kokubo bioactivity tests (c-SBF2) were carried out. The hybrid method of titanium oxidation, proposed by the Author, presents a new outlook on the modification and development of the properties of oxide coatings in the area of biomedical applications. Combining the ways of Ti Grade 2 oxidation in the hybrid method highly improves the formation of hydroxyapatite compounds and shows the potential of applying such a technique in implantology, where the intensive growth of bone tissues is crucial.

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Authors and Affiliations

J.J. Jasinski
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Abstract

The influence of the hold time of the austempering heat treatment at 280°C on the microstructure and corrosion resistance in NaCl-based media of austempered ductile iron was investigated using X-ray diffraction, micro-hardness measurements, corrosion tests and surface observations. Martensite was only found in the sample which was heat treated for a short period (10 minutes). Corrosion tests revealed that this phase does not play any role in the anodic processes. Numerous small pits were observed in the α-phase which is the precursor sites in all samples (whatever the value of the hold time of the austempering heat treatment).

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Authors and Affiliations

H. Krawiec
V. Vignal
J. Lelito
A. Krystianiak
E. Tyrała
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Abstract

In this study, the synthesis of copper-based multi-walled carbon nanotube composites is described. Over the last years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely used in many scientific research fields and have found applications in several sectors, e.g. for water treatment. This work focuses on combining the exceptional characteristics of CNTs, such as high specific surface area and antibacterial properties, with the antimicrobial/ antivirus features of copper oxides. The influence of synthesis parameters and thermal treatment on the final product was studied. Copper leakage was evaluated at both pH 5 and pH 7, confirming the possibility of applying Cu-based MWCNT composites in water filtration systems.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Domagała
M. Borlaf
D. Kata
T. Graule
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Abstract

Crystals of PbTiO3 and 0.9PbTiO3-0.1(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 were obtained by the flux growth method whereas crystals of (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 were growth by the Czochralski method. Raman spectroscopy and polarized light microscopy were performed at room temperature. The Raman spectra of 0.9PbTiO3-0.1(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 shown significant changes comparing to the base materials PbTiO3 and (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3. A domain structure was investigated by use polarized light microscopy. Dielectric permittivity measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 20°C to 550°C and a frequency from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. These showed higher dielectric permittivity for the crystals 0.9PbTiO3-0.1(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 than the source materials PbTiO3 and (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3.

The high value of dielectric constant makes it possible to applied 0.9PbTiO3-0.1(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 as efficient dielectric medium in a capacitors. The small size of the domain structure with the easy possibility of switching by application of an external electric field, give opportunities to apply these materials to FRAM memory applications. Moreover, the high sensitivity of these materials to the surrounding gases e.g. ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen, etc., allows the construction of sensor devices.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Czaja
M. Piasecki
M.B. Zapart
J. Suchanicz
K. Konieczny
J. Michniowski
D. Sitko
G. Stachowski
K. Kluczewska-Chmielarz
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Abstract

Underwater steel structures require periodic maintenance. In the case of vessels, anti-corrosion works are carried out in the shipyard, where very good conditions for applying organic protective coatings can be provided. Very good surface preparation can be obtained by the use of abrasive blasting. The well-prepared metal surface is free from impurities (particularly inorganic salts). Suitable conditions for the application and renovation of coatings are also ensured (creating appropriate climatic conditions, drying the air, setting the appropriate air temperature). However, there are underwater constructions that cannot be transferred above the water level and, therefore, their conservation against corrosion can take place only under the surface of the water, which significantly hinders the execution of renovation works. In this work, protective coatings for underwater application were tested. The application of coatings on selected steel surfaces over and under the water was carried out. Physico-mechanical and electrochemical tests were carried out in order to assess the quality of the obtained corrosion protection. The possible difficulties faced when applying coatings in marine conditions were discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Orlikowski
A. Jażdżewska
K. Jurak
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Abstract

Sodium orthovanadate was tested as a corrosion inhibitor of intermetallic Al2Cu in 1 M H3PO4. The Al2Cu – H3PO4 – Na3VO4 system was studied using the following methods: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, polarisation and open circuit potential. It was found that the corrosion rate decreased as the inhibitor concentration increased. The highest inhibition efficiency 99% was obtained when sodium orthovanadate initial concentration was equal to 100 mM, pH = 1.11, due to precipitation of a protective layer of insoluble salt, containing vanadium, phosphorus, sodium and oxygen, on the surface. At pH = 0.76 the protective layer was not formed and inhibition efficiency decreased to 76%. Selective corrosion of the intermetallic phase caused a significant increase of an electric double layer capacitance and decrease of a charge transfer resistance.

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P. Kwolek
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Abstract

The article presents research aimed at determining the effect of adding rare earth elements to near-eutectic Al-Si and Al-Si-Ni alloys on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the obtained products. Material for the research was prepared using a melt spinner – a device used for rapid crystallization, casting thin ribbons, which were then subjected in subsequent stages to fragmentation, consolidation and plastic working. The ribbons and extruded rods cast were described in terms of their structure and their strength properties were determined at different measurement temperatures. It was shown that the lightweight materials produced from aluminium alloys using the rapid solidification process have an ultra-fine structure and good strength properties.

Analysis under a microscope confirmed that the addition of rare earth alloys Al-Si and Al-Si-Ni causes fragmentation of the microstructure in the tapes produced. The presence of rare earth elements in the alloys tested has an impact on the type and the morphology of the particles of the microstructure’s individual components. In addition to the change in particle morphology, the phenomenon of the separation of numerous nanometric particles of intermetallic phases containing rare earth elements was also observed. The change in microstructure caused by the addition of rare earth elements in the form of a mischmetal increases the mechanical properties.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Kapinos
M. Szymanek
B. Augustyn
S. Boczkal
W. Szymański
T. Tokarski
J. Lelito
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Abstract

This article discusses the results of studies using the developed artificial neural networks in the analysis of the occurrence of the four main mechanisms destroying the selected forging tools subjected to five different surface treatment variants (nitrided layer, pad welded layer and three hybrid layers, i.e. AlCrTiSiN, Cr/CrN and Cr/AlCrTiN). Knowledge of the forging tool durability, needed in the process of artificial neural network training, was included in the set of training data (about 800 records) derived from long-term comprehensive research carried out under industrial conditions. Based on this set, neural networks with different architectures were developed and the results concerning the intensity of the occurrence of thermal-mechanical fatigue, abrasive wear, mechanical fatigue and plastic deformation were generated for each type of the applied treatment relative to the number of forgings, pressure, friction path and temperature.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Hawryluk
B. Mrzygłód
Z. Gronostajski
M. Głowacki
I. Olejarczyk-Wożeńska
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Abstract

The paper reports the results of a physical modelling study of the production of a hypereutectic aluminium alloy to be used for making an alloy vapour source for operation in the magnetron. Within the study, targets from a hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloy were made in laboratory conditions. Thus obtained material was subjected to heat treatment, porosity analysis, and the assessment of the microstructure and fitness for being used in the magnetron. The process of melting the hypereutectic Al-Si alloy was carried out at the Department of Foundry of the Czestochowa University of Technology. The investigation into the production of the alloy vapour source for the synthesis of the dielectric material from the hypereutectic aluminium alloy has confirmed.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Nadolski
G. Stradomski
K. Zdunek
S. Okrasa
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Abstract

The paper reports the consequences of lanthanum modifications of barium bismuth niobiate (BaBi2Nb2O9) ceramics. The discussed materials were prepared by solid state synthesis and a one-step sintering process. The investigations are focused on dielectric aspects of the modification. The presented results reveal that the trivalent lanthanum ions incorporate twovalent barium ions, which is connected with the creation of A-site cationic vacancies as well as oxygen vacancies. Such a scenario results in significant decreasing in grain boundaries resistivity. The activation energy of grain boundaries conductivity is significantly reduced in the case of lanthanum admixture.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Adamczyk-Habrajska
T. Goryczka
D. Szalbot
J. Dzik
M. Rerak
D. Bochenek
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Abstract

Products of complex geometry, aerodynamic shape and high quality surface finishes are among the most difficult to produce by using stamping methods. When additionally materials with special properties are intended, the task of determining their technological character becomes difficult to solve without the use of physical and numerical methods of process modeling. The paper presents the results of modeling the process of producing a single tube of the jet engine tubular diffuser subassembly. This is a product representative of such a complex geometry one. The charge material for this element requires resistance to operating conditions at elevated temperature and high durability. Therefore, an Inconel type nickel superalloy was proposed for the charge material. In the solution of designing the method of producing a single diffuser tube task, the capabilities of the AutoGrid automatic strain analyzer and the FEM simulation software Eta / Dynaform 5.9 were combined. Numerical simulations of different variants of the manufacturing process of the diffuser tube were made using the Eta / Dynaform 5.9 software. The results of forming simulations became the basis for the alternative technological cycle design of this drawpiece.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Hyrcza-Michalska
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Abstract

The present work concerns analysis of the possibilities of synthesis of Ni-TiO2 composite coatings from electrolytes containing formate nickel complexes. A magnetic field was applied as an additional factor enabling modification of properties of the synthesized coatings through its influence on electrode processes. The presented data describes the effect of electrode potential, TiO2 concentration in the electrolyte as well as the value of the magnetic field induction vector on the deposition rate, composition, current efficiency, structure, surface states and morphology of synthesized coatings. The studies were preceded by thermodynamic analysis of the electrolyte. The obtained results indicated possibilities of synthesis of composites containing up to 0.97 wt. % of TiO2. Depending on applied electrolysis conditions current efficiency amounted to from 61.2 to 75.1%.

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K. Mech
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Abstract

The article explores the possibility of using the authors’ three new methods of unconventional extrusion of deep hollows to be used for the manufacture of spline sleeves intended for internal toothing couplings. Two invention patents, PL206466 and PL224121, and one patent application, P.416772, were used for this purpose. Numerical computations were made in the Forge®3D program for the conceptual schemes of forming sleeves. The aim of those computations was to determine the extrusion forces and to compare them with the conventional indirect and direct extrusion methods. Then, on models based on the authors’ plastic forming schemes, numerical computations were made, from which the actual energy and force parameters were determined in the form of the relationship of extrusion force versus forming tool path. Also, the degree of fill of the passes, in which spline sleeve toothing is formed, was determined.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Michalczyk
S. Wiewiórowska
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Abstract

The article provides results of the microstructure examinations and mechanical properties (hardness and microhardness tests) of the welded joint T91 steel taken from the live steam pipeline. Examined joint has been exploited for about 45 000 hours in a temperature of 535oC and the steam pressure equals to 13.5 MPa. Examined joint was made as a double bead by the additional materials with a different chemical composition. It was proved that the joint was characterized by a differential microstructure on the cross-section of the weld. Moreover, decarburized zone in the lower alloyed material and carbides zone in the higher alloyed material were revealed in the weld line and on the boundary penetration of beads. Furthermore, it was shown that the main mechanism of a joint degradation is a privileged precipitation of carbides on the grain boundaries, and an increase of their size.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Golański
A. Merda
K. Klimaszewska
P. Wieczorek
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Abstract

The development of power industry obligates designers, materials engineers to create and implement new, advanced materials, in which Inconel 617 alloy is included. Nowadays, there are a lot of projects which describe microstructure and properties of Inconel 617 alloy. However, the welded joints from mentioned material is not yet fully discussed in the literature. The description of welded joints microstructure is a main knowledge source for designers, constructors and welding engineers in estimating durability process and degradation assessment for elements and devices with welds of Inconel 617 alloy. This paper presents the analysis and assessment of advanced nickel alloy welded joints, which have been done by tungsten inert gas (TIG). Investigations have included analysis made by light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The disclosed precipitates were identified with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis, then it were done X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) phases analysis. To confirm the obtained results, a scanning-transmission electron microscope (STEM) analysis was also performed.

The purpose of the article was to create a comprehensive procedure for revealing the Inconel 617 alloy structure. The methodology presented in this article will be in future a great help for constructors, material specialists and welding engineers in assessing the structure and durability of the Inconel 617 alloy.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Adamiec
N. Konieczna
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Abstract

The paper presents a method of measuring deformations of cylindrical samples on the testing machine for free tube hydroforming experiments. During experiments a sample made of a thin-walled metal tube is expanded by the internal pressure of the working liquid and additionally subjected to axial compression. This results in a considerable circumferential deformation of the tube and its shortening. Analysis of the load cases and their impact on the deformations can be helpful in determining e.g. tube material properties or general limiting conditions in the tube hydroforming process. In connection with the above, the value of deformations and knowledge of their course during experiment has become one of the most important problems related to the issue described above.

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Authors and Affiliations

H. Sadłowska
Ł. Morawiński
C. Jasiński
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Abstract

2-phase composites are often used for high demanding parts that can undergo impact loads. However, most of the papers on dynamic loading concerns layered composites. In our opinion, the impact loads are not considered thoroughly enough. Good examples of 2-phase composites are: (1) a WC/Co cermet or (2) a monolithic ceramic Al2O3/ZrO2. The WC/Co cermet is often modelled as having ductile elasto-plastic Co matrix and ideally elastic WC grains. It is because of very high crushing resistivity of the WC.

In this paper, we present an extension to earlier elaborated models ([44]) with the assumption of ideal elasticity of the grains. The new and general numerical model for high-velocity impact of the 2-phase composites is proposed. The idea of this novelty relies on the introduction of crushability of grains in the composite and thermo-mechanical coupling. The model allows for description of the dynamic response both composite polycrystals made of: (1) 2 different purely elastic phases (e.g. Al2O3/ZrO2) or (2) one elastic phase and the second one plastic (e.g. cermet WC/Co), or (3) 2 elasto-plastic phases with different material properties and damage processes. In particular, the analysis was limited to the cases (2) and (3), i.e. we investigated the WC/Co polycrystal that impacted a rigid wall with the initial velocity equal to 50 m/s.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Postek
T. Sadowski
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Abstract

Coke oven gas (COG) dome injection in COREX melter gasifier is recognized as one of effective method to reduce the amount of solid fuel used for gasification. In this work, a static model was developed to study the characteristics when COG is injected from dome. The critical bosh gas and critical fuel rate in COREX melter gasifier under different melting rate and coke rate were discussed. The amount of COG injection from dome under the critical fuel rates was studied. The results shows that when the heat of bosh gas reaching the critical value, the decrement of fuel rate decreases with the increase of melting rate and increases with the increase of coke rate. Under the critical fuel rate, the total volume of COG increases with the increase of melting rate and coke rate. After the COG injection, the amount and reduction capacity of the generator gas can meet the needs of reduction in shaft furnace. The findings of this work can be used as a theoretical basis to guide plant operations for COG injection.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mingyin Kou
Heng Zhou
Shengli Wu
Yansong Shen
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to indicate the influence of consolidation processes on microstructure and selected mechanical properties of powder metallurgy Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr alloy, which was produced by blending of elemental powders method. Morphology of the mixture and its ingredients were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The consolidation of powders mixture was conducted using two approaches. The first consisted of the uniaxial hot pressing process, the second included two steps – uniaxial cold pressing process and sintering under argon protective atmosphere. Microstructural analysis was performed for both as-pressed compacts using light microscopy. Additionally, computed tomography studies were carried out, in order to examine the internal structure of compacts. Chosen mechanical properties, such as Vickers hardness and compression strength was also determined and compared. The conducted research proves that the proposed production method leads to obtain materials with no structural defects and relatively low porosity. Moreover, due to the proper selection of manufacturing parameters, favorable microstructures can be received, as well as mechanical properties, which are comparable to conventionally produced material with the corresponding chemical composition.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Zyguła
M. Wojtaszek
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Abstract

One of the challenges of modern crystallography of complex systems (complex metallic alloys, proteins, aperiodic crystals and quasicrystals) is to properly describe the disorder in these systems and discuss correctly the refinement results in terms of the structural disorder. In this paper we briefly discuss a new approach to phasons and phonons in quasicrystals and focus on the new theory of phonons in these materials. A newly derived correction factor for phonons in the form of the Bessel function is the approximated way of describing optic modes in the phonon spectra of quasicrystals. It is applied to a real decagonal quasicrystal in the Al-Cu-Rh system with 56/38 atoms per thick/thin structural unit, based on 2092 unique reflections selected from the collected diffraction data, significantly improving the refinement results. The final R-factor value is 7.24%, which is over 0.5% better result comparing to originally reported. We believe our work will open a broader discussion on the disorder in quasicrystals (and other aperiodic systems) and motivate to develop new approaches to treat the diffraction data influenced by different types of disorder in the new way.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Strzałka
I. Bugański
J. Śmietańska
J. Wolny
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Abstract

The corrosion inhibition behaviour of 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-methanesulphonate (EMIM[MS]) and 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM[Ac]) on API 5L X-52 carbon steel in 2 M HCl was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance methods. The corrosion rates of carbon steel decreased in the presence of these ionic liquids. The inhibition efficiencies of the compounds increased with concentration and showed a marginal decrease with a 10°C increase in temperature. Polarization studies showed the compounds to be mixed type inhibitors with stronger anodic character. The adsorption mechanism of both compounds on the metal surface was via physical adsorption and the process obeyed the El-Awardy kinetic-thermodynamic model. The associated activation energy of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters were calculated to elaborate on the thermodynamics and mechanism of the corrosion inhibition process. EMIM[MS] was found to inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel better than EMIM[Ac] and is attributed to the presence of the highly electronegative sulphur atom in its structure and its larger molecular size.

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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalene Edet Ikpi
Okama Ebri Obono
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Abstract

2060-T8 Al-Li alloy was friction stir butt welded under natural and water cooling conditions. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the welding joints were mainly compared and discussed. By spraying water on the top surface of stir zone, the grain size was reduced, attributing to the improvement of microhardness. The maximum tensile strength under the water cooling reached 461.1 MPa. The joint fractured at the stir zone due to the thickness reduction and the joint softening. The fracture surface consisted of many dimples with various sizes, indicating the typical ductile fracture. The strategy to apply the low heat input at the welding stage and high cooling rate at the cooling stage during FSW is necessary to obtain a high-quality FSW joint.

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Authors and Affiliations

Lin Ma
Shiyu Niu
Shude Ji
Peng Gong
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Abstract

A new extraction process suitable for treating refractory CuCo2S4 under atmospheric pressure acidic leaching conditions was investigated. The effect of variables such as oxidant species, liquid-to-solid ratio, leaching time, oxidizing agent and mineral quality ratio, H2SO4 concentration, temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the extraction efficiency of Co, Cu and Fe from CuCo2S4 were investigated. Under optimal conditions including P80-P90 of the sample was d < 0.0074 mm, stirring speed of 400 rpm, leaching time of 8 h with sodium chlorate (NaClO3) and mineral quality ratio of 0.5, 2 mol/L H2SO4, liquid-to-solid ratio of 7, leaching temperature of 90°C and 4 mol/L sodium chloride. The leaching efficiency of Co, Cu, and Fe were nearly 97.08%, 100%, and 92.45%, respectively. Furthermore, the contents of cobalt and copper in leaching residue were all less than 0.4 wt.%, which satisfies the requirements of industrial production.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bo Dong
Jian-Hui Wu
Jun Wu
Xian-Peng Zhang
Jing-Jun Zhai
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Abstract

In this study, laboratory-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of microwave-assisted alkaline leaching on the treatment of electric arc furnace dusts to recover zinc and lead. Microwave treatment is a new innovative technology in waste treatment and now is an attractive advanced inter-disciplinary field and also environmental friendly. The highest zinc extraction, 50.3% in 60 minutes using 5 M NaOH at 750 W and L:S ratio 20, and lead extraction up to 92.84% was achieved in these same conditions but in 30 minutes. Compared with conventional leaching, the top extraction rate using MW-assisted leaching was higher by 16% (Zn) and 26% (Pb). Zinc presents in the flue dust in the form of franklinite (ZnFe2O4), its leaching in sodium hydroxide does not occur under the examined conditions, because it is enclosed in a matrix of iron.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Laubertova
T. Havlik
L. Parilak
B. Derin
J. Trpcevska
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Abstract

A numerical analysis of the process of single-pass rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy bars in the three-high skew rolling mill has been carried out in the study. Based on the obtained investigation results, the effect of rolling speed on the band twist and the state of stress and strain occurring in the rolled band has been determined. From the obtained results of the numerical studies it has been found that with the increase in rolling speed the unit band twist angle θ, increase, which translates into an increase in the value of tangential stress in the axial zone of the rolled bar. This contributes directly to an increase in redundant strain in the rolled bar axial zone, which brings about a structure refinement. To verify the effect of rolling speed on the flow pattern and the stress and strain state, experimental tests were carried out. It has been found from the tests that the band twist (flow pattern) contributes to obtaining a bimodal structure in the bar cross-section.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Stefanik
P. Szota
S. Mróz
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Abstract

Ferrtic/martensitic and ODS steels were fabricated by the mechanical alloying process, and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. The 9Cr-1W and 9Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.35Y2O3 (in wt.%) steels were prepared by the same fabrication process such as mechanical alloying, hot isostatic pressing, and hot rolling processes. A microstructural observation of these steels indicated that the Ti and Y2O3 additions to 9Cr-1W steel were significantly effective to refine the grain size and form nano-sized Y-Ti-O oxide particles. As a result, the tensile strengths at room and elevated temperatures were considerably enhanced. Considerable improvement of the creep resistances at 700°C was also evaluated. It is thus concluded that 9Cr-1W ODS steel with Ti and Y2O3 additions would be very effective in improving the mechanical properties especially at elevated temperatures.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ga Eon Kim
Tae Kyu Kim
Sanghoon Noh
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Abstract

Chunky graphite has been recognized for a long time as one of the major problems in production of heavy section nodular cast iron. A great number of studies have been conducted to describe the chunky graphite formation, but a clear understanding of its appearance and a safe mastering of the melt preparation to avoid chunky graphite are not yet available. In the present work the cooling curves were recorded in large cone blocks and standard TA cup. According to measured data from the cone block, melt characteristics and heat transfer coefficient between casting and mould were adjusted in the ProCAST® simulation software. For a near-eutectic nodular cast iron test melt with 0.7 wt. % Ni, relationship between the area of the cone block affected by chunky graphite and simulation software results has been observed, i.e., thermal modulus and time to solidus.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Bauer
I. Mihalic Pokopec
M. Petrič
P. Mrvar
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Abstract

Copper slag differs by chemical composition and structure, depending on the type of processing. Copper slag typically contains about 1 wt.% copper and 40 wt.% iron depending upon the initial ore quality and type of furnace used. The aim is to produce a typical foundry pig iron with the chemical composition of C > 3.40 wt.%, Si 1.40 to 1.80 wt.%, Mn 0.30 to 0.90 wt.%, P < 0.03 wt.% and S < 0.03 wt.% from copper slag. But foundry pig iron manufactured from copper slag contains a high sulphur content. Therefore, this study examines how to conduct desulphurization. Desulphurization roasting and reduction smelting with desulphurization additives used to remove sulphur from the copper slag. The results showed that desulphurization effect of desulphurization roasting is poor but when combined with reduction smelting with CaO addition is possible to manufacture low sulphur pig iron from copper smelting slag.

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Authors and Affiliations

Urtnasan Erdenebold
Choi Moo Sung
Jei-Pil Wang
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Abstract

Liquid forging alias squeeze casting gives the combined advantage of casting and forging. Optimum process parameters are important to get a cost-efficient process. In this study, four materials have been identified, which are extensively used in industries. These materials are commercially pure Al and three Al-alloys namely, 2124, 2218 and 6063. The pouring temperature and the mold temperature is maintained at 700oC and 250oC respectively. The materials were developed at seven pressure variations from 0 to 150 MPa. The effect of the pressure on the microstructures, porosity, and hardness has been reported. The coefficient of solubility is estimated for all materials and a polynomial relationship is found to be the best fit with the applied pressure. The pressure of 100 MPa gives better increment in hardness. The melting point and the freezing coefficient of the materials under study have been determined. A linear relationship between the pressure and the freezing time is deduced. It is observed that the solubility and the freezing coefficients depend on the pressure as well, in addition to the composition and temperature.

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Authors and Affiliations

Vineet Tirth
Amir Arabi
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Abstract

The paper presents results of investigation of microstructure and micro-hardness for material of ZnO varistors applied to 110 kV surge arrester and surge arrester counter. The research combined two pairs of varistors, each consisted of one varistor subjected before to operation, while the other one was brand new unit and constituted a reference. All varistors were made of the same material by the reputable manufacture. The tests revealed a different degree of the material degradation for varistors subjected before to operation. This also refers to different degradation mechanism observed for the material of these varistors, if typical effects of degradation of aged ZnO varistors were considered as a reference. Physical state of spinel in the microstructure had a significant impact on the material degradation, however a considerable loosening of the microstructure associated with bismuth oxide was observed too. It was surprising, since the precipitates of the bismuth oxide phase most often showed very good binding to the ZnO matrix and high resistance to associated electrical, thermal and mechanical effects. The degradation effects in the ZnO matrix proved to be limited only.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Papliński
J. Wańkowicz
H. Śmietanka
P. Ranachowski
Z. Ranachowski
S. Kudela Jr
M. Aleksiejuk
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Abstract

The oral cavity due to its temperature fluctuations, changing pH, high humidity, action of mechanical forces and the presence of microorganisms is a favorable environment for degradation of dental materials. The paper presents comparative results on orthodontic arch-wires AISI304 steel before and after low temperature plasma nitriding carried out at cathodic potential (conventional) and at plasma potential, i.e. in a process incorporating an active screen. Corrosion resistance test on nitrided layers produced on stainless steel were carried out via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the potentiodynamic method in non-deaerated artificial saliva solution at 37°C. The results were complemented with analysis of the structure, surface topography and microhardness. The results showed an increase in corrosion resistance of AISI304 steel after conventional glow-discharge nitriding.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Kamiński
K. Małkiewicz
J. Rębiś
T. Wierzchoń
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Abstract

In this study, the effects of grain size refiner addition and various pre-heating mold temperatures on AlSi9 cast alloy microstructure and solidification have been evaluated. For different process conditions, thermal analysis was performed for all samples and cooling curves were established. Important parameters in liquidus and eutectic Si-phase regions have been calculated using the first derivative cooling curves. Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) variation was also determined. Experimental results question the effectiveness of cooling curve parameters in providing the microstructure data as a function of refinement. The present work shows that the effect of grain refiner addition on the value of SDAS was higher when the solidification time was lower. It indicated that the solidification parameters such as nucleation temperatures of α-Al phase, undercooling temperature and total solidification time were affected by grain refinement. It has been found that the addition of grain refiner affect the eutectic phase formation time. However, it has no effect on the eutectic phase morphology.

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Authors and Affiliations

Badiâ Ait El Haj
Aboubakr Bouayad
Mohammed Alami
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Abstract

In this research, Co-30 mass% Cr alloys were fabricated by a vacuum hot-press sintering process. Different amounts of submicron cobalt and chromium (the mean grain size is 800 and 700 nm, respectively) powders were mixed by ball milling. Furthermore, this study imposed various hot-press sintering temperatures (1100, 1150, 1200 and 1250°C) and pressures (20, 35 and 50 MPa), while maintaining the sintering time at 1 h, respectively. The experimental results show that the optimum parameters of hot-press sintered Co-30 mass% Cr alloys are 1150°C at 35 MPa for 1 h. Meanwhile, the sintered density reaches 7.92 g·cm–3, the closed porosity decreases to 0.46%, and the hardness and transverse rupture strength (TRS) values increase to 77.2 HRA and 997.1 MPa, respectively. While the hot-press sintered Co-30 mass% Cr alloys at 1150°C and 20 MPa for 1 h, the electrical conductivity was slightly enhanced to 1.79 × 104 S·cm–1, and the phase transformation (FCC → HCP) of cobalt displayed a slight effect on sintering behaviors of Co-30 mass% Cr alloys. All these results confirm that the mechanical and electrical properties of Co-30 mass% Cr alloys are effectively improved by using the hot-press sintering technique.

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Authors and Affiliations

Shih-Hsien Chang
Chih-Yao Chang
Kuo-Tsung Huang
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Abstract

The entropy production per unit time is calculated for the regular lamellae -, and for the regular rods formation, respectively. The entropy production is a function of some parameters which define the eutectic phase diagram, coefficient of the diffusion in the liquid, and some capillary parameters connected with the mechanical equilibrium located at the triple point of the solid/liquid interface. Minimization of the entropy production allowed to formulate mathematically the so-called Growth Law for both envisaged eutectic morphologies.

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W. Wołczyński
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Abstract

The aim of the research was to determine the effect of sonochemical treatments on homogenization of powders as well as phase composition and thermal stability of sinters. The compounds were prepared from Eu2O3 and ZrO2 powders, weighed in the mass ratio 1:1. Initially ultrasound treatment was applied. 750-Watt ultrasonic processor VCX-750 equipped with sealed converter VC-334 and horn 630-0219 with the diameter of 13 mm (Sonics & Materials, Inc.) was used as a source of ultrasound. Applied ultrasound frequency was 20 kHz, power density was controlled in the range from 75 W/cm2 to 340 W/cm2. Investigated compounds were synthesized via solid-state reaction (SSR). The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used in order to investigate the effect of sonochemical treatment on the synthesis of prepared mixtures the powders particle size distribution was analyzed. Ultrasound treatment what wasn’t never been reported before.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Niemiec
M. Mikuśkiewicz
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Abstract

The progressive development of miniature systems increases the demand for miniature parts. Reducing the size of manufactured components on one hand is a serious challenge for traditional technologies, but on the other hand, mainly by removing the energy barrier opens the possibility of using other unconventional techniques. A good example is the ultrasonic excitation of the punch during the micro-upsetting process. The anti-barreling phenomenon and dependent on the amplitude of vibrations, intensive deformation of the surface layers in contact with the tools at both ends of the sample was noted. Based on the measured strains and stresses, an increase in temperature in the extreme layers to approx. 200°C was suggested. By adopting a simplified dynamic model of the test stand, the possibility of detaching the surface of the punch from the surface of the sample was demonstrated.

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W. Presz
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Abstract

Bacterial adsorption on mineral surface is one of the key steps in bioleaching process. The bacteria adsorb on the mineral surface via the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) layer. In this paper, the behavior of glucuronic acid, one of the key substances in EPS layer, adsorbed on the pyrite surface is studied using DFT and electrochemical methods. Adsorption capacity of glucuronic acid is stronger than that of water. Glucuronic acid adsorbs on pyrite surfaces and it follows a mixed type of interactions (physisorption and chemisorption). Adsorption of glucuronic acid on pyrite surface followed Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm with adsorption standard free energy of –27.67kJ mol–1. The structural and electronic parameters were calculated and discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Xu Jia Ning
Yang Hong Ying
Tong Lin Lin
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Abstract

Nowadays, Aluminium (Al) based hybrid surface composites are amongst the fastest developing advanced materials used for structural applications. Friction Stir Processing (FSP) has emerged as a clean and flexible solid-state surface composites fabrication technique. Intensive research in this field resulted in numerous research output; which hinders in finding relevant meta-data for further research with objectivity. In order to facilitate this research need, present article summarizes current state of the art and advances in aluminium based hybrid surface composites fabrication by FSP with in-situ and ex-situ approach. Reported literature were read and systematically categorized to show impacts of different types of reinforcements, deposition techniques, hybrid reinforcement ratio and FSP machine parameters on microstructures, mechanical and tribological characteristics of different Al alloys. Challenges and opportunities in this field have been summarized at the end, which will be beneficial to researchers working on solid state FSP technique.

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Authors and Affiliations

Namdev A. Patil
Srinivasa Rao Pedapati
Othman Bin Mamat
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Abstract

The half-metallic, mechanical, and transport properties of the quaternary Heusler compound of PdZrTiAl is discussed under hydrostatic pressures in the range of –11.4 GPa to 18.4 GPa in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and Boltzmann quasi-classical theory using the generalization gradient approximation (GGA). By applying the stress, the band gap in the minor spin increases so that the lowest band is obtained 0.25 eV at the pressure of –11.4 GPa while the maximum gap is calculated 0.9 eV at the pressure of 18.4 GPa. In all positive and negative pressures, the PdZrTiAl composition exhibits a half-metallic behavior 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. It is also found that applying stress increases the Seebeck coefficient in both spin directions. In the minority spin, the n-type PdZrTiAl, the power factor (PF) for all the cases is greater in the equilibrium state than the strain and stress conditions whereas in the majority spin, the PF value of the stress state is greater than the other two. The non-dimensional figure of merit (ZT) is significant and is about one in spin down in the room temperature for the all pressure states that it remains on this value by applying pressure. The obtained elastic constants indicate that the PdZrTiAl crystalline structure has a mechanical stability. Based on the Yong (E), Bulk (B) and shear (G) modulus and Poisson (n) ratio, the brittle-ductile behavior of this compound has been investigated under pressure. The results indicate that PdZrTiAl has a ductile nature and it is a stiffness compound in which elastic and mechanical instability increases by applying strain.

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Parsamehr
A. Boochani
E. Sartipi
M. Amiri
S. Solaymani
S. Naderi
A. Aminian
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Abstract

The subject of the study concerns the enhancement of corrosion and wear resistance of nitrided 42CrMo4 steel by the formation of zinc phosphate top layer. The present work is aimed at the assessment of the effect of increasing thickness of nitrided layer from approximately 2 µm to 16 µm on the morphology and properties of zinc phosphate coating. XRD analysis showed that along with the increase in the thickness of the nitrides layer, a change in the phase composition was observed. SEM/EDS examination revealed that top layer consists of crystalline zinc phosphate coating. The shape and size of crystals does not significantly depend on a thickness of nitrides layer but corrosion resistance determined by potentiodynamic method in 0.5M NaCl increased with an increase of thickness of a “white layer”. Similarily the wear resistance determined by the 3-cone-roll test was also the highest for 16 µm nitride layer.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kapuściński
L. Kwiatkowski
P. Wach
A. Mazurek
R. Diduszko
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Abstract

The paper presents the susceptibility of AE44 magnesium alloy to electrochemical corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The evaluation of the intensity of the interaction of the corrosive environment was carried out using the corrosion tests and the Slow Strain Rate Test (SSRT). Corrosion tests performed in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution (immersion in solution and under cathodic polarization conditions) revealed that the layer of corrosion products was much thicker after immersion test. The results of SSRT showed that the AE44 alloy deformed in the solution was characterized by higher plasticity compared to the alloy deformed in the air after immersion in solution. Moreover, the fractures were characterized by different morphology. In the case of an alloy deformed in the solution under cathodic polarization many microcracks on the fracture were observed, which were not observed in the case of the alloy deformed in the air.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Sozańska
A. Mościcki
B. Chmiela
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Abstract

The state of the dislocation substructure of meteorite in which the history of phenomena accompanying the meteorite during its passage through the Earth’s atmosphere is recorded remains unused. The main goal of the presented work is a comprehensive analysis of the dislocation structure of the iron meteorite from the Morasko reserve (Poland, Wielkopolska Voivodeship) by TEM methods to determine the conditions and mechanism of its formation. The work is cognitive in the field of phenomena related to the destruction and deformation of the material in extreme conditions: space and terrestrial space. It can also be useful in the research on the creation of the material with specific mechanical properties, as well as a unique reference material for earth experiments with low-temperature deformation, high-speed deformation, recrystallization processes with short thermal pulses and structure relaxation in conditions of very long time periods.

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Authors and Affiliations

W. Osuch
R. Błoniarz
G. Michta
I. Suliga
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to present a method of tissue culture research by measuring the impedance of cells cultured in the presence of nichrome. For this purpose, the Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing system was used with a prototype substrate containing comb capacitors made of nichrome. Magnetron sputtering, photolithography and etching processes were used to produce the thin-film electrodes. In the experimental part, cells of mouse fibroblast cell line L929 were cultured according to the instruction manual in complete medium, under controlled growth conditions. Inoculation of arrays was carried out by 300 microliters per well of cell suspension at ~1.2×105 cells/ml. The results of the monitoring cells behavior in tissue culture indicate good cell viability and proliferative potential.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kociubiński
D. Zarzeczny
M. Prendecka
D. Pigoń
T. Małecka-Massalska
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Abstract

The ablation casting technology consists in pouring castings in single-use moulds made from the mixture of sand and water-soluble binder. After pouring the mould with liquid metal the mould is destructed (washed out) using a stream of cooling medium, which in this case is water. The process takes place while the casting is still solidifying.

The following paper focuses on testing the influence of the modified ablation casting of aluminum alloy on casts properties produced in moulds with hydrated sodium silicate binder. The authors showed that the best kind of moulding sands for Al alloy casting will be those hardened with physical factors – through dehydration. The analysis of literature data and own research have shown that the moulding sand with hydrated sodium silicate hardened by dehydration is characterized by sufficient strength properties for the modified ablation casting of Al alloys. In the paper the use of microwave hardened moulding sands has been proposed.

The moulds were prepared in the matrix specially designed for this technology. Two castings from the AlSi7Mg alloy were made; one by traditional gravity casting and the other by gravity casting using ablation.

The conducted casts tests showed that the casting made in modified ablation casting technology characterizes by higher mechanical properties than the casting made in traditional casting technology. In both experimental castings the directional solidification was observed, however in casting made by ablation casting, dimensions of dendrites in the structure at appropriate levels were smaller.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Major-Gabryś
M. Hosadyna-Kondracka
S. Puzio
J. Kamińska
M. Angrecki

Editorial office

EDITORIAL BOARD

Editor-in-Chief:

Paweł Zięba, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Editors:

Krzysztof Fitzner, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Bogusław Major, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Przemysław Fima, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

Piotr Bała, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Leszek Blacha, Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Zbigniew Bojar, Military University of Technology, Poland

Eduardo Cesari, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain

Kyu Rhee Chang, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Korea

Jan Dusza, Institute of Materials Research, SAS, Slovakia

Władysław Gąsior, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Zbigniew Gronostajski, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland

Edward Guzik, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Peter D. Hodgson, Deakin University, Australia

Herbert Ipser, University of Vienna, Austria

George Kaptay, Research Institute on Nanotechnology, Hungary

Alexandre Kodentsov, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands

Rafał Kozubski, Jagiellonian University, Poland

Aleš Kroupa, Institute of Physics of Materials AS CR, Czech Republic

Piotr Kula, Lodz University of Technology, Poland

Jan Kusiński, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Roman Kuziak, Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Poland

Jüergen Lackner, Laser Center Leoben, Joanneum Research, Austria

Kee Ahn Lee, Inha University, Korea

Marcin Leonowicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Jerzy Lis, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Leszek B. Magalas, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Graeme E. Murch, University of Newcastle, Australia

Alberto Passerone, Institute of Physical Chemistry of Materials, Italy

Henryk Paul, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, Poland

Maciej Pietrzyk, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland

Eugen Rabkin, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Israel

Amir Shirzadi, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Jerzy Sobczak, Foundry Research Institute, Poland

Boris B. Straumal, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Pekka Taskinen, Aalto University, Finland

Stefan Zaefferer, Max-Planck-Institut, Germany

Ehrenfried Zschech, Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing, Germany

Contact

Editorial address:


Instytut Mechaniki Górotworu PAN

ul. Reymonta 27

30-059 Kraków, Poland

Tel. +48 (12) 6376200 w. 58


e-mail : archiwum4@wp.pl, amm@imim.pl

 

Instructions for authors

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science. Papers with focus on synthesis, processing and properties of metal materials, including thermodynamic and physical properties, phase relations, and their relation to microstructure of materials are of particular interest.

Submissions to Archives of Metallurgy and Materials should clearly present aspects of novelty of findings, originality of approach etc. If modeling is presented it should be logically connected to experimental evidence. Submissions which just report the results without in depth analysis and discussion will not be published.

Submission of a manuscript implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.

Authors of review type manuscripts are requested to send such manuscripts to Editor-in-Chief for preliminary evaluation. Only manuscripts approved by the Editor-in-Chief can be submitted to the journal for further processing. This does not guarantee acceptance for publication since all

manuscripts are subject to regular review procedure.

When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:

1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via www.editorialsystem.com/amm/. Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.

1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000)

1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.

1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word

Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.

1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.

1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:

Author(s) with first names in full.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).

Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.

Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.

All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.

Appendices

References

Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author.

Figure captions

Tables

2. Manuscript preparation

2.1. Formulae, equations and units

Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).

Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.

2.4. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/ or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket). Use of DOI is strongly encouraged.

Samples:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015).

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015).

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8] https://www.nist.gov/programs-projects/crystallographic-databases, accessed: 17.04.2017

Academic thesis (PhD, MSc):

[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process

All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing.

Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary.

Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 14 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days

4.3 Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

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