Applied sciences

Archives of Thermodynamics


Archives of Thermodynamics | 2013 | No 1 March |


According to a fuel flexibility, fluidized bed boilers are considered as appropriate for biomass combustion as cofiring. But the burning of fuels such as forest and agricultural biomass raises a number of operational problems. Most important of these problems are bed agglomeration and deposition. Deposition appears when biomass contains significant amounts of alkali elements, such as sodium and potassium. The purpose of the work is to select a fuel additive to overcome these operational problems. Investigations were conducted in two stages at a pilot scale 0.1 MWth laboratory circulating fluidized bed reactor. As the fuel, the mixture of biomass contained forest residues, sunflower husks, straw and wood pellets from mixed woods was selected. In the first stage biomass was burnt without any additives, while in the second one the fuel was enriched with some additive. The additive (liquid mixture of chemicals) was added to the fuel in amounts of 1 dm3 per 5-10 Mg of fuel. The following operational parameters were examined: temperature profiles along the height of the circulating fluidised bed column, pressure profiles, emissions. After the tests, the laboratory reactor was inspected inside. Its results enables expression of the following conclusions: there was no agglomeration during fuel additive testing, and the deposition was reduced as well. Moreover, the parts (heating surfaces, separator) of the laboratory reactor were coated with a protective layer. The layer covered microcracks and protected the parts from deposition for a long period after the operation.

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The paper presents a concept of producing energy on the basis of modern alternative fuels to be burnt in low- and medium-power stokerfired boilers. The thermal energy contained in water vapour and hot water will be utilized in producing, in combination, of electrical energy, and for heating of cubature objects. Modern alternative fuels in the form of briquettes and pellets will be produced from hard coals and municipal waste other than hazardous. There have been presented the properties of alternative fuels obtained, and the concept of their utilization in the process of energy production in cogeneration.

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Paper presents the results of numerical modelling of a rectangular tube filled with a mixture of air and CO2 by means of the induced standing wave. Assumed frequency inducing the acoustic waves corresponds to the frequency of the thermoacoustic engine. In order to reduce the computational time the engine has been replaced by the mechanical system consisting of a piston. This paper includes the results of model studies of an acoustic tube filled with a mixture of air and CO2 in which a standing wave was induced.

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Miniature heat exchangers are used to provide higher cooling capacity for new technologies. This means a reduction in their size and cost but the identical power. The paper presents the method for determination of boiling heat transfer coefficient for a rectangular minichannel of 0.1 mm depth, 40 mm width and 360 mm length with asymmetric heating. Experimental research has focused on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e., the zone of boiling incipience. The ‘boiling front’ location has been determined from the temperature distribution of the heated wall obtained from liquid crystal thermography. The experiment has been carried out with R-123, mass flux 220 kg/(m2s), pressure at the channel inlet 340 kPa. Local values of heat transfer coefficient were calculated on the basis of empirical data from the experiment following the solution of the two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problem. This problem has been solved with the use of the finite element method in combination with Trefftz functions. Temperature approximates (linear combinations of Trefftz functions) strictly fulfill the governing equations. In presented method the inverse problem is solved in the same way as the direct problem. The results confirmed that considerable heat transfer enhancement takes place at boiling incipience in the minichannel flow boiling. Moreover, under subcooling boiling, local heat coefficients exhibit relatively low values.

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The reason for undertaking this study was to determine the possible involvement of natural convection in the global heat transfer, that occurs in the heated steel rods bed. This problem is related to the setting of the effective thermal conductivity of the bars bed. This value is one of the boundary conditions for heating modeling of steel rods bundles during heat treatment. The aim of this study was to determine for which geometry of the bed bars, there will be no free convection. To analyze the problem the Rayleigh criterion was used. It was assumed that for the value of the number Ra < 1700 convection in the bed bars does not occur. For analysis, the results of measurements of the temperature distribution in the unidirectionally heated beds of bars were used. It has been shown, that for obtained, during the test, differences of temperature between the surfaces of adjacent rods, convection can occur only when the diameter of the rod exceeds 18 mm.

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The current numerical study focuses on the feasibility of furnishing thermal comfort in a structure, by using paraffin wax stored on a plate below the ceiling in a multi-storey building. The method is aimed to reduce energy demands at the increasing thermal loads. In summer, in daytime, walls of the building are exposed to the ambient thermal load, and heat transferred inside is absorbed by the melting wax. The study is numerical. It relates to temperature variations outside and inside, coupled with heat conduction and accumulation in walls, with radiation between the surfaces, with natural convection of air inside and melting of the wax at the ceiling. Fins spacing on the storage plate, visualization of the melting process, and its parametric investigation provide an insight into the physical phenomena. Temperature and flow fields were investigated for 3 mm and 12 mm thick layers of wax. At the specified conditions of the present study a 3 mm layer provides thermal comfort for most of the day, while a 6 mm layer may suffice for the entire day. Fluent 6.3 software was used in the computations.

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Editorial office

Honorary Editor
Wiesław Gogół, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Jarosław Mikielewicz, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery PAS, Poland

Marian Trela, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery PAS, Poland

Members of Editorial Commitee
Roman Domanski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Ziębik, Technical University of Silesia, Poland

Managing Editor
Jarosław Frączak, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery PAS, Poland

International Advisory Board
J. Bataille, Ecole Central de Lyon, Ecully, France
A. Bejan, Duke University,  Durham, USA
W. Blasiak, Royal Institute of Technology,  Stockholm, Sweden
G. P. Celata, ENEA,  Rome, Italy
M. W. Collins, South Bank University,  London, UK
J. M. Delhaye, CEA, Grenoble, France
M. Giot, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
D. Jackson, University of Manchester, UK
S. Michaelides, University of North Texas, Denton, USA
M. Moran, Ohio State University,  Columbus, USA
W. Muschik, Technische Universität, Berlin, Germany
I. Müller, Technische Universität, Berlin, Germany
V. E. Nakoryakov, Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk, Russia
M. Podowski, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, USA
M.R. von Spakovsky, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA


IFFM Publishers (Wydawnictwo IMP),

The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery,
Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland,
telephone: +48 58 6995141, fax: +48 58 3416144,



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Archives of Thermodynamics publishes original papers which have not previously appeared in other journals. The language of the papers is English. No paper should exceed the length of 25 pages. All pages should be numbered. The plan and form of the papers should be as follows:

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AIAA Journal 8(1970), No. 11, 2004–2009.
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