Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Acoustics

Zawartość

Archives of Acoustics | 2015 | vol. 40 | No 4 |

Abstrakt

The paper presents a retrospective study for selection of noise barrier for road traffic noise abatement. The work proposes the application of Fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution) approach is selection of optimal road traffic noise barrier. The present work utilizes the fuzzy TOPSIS model proposed by Mahdavi et al. (2008) in determination of ranking order of various types of noise barriers with respect to the various criteria considered. It is suggested that application of this approach can be very helpful in selection and application of optimal noise barrier for road traffic noise abatement.
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Respiratory disturbances frequently accompany stuttering. Their influence on lung ventilation can be assessed by measurement of the end-tidal CO2 concentration (EtCO2). The effectiveness of the CO2-based visual feedback method of breath regulation (VF) designed for stuttering therapy was tested in this study. The aim of the study was to answer the question if the VF helps to reduce respiratory disturbances in stuttering and increase speech fluency. 20 stuttering volunteers aged 13-45 years took part in the 3-parts test consisting of: 1. speaking without any techniques improving speech fluency, 2. learning the VF method, 3. VF-assisted speaking. The CO2/time signal and an acoustic signal of an utterance were recorded during the test. Significant increase of FE - the factor of breath ergonomics during speaking (based on both signals), from 47% to 71% (P < 0.01), and significant decrease of %SS - the percent of syllables stuttered, from 14% to 10% (P < 0.01) were received for VF-assisted utterances compared to the utterances without VF assistance. The results indicate that the VF can help to eliminate respiratory disturbances in stuttering and increase speech fluency.
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The paper presents experimental results of the visualization of the nonlinear aeroacoustic sound generation phenomena occurring in organ flue pipe. The phase-locked particle image velocimetry technique is applied to visualize the mixed velocity field in the transparent organ flue pipe model made from Plexiglas. Presented measurements were done using synchronization to the tone generated by the pipe itself sup- plied by controlled air flow with seeding particles. The time series of raw velocity field distribution images show nonlinear sound generation mechanisms: the large amplitude of deflection of the mean flue jet and vortex shedding in the region of pipe mouth. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) was then applied to the experimental data to separately visualize the mean mass flow, pulsating jet mass flow with vortices and also sound waves near the generation region as well as inside and outside of the pipe. The resulting POD spatial and temporal modes were used to approximate the acoustic velocity field behaviour at the pipe fundamental frequency. The temporal modes shapes are in a good agreement with the microphone pressure signal shape registered from a distance. Obtained decomposed spatial modes give interesting insight into sound generating region of the organ pipe and the transition area towards the pure acoustic field inside the resonance pipe. They can give qualitative and quantitative data to verify existing sound generation models used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA).
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Acoustic radiation sources are successfully applied to cleaning rooms from dust of fairly large particle sizes (ten micrometers and larger). The sedimentation of fine aerosols (particle diameter of 1-10 microns) is a more complicated challenge. The paper is devoted to the substantiation of the acoustic sedimentation method for such aerosols. On the basis of the mathematical model analysis for aerosol sedimentation by the acoustic field the mechanisms of this process have been determined and include the particle coagulation acceleration and radiation pressure effect. The experimental results of the acoustic sedimentation of a model aerosol (NaCl) are shown. The calculation results according to the mathematical model for coagulation and sedimentation, on the basis of the Smolukhovsky’s equation taking into account various mechanisms of aerosol sedimentation by sound depending on the particle sizes and sound intensity, are given. The necessity to use intensive sources of high-frequency sound has been confirmed, suggesting that these sources must be located above dust clouds.
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Abstrakt

The use of individualised Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF) is a fundamental prerequisite for obtaining an accurate rendering of 3D spatialised sounds in virtual auditory environments. The HRTFs are transfer functions that define the acoustical basis of auditory perception of a sound source in space and are frequently used in virtual auditory displays to simulate free-field listening conditions. However, they depend on the anatomical characteristics of the human body and significantly vary among individuals, so that the use of the same dataset of HRTFs for all the users of a designed system will not offer the same level of auditory performance. This paper presents an alternative approach to the use on non-individualised HRTFs that is based on a procedural learning, training, and adaptation to altered auditory cues.We tested the sound localisation performance of nine sighted and visually impaired people, before and after a series of perceptual (auditory, visual, and haptic) feedback based training sessions. The results demonstrated that our subjects significantly improved their spatial hearing under altered listening conditions (such as the presentation of 3D binaural sounds synthesised from non-individualized HRTFs), the improvement being reflected into a higher localisation accuracy and a lower rate of front-back confusion errors.
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Abstrakt

Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious occupational related health problem worldwide. The A-wave impulse noise could cause severe hearing loss, and characteristics of such kind of impulse noise in the joint time-frequency (T-F) domain are critical for evaluation of auditory hazard level. This study focuses on the analysis of A-wave impulse noise in the T-F domain using continual wavelet transforms. Three different wavelets, referring to Morlet, Mexican hat, and Meyer wavelets, were investigated and compared based on theoretical analysis and applications to experimental generated A-wave impulse noise signals. The underlying theory of continuous wavelet transform was given and the temporal and spectral resolutions were theoretically analyzed. The main results showed that the Mexican hat wavelet demonstrated significant advantages over the Morlet and Meyer wavelets for the characterization and analysis of the A-wave impulse noise. The results of this study provide useful information for applying wavelet transform on signal processing of the A-wave impulse noise.
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Abstrakt

Due to an increasing amount of music being made available in digital form in the Internet, an automatic organization of music is sought. The paper presents an approach to graphical representation of mood of songs based on Self-Organizing Maps. Parameters describing mood of music are proposed and calculated and then analyzed employing correlation with mood dimensions based on the Multidimensional Scaling. A map is created in which music excerpts with similar mood are organized next to each other on the two-dimensional display.
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This paper gives a detailed electroacoustic study of a new generation of monolithic CMOS micromachined electrodynamic microphone, made with standard CMOS technology. The monolithic integration of the mechanical sensor with the electronics using a standard CMOS process is respected in the design, which presents the advantage of being inexpensive while having satisfactory performance. The MEMS microphone structure consists mainly of two planar inductors which occupy separate regions on substrate. One inductor is fixed; the other can exercise out-off plane movement. Firstly, we detail the process flow, which is used to fabricate our monolithic microphone. Subsequently, using the analogy between the three different physical domains, a detailed electro-mechanical-acoustic analogical analysis has been performed in order to model both frequency response and sensitivity of the microphone. Finally, we show that the theoretical microphone sensitivity is maximal for a constant vertical position of the diaphragm relative to the substrate, which means the distance between the outer and the inner inductor. The pressure sensitivity, which is found to be of the order of a few tens of μV/Pa, is flat within a bandwidth from 50 Hz to 5 kHz.
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Abstrakt

Thermal self-action of an acoustic beam with one discontinuity or several shock fronts is studied in a Newtonian fluid. The stationary self-action of a single sawtooth wave with discontinuity (or some integer number of these waves), symmetric or asymmetric, is considered in the cases of self-focusing and self- defocusing media. The results are compared with the non-stationary thermal self-action of the periodic sound. Thermal self-action of a single shock wave which propagates with the various speeds is considered.
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Abstrakt

The research aimed to establish tyre-road noise models by using a Data Mining approach that allowed to build a predictive model and assess the importance of the tested input variables. The data modelling took into account three learning algorithms and three metrics to define the best predictive model. The variables tested included basic properties of pavement surfaces, macrotexture, megatexture, and unevenness and, for the first time, damping. Also, the importance of those variables was measured by using a sensitivity analysis procedure. Two types of models were set: one with basic variables and another with complex variables, such as megatexture and damping, all as a function of vehicles speed. More detailed models were additionally set by the speed level. As a result, several models with very good tyre-road noise predictive capacity were achieved. The most relevant variables were Speed, Temperature, Aggregate size, Mean Profile Depth, and Damping, which had the highest importance, even though influenced by speed. Megatexture and IRI had the lowest importance. The applicability of the models developed in this work is relevant for trucks tyre-noise prediction, represented by the AVON V 4 test tyre, at the early stage of road pavements use. Therefore, the obtained models are highly useful for the design of pavements and for noise prediction by road authorities and contractors.
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The paper demonstrates that blind people localize sounds more accurately than sighted people by using monaural and/or binaural cues. In the experiment, blind people participated in two tests; the first one took place in the laboratory and the second one in the real environment under different noise conditions. A simple click sound was employed and processed with non-individual head related transfer functions. The sounds were delivered by a system with a maximum azimuth of 32° to the left side and 32° to the right side of the participant’s head at a distance ranging from 0.3 m up to 5 m. The present paper describes the experimental methods and results of virtual sound localization by blind people through the use of a simple electronic travel aid based on an infrared laser pulse and the time of flight distance measurement principle. The lack of vision is often compensated by other perceptual abilities, such as the tactile or hearing ability. The results show that blind people easily perceive and localize binaural sounds and assimilate them with sounds from the environment.
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Abstrakt

The paper reports the study of the complexation processes in aqueous solution of α-CD and DMSO. Cyclodextrins (CDs) (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are cyclic oligosaccharides formed by glucose units interconnected by α-(1,4) linkages; α-CD is one of three the most common CDs. It consists of six glucopyranose units. The speed of ultrasonic waves has been measured by the resonance method on ResoscanTM System apparatus. Some collateral data, such as density and heat capacity of the system, have also been measured. On the basis of the experimental data the excess adiabatic compressibility was determined. The extremes of the excess adiabatic compressibility function for different mixture compositions allowed us to establish the composition of molecular complexes formed in the solution. The obtained results suggest the formation of the α-CD with DMSO inclusion complexes with chemical stoichiometric ratio value of 1:1.
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Abstrakt

In virtual acoustics or artificial reverberation, impulse responses can be split so that direct and reflected components of the sound field are reproduced via separate loudspeakers. The authors had investigated the perceptual effect of angular separation of those components in commonly used 5.0 and 7.0 multichannel systems, with one and three sound sources respectively (Kleczkowski et al., 2015, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 63, 428-443). In that work, each of the front channels of the 7.0 system was fed with only one sound source. In this work a similar experiment is reported, but with phantom sound sources between the front loud- speakers. The perceptual advantage of separation was found to be more consistent than in the condition of discrete sound sources. The results were analysed both for pooled listeners and in three groups, according to experience. The advantage of separation was the highest in the group of experienced listeners.
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Abstrakt

The multi-stimulus test with hidden reference and anchors (MUSHRA) is commonly used for subjective quality assessment of audio systems. Despite its wide acceptance in scientific and industrial sectors, the method is not free from bias. One possible source of bias in the MUSHRA method may be attributed to a graphical design of its user interface. This paper examines the hypothesis that replacement of the standard multi-slider layout with a single-slider version could reduce a stimulus spacing bias observed in the MUSHRA test. Contrary to the expectation, the aforementioned modification did not reduce the bias. This outcome formally supports the validity of using multiple sliders in the MUSHRA graphical interface.
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Abstrakt

The properties of the nonlinear phenomenon in water, including sea water, have been well known for many decades. The feature of the non homogeneous distribution of the speed of sound along the depth of the sea is very interesting from the physical and technical point of view. It is important especially in the observation of underwater area by means of acoustical method (Grelowska et al., 2013; 2014). The observation of the underwater space has been carried out for more than hundred years. In the second half of the twentieth century we observed very intense trend of development of the measuring methods of underwater sound speed. It was done mainly in the linear sound propagation aspect. At the end of 20th century nonlinear devices were invented. Thus, from this point of view, knowledge on the nonlinear properties of the sea water is the matter of interest. The phenomenon of nonlinear distortion of elastic waves, and the same the efficiency of nonlinear transfer of energy from the primary wave to the higher harmonic components depend on properties of the medium, especially on the material constant known as the nonlinearity parameter B/A. The Baltic Sea is a specific reservoir with untypically low salinity and low depth (Grelowska, 2000). In the paper results of investigation of nonlinear properties of the South and the Central Baltic by means of thermodynamic method are presented.
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Studies to find alternative low environmental-impact materials for acoustic absorbers are still progressing, particularly those originated from natural materials. However, most of the established works are mainly focused on the fibrous-type absorbers. Discussion on the non-fibrous-type absorbers is still lacking and this therefore becomes the objective of this paper. Use of bamboo by utilizing its hollow structure to absorb sound energy is discussed here. The normal incidence absorption coefficient was measured based on the length and diameter of the bamboo, as well as different arrangement of the bamboo structure subjected to the incidence sound, namely, axial, transverse, and crossed-transverse arrangements. The trend of absorption coefficient appears in peaks and dips at equally spacing frequencies. For all arrangements the peak of absorption can reach above 0.8. Introducing an air gap behind the bamboo shifts the peak absorption to lower frequency. Covering the front surface of the absorber improves the sound absorption coefficient for axial arrangement by widening the frequency range of absorption also towards lower frequency range. The transverse arrangement is found to have average absorption coefficient peaks of 0.7 above 1.5 kHz. By arranging the bamboo structure with crossed-transverse arrangement, the suppressed absorption peaks in normal transverse arrangement can be recovered.
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In building speech recognition based applications, robustness to different noisy background condition is an important challenge. In this paper bimodal approach is proposed to improve the robustness of Hindi speech recognition system. Also an importance of different types of visual features is studied for audio visual automatic speech recognition (AVASR) system under diverse noisy audio conditions. Four sets of visual feature based on Two-Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform feature (2D-DCT), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Two-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform followed by DCT (2D-DWT- DCT) and Two-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform followed by PCA (2D-DWT-PCA) are reported. The audio features are extracted using Mel Frequency Cepstral coefficients (MFCC) followed by static and dynamic feature. Overall, 48 features, i.e. 39 audio features and 9 visual features are used for measuring the performance of the AVASR system. Also, the performance of the AVASR using noisy speech signal generated by using NOISEX database is evaluated for different Signal to Noise ratio (SNR: 30 dB to −10 dB) using Aligarh Muslim University Audio Visual (AMUAV) Hindi corpus. AMUAV corpus is Hindi continuous speech high quality audio visual databases of Hindi sentences spoken by different subjects.
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Redakcja

Editorial Board
Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej Nowicki (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Barbara Gambin (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Associate Editors
Genaral linear acoustics and physical acoustics
• Wojciech P. Rdzanek (University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów)
• Anna Snakowska (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Architectural acoustics
• Tadeusz Kamisiński (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Musical acoustics and psychological acoustics
• Andrzej Miśkiewicz (The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music, Warszawa)
• Anna Preis (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)
Underwater acoustics and nonlinear acoustics
• Grażyna Grelowska (Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk)
Speech, Computational acoustics and signal processing
• Ryszard Gubrynowicz (Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Warszawa)
Ultrasonics, transducers and instrumentation
• Krzysztof Opieliński (Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław)
Electroacoustics
• Jan Żera (Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa)
Noise control and environmental acoustics
• Jan Adamczyk (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
• Mirosław Meissner (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
• Janusz Kompała (Central Mining Institute, Katowice)
Secretary
• Izabela Ewa Mika

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