Nauki Techniczne

Geodesy and Cartography

Zawartość

Geodesy and Cartography | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 2 |

Abstrakt

The paper presents an empirical comparison of performance of three well known M – estimators (i.e. Huber, Tukey and Hampel’s M – estimators) and also some new ones. The new M – estimators were motivated by weighting functions applied in orthogonal polynomials theory, kernel density estimation as well as one derived from Wigner semicircle probability distribution. M – estimators were used to detect outlying observations in contaminated datasets. Calculations were performed using iteratively reweighted least-squares (IRLS). Since the residual variance (used in covariance matrices construction) is not a robust measure of scale the tests employed also robust measures i.e. interquartile range and normalized median absolute deviation. The methods were tested on a simple leveling network in a large number of variants showing bad and good sides of M – estimation. The new M – estimators have been equipped with theoretical tuning constants to obtain 95% efficiency with respect to the standard normal distribution. The need for data – dependent tuning constants rather than those established theoretically is also pointed out.
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Abstrakt

The aim of this article is to present the concept of information capacity and visual suggestiveness as a map characteristic on the example of two maps of human migration. From this viewpoint the literature study has been performed. Proposed by the author the features of cartographic visualization are an attempt to establish cartographic pragmatics and find the way to increase effectiveness of dynamic maps with large information capacity. Among the works on cartographic pragmatics, muliaspectuality of spatio-temporal data the proposed solution has not been taken so far, and refers to the map design problematic.
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Abstrakt

This paper presents accuracy characteristics of determining the position of corners of building structures with RTN GNSS surveying, using indirect methods of measurement. The studies included the following methods: a point on a straight line, intersection of straight lines and distance-distance intersection. The research experiment analyzed the coordinates of the corners of building structures obtained from the surveys and the mean errors of their position as well as mutual relationships of check measurements, or tie distances. The accuracy analysis also took into account base errors deter- mined in real time. Statistical analysis of these parameters was carried out, as a result of which a distance-distance intersection method was very well rated. For other methods, the results were diversified. The article also emphasizes a need to search for other solutions to modernize the indirect methods of measurement in such a way that their use in RTN GNSS surveys would give results most probable when compared to the real ones.
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Abstrakt

Computation of a new gravimetric geoid in Brunei was carried out using terrestrial, airborne and altimetric gravity data and the EGM08 geopotential model by the collocation method. The computations were carried out by the „ remove-restore ” technique. In order to have better insight in the quality of input data the estimation of accuracy of the gravity data and geoid undulations from GPS/levelling data was carried out using EGM08 geopotential model. It shows a poor quality of GPS/levelling data. Result of the computation is the gravimetric geoid for the territory of Brunei computed by collocation method with an accuracy estimated below of ±0.3 m.
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Abstrakt

Prior any satellite technology developments, the geodetic networks of a country were realized from a topocentric datum, and hence the respective cartography was performed. With availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems-GNSS, cartography needs to be updated and referenced to a geocentric datum to be compatible with this technology. Cartography in Ecuador has been performed using the PSAD56 (Provisional South American Datum 1956) systems, nevertheless it’s necessary to have inside the system SIRGAS (SIstema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las AmericaS). This transformation between PSAD56 to SIRGAS use seven transformation parameters calculated with the method Helmert. These parameters, in case of Ecuador are compatible for scales of 1:25 000 or less, that does not satisfy the requirements on applications for major scales. In this study, the technique of neural networks is demonstrated as an alternative for improving the processing of UTM planes coordinates E, N (East, North) from PSAD56 to SIRGAS. Therefore, from the coordinates E, N, of the two systems, four transformation parameters were calculated (two of translation, one of rotation, and one scale difference) using the technique bidimensional transformation. Additionally, the same coordinates were used to training Multilayer Artificial Neural Network -MANN, in which the inputs are the coordinates E, N in PSAD56 and output are the coordinates E, N in SIRGAS. Both the two-dimensional transformation and ANN were used as control points to determine the differences between the mentioned methods. The results imply that, the coordinates transformation obtained with the artificial neural network multilayer trained have been improving the results that the bidimensional transformation, and compatible to scales 1:5000.
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Abstrakt

A lot of changes have been made to the legislative regulations associated with geodesy during the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive in Poland (amongst others, the structure of databases). There have also been great changes concerning the basic map and the method of its creation and updating. A new concept for creating the basic map is presented in this article.
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Abstrakt

The key to fingerprint positioning algorithm is establishing effective fingerprint information database based on different reference nodes of received signal strength indicator (RSSI). Traditional method is to set the location area calibration multiple information sampling points, and collection of a large number sample data what is very time consuming. With Zigbee sensor networks as platform, considering the influence of positioning signal interference, we proposed an improved algorithm of getting virtual database based on polynomial interpolation, while the pre-estimated result was disposed by particle filter. Experimental result shows that this method can generate a quick, simple fine-grained localization information database, and improve the positioning accuracy at the same time.
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Redakcja

Editor-in-Chief
Elżbieta Bielecka, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland


Editorial Advisory Board
Aleksandra Bujakiewicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Beata Medynska-Gulij, Adam Mickiewicz University (UAM), Poland
Edward Osada, University of Lower Silesia, Poland
Jan Krynski, Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (IGiK), Poland
Jerzy Rogowski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Zbigniew Wisniewski, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (UWM), Poland
Josef Adam, University of Technology and Economics, Hungary
Adam Chrzanowski, University of New Brunswick, Canada
Dorota Grejner-Brzezińska, The Ohio State University, USA
Jaakko Makinen, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Finland
Helmut Moritz, Graz University of Technology, Austria
Heinz Ruther, University of Cape Town, RSA
Michael Sideris, University of Calgary, Canada
Gabriel Strykowski, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Jaroslaw S. Yatskiv, Main Astronomical Observatory, Ukraine


Editors
Statistical
Pawel Kamiński, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland


Technical Editors
Karolina Krawczyk, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland
Krzysztof Bielecki, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland

 

Kontakt

Editor-in-Chief
Elżbieta Bielecka
e-mail:
ebielecka@wat.edu.pl
gik@igik.edu.pl

Instrukcje dla autorów

GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY is a semiannually journal publishing peer-reviewed articles with original solutions of theoretical, experimental or applicable problems in the field of geodesy, surveying engineering, cartography, photogrammetry and related disciplines. Besides original research papers, the journal includes commissioned review papers on topical subjects and special issues arising from chosen scientific symposia or workshops.
Legal requirements
The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners, that the rights of the third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
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Submission of the manuscript implies: that the work has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as a part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.
Articles should be submitted on line www.editorialsystem.com/geocart/
In case the manuscript has more than one author its submission should include the list specifying contribution of each author to the manuscript with indicating who is the author of the concept, assumptions, research methodology, data processing. Major responsibility is of the author submitting the manuscript.
The Editor will counteract in GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY against Ghostwriting, i.e. when someone substantially contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but has neither been included to the list of authors nor his role is mentioned in the acknowledgements as well as Ghost authorship, i.e. when the author/co-author did not contribute to the manuscript or his contribution is negligible. Any detected case of Ghostwriting and Ghost authorship will be exposed and the appropriate subjects, i.e. employers, scientific organisations, associations of editors etc, will be informed.
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Layout guidelines:- use a normal, plain Times Roman font for text, italics for textual emphasis, bold for mathematical vectors,
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- place all figures with figure legends and tables with table legends in the manuscript,
- submit also all figures as separate files.
Data format:
Save your manuscript in RTF or DOC Microsoft Word for Windows format.
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Figures should be provided in the vector graphics or JPG or TIF (specifically for halftone illustrations) formats will be accepted. The filename should include the figure number. Figure legends should be included in the text and not in the figure file. Scanned line drawings should be digitised with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi relative to the final figure size. For digital halftones, 300 dpi is usually sufficient. Non-standard fonts used in the vector graphics must be included. Please do not draw with hairlines. The minimum line width is 0.2 mm (0.567 pt) relative to the final size.
Manuscript preparation
Manuscripts should be typed in single-line spacing throughout on the A4 sheet with 2.5 cm margins .
1. Title page:
- a concise and informative title
- the name(s) of the author(s)
- the name(s) and address(es) of the affiliation(s) of the author(s)
- the e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the communicating author
2. Abstract: the paper must be preceded by a sufficiently informative abstract presenting the most important results and conclusions.
3. Keywords: three to five keywords should be supplied.
4. Introduction: should state the purpose of the investigation and give a short review of the pertinent literature.
5. Main text: including method and input data (working details must be given concisely; well-known operations should not be described in detail); results presented in tabular or graph form, with appropriate statistical evaluation, discussion of results - statement of conclusions drawn from the work, conclusions.
6. Acknowledgements: should be brief and consist of grant or individuals that require acknowledgement.
The names of funding organizations or institutions providing data should be given in full.
7. References: the list of references should be in alphabetical order and should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications could only be mentioned in the text. References should consist of the complete list of authors and should be given in the following form:
In the text, references should be cited by author(s) last name and year: e.g. (Beutler, 2003a), (Featherstone and Kirby, 2000), (Schwarz et al., 1990), (Sjöberg et al., 2000; Strykowski, 2001b; 2002).
8. Formulae and symbols: must be written legibly and will be typeset in italics. One-layer indexing is preferable. Numbering of formulae, if necessary should be given in brackets fitted to the right margin.
9. Footnotes: to the text should be numbered consecutively and placed on the bottom of the page to which they refer. Footnotes to the tables should be indicated by superscript lowercase letters.
10. Illustrations and tables: all figures (photographs, graphs or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text and each numbered consecutively throughout. Lowercase roman letters should identify figure parts. Figure legends must be brief and must contain self-sufficient explanations of the illustrations. Each table should have a title and a legend explaining any abbreviation used in that table.
11. Units: SI units must be used.
12. Running head: consisting of at most 60 characters a concise banner representing the title of the article must be submitted by the author(s).
Proofreading
Proofreading is the responsibility of the author. Corrections should be clear; standard correction marks should be used. Corrections that lead to a change in the page layout should be avoided. The author is entitled to formal corrections only. Substantial changes in content, e.g. new results, corrected values, title and authorship are not allowed without the approval of the editor. In such case please contact the Editor-in-chief before returning the proofs.
References formatting
a. Journal Article (one author)
Nikora, V. (2006). Hydrodynamics of aquatic ecosystems: spatial-averaging perspective. Acta Geophysica, 55(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-006-0043-6.
b. Journal Article (two or more authors)
Cudak, M. and Karcz J. (2006). Momentum transfer in an agitated vessel with off-centred impellers. Chem. Pap. 60(5), 375-380. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-006-0068-y.
c. Journal article from an online database
Czajgucki Z., Zimecki M. & Andruszkiewicz R. (2006, December). The immunoregulatory effects of edeine analogues in mice [Abstract]. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12(3), 149-161. Retrieved December 6.
d. Book (one author)
Baxter, R. (1982). Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Academic Press.
e. Book (two or more authors)
Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. and Tansey R.G. (2001). Gardner’s art through the ages (11th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Harcourt College Publishers.
f. Book chapter or article in an edited book
Roll, W.P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley and H.L. Edge (Eds.), Philosophical dimensions of parapsychology (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press.
g. Proceedings from a conference
Field, G. (2001). Rethinking reference rethought. In Revelling in Reference: Reference and Information Services Section Symposium, 12-14 October 2001 (pp. 59-64). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Library and Information Association.
h. ebook
Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink http://springerlink.com/content/w25154. DOI: 10.1007/b138965.
i. Report
Osgood, D. W., and Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS).
j. Government publication
Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. (1997). The national drug strategy: Mapping the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

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