Applied sciences

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

Content

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | 2006 | vol. 54 | No 1 |

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Abstract

In the paper the modelling of thermo-mechanical effects in the process of friction welding of corundum ceramics and aluminium is presented. The modelling is performed by means of finite element method. The corundum ceramics contains 97% of Al2O3. The mechanical and temperature fields are considered as coupled fields. Simulation of loading of the elements bonded with the heat flux from friction heat on the contact surface is also shown. The heat flux was modified in the consecutive time increments of numerical solutions by changeable pressure on contact surface. Time depending temperature distribution in the bonded elements is also determined. The temperature distribution on the periphery of the cylindrical surfaces of the ceramics and Al was compared to the temperature measurements done with a thermovision camera. The results of the simulation were compared to those obtained from the tests performed by means of a friction welding machine

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Authors and Affiliations

Z. Lindemann
K. Skalski
W. Włosiński
J. Zimmerman
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Abstract

This paper presents the concept and modern technological approach to the fabrication of discrete, integrated and integral micropassives. The role of these components in modern electronic circuits is discussed too. The material, technological and constructional solutions and their relation with electrical and stability properties are analyzed in details for linear and nonlinear microresistors made and characterized at the Faculty of Microsystem Technology, Wrocław University of Technology.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Dziedzic
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Abstract

Evolution of many high technologies such as microelectronics, microsystem technology and nanotechnology involves design, application and testing of technical structures, whose size is being decreased continuously. Scanning probe microscopes (SPM) are therefore increasingly used as diagnostic and measurement instruments. Consequently the demand for standardized calibration routines for this kind of equipment rises. Up to now, there has been no in generally accepted guideline on how to perform SPM calibration procedure. In this article we discuss calibration scheme and focus on several critical aspects of SPM characterization e.g. the determination of the static and dynamic physical properties of the cantilever, the influence factors which need to be considered when plotting a scheme for the calibration of the force and displacement sensitivity.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Gotszalk
A. Marendziak
K. Kolanek
R. Szeloch
P. Grabiec
M. Zaborowski
P. Janus
I.W. Rangelow
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Abstract

In the article we described the evolution of optical technology from lens-type microscopes working in far-field to SNOM (Scanning

Near-Field Optical Microscopy) constructions. We considered two systems elaborated in our laboratory, namely PSTM system (Photon Scanning Tunelling Microscope) and SNOM system. In both systems we obtained subwavelength resolution. Some details about optical point probe technology in both systems are given and experimental results presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Radojewski
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Abstract

This paper describes influence of cargo lorry traveling at high speed under a lightweight footbridge on the structure vibrations. The unsteady CFD simulations were performed to obtain aerodynamic load functions on the footbridge. These loads were introduced to nonlinear structural dynamics transient calculation to obtain footbridge response. The influence of aerodynamic forces was evaluated in terms of pedestrian comfort and safety. Parametric study of the influence of vehicle speed, structure clearance, cabin deflectors and distance between lorries grouped in convoy is also presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Żółtowski
J. Piechna
K. Żółtowski
H. Zobel
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Abstract

The paper presents some problems of heat conduction in a semi-infinite periodically stratified layer. The layer is subjected to acting a constant temperature on the part of boundary, normal to the layering. The free heat exchange with surroundings is assumed on the remaining part of the boundary. The composite layer is supposed to be composed of n periodically repeated two-component lamina. The problem is solved in two ways: (10) directly as a heat conduction problem, (20) by using model with microlocal parameters [1,2]. The main aim of the paper is a comparison of the obtained results and to conclude possibilities of applications of the homogenized model with microlocal parameters.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Kulchytsky-Zhyhailo
S.J. Matysiak
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Abstract

A data warehouse (DW) is a large centralized database that stores data integrated from multiple, usually heterogeneous external

data sources (EDSs). DW content is processed by so called On-Line Analytical Processing applications, that analyze business trends, discover anomalies and hidden dependencies between data. These applications are part of decision support systems. EDSs constantly change their content and often change their structures. These changes have to be propagated into a DW, causing its evolution. The propagation of content changes is implemented by means of materialized views. Whereas the propagation of structural changes is mainly based on temporal extensions and schema evolution, that limits the application of these techniques. Our approach to handling the evolution of a DW is based on schema and data versioning. This mechanism is the core of, so called, a multiversion data warehouse. A multiversion DW is composed of the set of its versions. A single DWversion is in turn composed of a schema version and the set of data described by this schema version. Every DW version stores a DW state which is valid within a certain time period. In this paper we present: (1) a formal model of a multiversion data warehouse, (2) the set of operators with their formal semantics that support a DW evolution, (3) the impact analysis of the operators on DW data and user analytical queries. The presented formal model was a basis for implementing a multiversion DW prototype system.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Bębel
Z. Królikowski
R. Wrembel
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Abstract

The paper presents an overview of linearization methods of the non-linear state equation. The linearization is developed from the

point of view of the application in the theoretical electrotechnics. Some aspects of these considerations can be used in the control theory. In particular the main emphasis is laid on three methods of linearization, i.e.: Taylor’s series expansion, optimal linearization method and global linearization method. The theoretical investigations are illustrated using the non-linear circuit composed of a solar generator and a DC motor. Finally, the global linearization method is presented using several examples, i.e. the asynchronous slip-ring motor and non-linear diode. Furthermore the principal theorem concerning the BIBS stability (bounded-input bounded state) is introduced.

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Authors and Affiliations

A.J. Jordan
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Abstract

The paper focuses on the problem of robust fault detection using analytical methods and soft computing. Taking into account the model-based approach to Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI), possible applications of analytical models, and first of all observers with unknown inputs, are considered. The main objective is to show how to employ the bounded-error approach to determine the uncertainty of soft computing models (neural networks and neuro-fuzzy networks). It is shown that based on soft computing models uncertainty defined as a confidence range for the model output, adaptive thresholds can be described. The paper contains a numerical example that illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach for increasing the reliability of fault detection. A comprehensive simulation study regarding the DAMADICS benchmark problem is performed in the final part.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Korbicz
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Abstract

In the paper, a general topology of continuous-time Active-RC filter is presented. The model includes all possible Active-RC filter

structures as particular cases and allows us to analyze them using a unified algebraic formalism. This makes it suitable for use in computeraided analysis and design of Active-RC filters. By its construction, the model takes into account the finite DC gain and the finite bandwidth as well as non-zero output resistance of operational amplifiers. Filters with ideal OPAMPs can be treated as particular cases. Sensitivity and noise analysis of Active-RC filters is also performed in the proposed general setting. The correctness of the model is verified by comparison with SPICE simulation.

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Kozieł
S. Szczepański
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Abstract

In this paper, the sensitivity analysis of the elliptic filters realized by using biquadratic structures was carried out. The influence

of spread the structure parameter values on the shape of the frequency characteristic of the filter transmittance modulus was analyzed. The analysis was limited to the case of even order low-pass filter. Defining the proper class of the sensitivity coefficients, the changes influence of individual structure parameters on the deviation of basic parameter values of the characteristic was considered. The considerations were illustrated by the numerical example.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Pasko
T. Adrikowski
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Abstract

In the paper the squared voltage-current functionals are minimized, which represent the global power losses in the network. In that way it is possible to find the voltage-current distributions on the net without the use of immitance operators and basing only on the Kirchhoff laws. Farther the individual branch parameters are defined in the syntheses process. Many optimal power analysis examples are also shown to illustrate the thesis included in the paper.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Siwczyński
M. Jaraczewski
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Abstract

In this paper the basic methodology of the coupled response-degradation modelling of stochastic dynamical systems is presented

along with the effective analysis of selected problems. First, the general formulation of the problems of stochastic dynamics coupled with the evolution of deterioration process is given. Then some specific degrading oscillatory systems under random excitation are analyzed with a special attention on the systems with fatigue-induced stiffness degradation. Both, the general discussion and the analysis of selected exemplary problems indicate how the reliability of deteriorating stochastic dynamical systems can be assessed.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Sobczyk
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Abstract

This paper presents the improved version of the classification system for supporting glaucoma diagnosis in ophthalmology. In this

paper we propose the new segmentation step based on the support vector clustering algorithm which enables better classification performance.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Stąpor

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Editor-in-Chief:

M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

Honorary (Past) Editor-in Chief:

T. Kaczorek, Warsaw University of Technology

Deputy Editor-in-Chief:

A. Rogalski, Division IV Technical Sciences PAN

B. Błachowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

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Artificial and Computational Intelligence

S. Osowski and B. Sawicki, Warsaw University of Technology

Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology

A. Liebert, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN

Civil Engineering

L. Czarnecki, Building Research Institute, ITB, Warsaw

Control, Robotics and Informatics

J. Klamka and A. Babiarz, Silesian Technical University

A. Borkowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics

M. Mrozowski and A. Lamęcki, Gdansk University of Technology

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics

B. Błachowski and P. Korczyk, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

A. Tylikowski, Lukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Mechanised Construction and Rock Mining, Warsaw

Materials Science and Nanotechnology

B. Major and P. Czaja, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAN

Power Systems and Power Electronics

M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

International Editorial Advisory Board

R. Asthana, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, USA

Xu Binshi, China Association of Plant Engineering, Beijing, P.R. China

F. Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark

C. Cecati, University of L’Aquila, Italy

A. Cichocki, RIKEN Institute, Tokyo, Japan

M. David, National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France

R. Ebner, Materials Centre Leoben, Leoben, Austria

E. Fornasini, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

L.G. Franquelo, University of Sevilla, Spain

M. Gad-el-Hak, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

M. Giersig, Free University of Berlin, Germany

D. van Gemert, Catholic University Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium

L. Keviczky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

V. Kučera, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

R. Kennel, Technical University Munich, Germany

T.A. Kowalewski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

E. Levi, Liverpool John Moore University, UK

G. Maier, Technical University of Milan, Milan, Italy

K.F. Man, City University of Hong Kong,

R. Maniewski, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN

H.A. Mang, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria

H. Mihashi, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan

S. Mindess, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

D.A. Mlynski, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

A.S. Nowak, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

K. Ohnishi, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan

A. Öberg, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

W. Pedrycz, University of Alberta, Canada

S. Przemieniecki, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA

M. Razeghi, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA

J. Rodriguez, University of Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile

J.V. Sloten, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

B.M. Wilamowski, University of Auburn, Alabama, USA

W. Włosiński , Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

A.L. Yarin, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA

Du Xiangwan, Chinese Academy of Engineering, China

J. Żurada, Department of Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, USA

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Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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