# Geodesy and Cartography

### Abstrakt

This paper presents decision-making risk estimation based on planimetric large-scale map data, which are data sets or databases which are useful for creating planimetric maps on scales of 1:5,000 or larger. The studies were conducted on four data sets of large-scale map data. Errors of map data were used for a risk assessment of decision-making about the localization of objects, e.g. for land-use planning in realization of investments. An analysis was performed for a large statistical sample set of shift vectors of control points, which were identified with the position errors of these points (errors of map data). In this paper, empirical cumulative distribution function models for decision-making risk assessment were established. The established models of the empirical cumulative distribution functions of shift vectors of control points involve polynomial equations. An evaluation of the compatibility degree of the polynomial with empirical data was stated by the convergence coefficient and by the indicator of the mean relative compatibility of model. The application of an empirical cumulative distribution function allows an estimation of the probability of the occurrence of position errors of points in a database. The estimated decision-making risk assessment is represented by the probability of the errors of points stored in the database
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### Abstrakt

The paper presents empirical methodology of reducing various kinds of observations in geodetic network. A special case of reducing the observation concerns cartographic mapping. For numerical illustration and comparison of methods an application of the conformal Gauss-Krüger mapping was used. Empirical methods are an alternative to the classic differential and multi- stages methods. Numerical benefits concern in particular very long geodesics, created for example by GNSS vectors. In conventional methods the numerical errors of reduction values are significantly dependent on the length of the geodesic. The proposed empirical methods do not have this unfavorable characteristics. Reduction value is determined as a difference (or especially scaled difference) of the corresponding measures of geometric elements (distances, angles), wherein these measures are approximated independently in two spaces based on the known and corresponding approximate coordinates of the network points. Since in the iterative process of the network adjustment, coordinates of the points are systematically improved, approximated reductions also converge to certain optimal values.
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### Abstrakt

Various sectors of the economy such as transport and renewable energy have shown great interest in sea bed models. The required measurements are usually carried out by ship-based echo sounding, but this method is quite expensive. A relatively new alternative is data obtained by airborne lidar bathymetry. This study investigates the accuracy of these data, which was obtained in the context of the project ‘Investigation on the use of airborne laser bathymetry in hydrographic surveying’. A comparison to multi-beam echo sounding data shows only small differences in the depths values of the data sets. The IHO requirements of the total horizontal and vertical uncertainty for laser data are met. The second goal of this paper is to compare three spatial interpolation methods, namely Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Delaunay Triangulation (TIN), and supervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), for the generation of sea bed models. The focus of our investigation is on the amount of required sampling points. This is analyzed by manually reducing the data sets. We found that the three techniques have a similar performance almost independently of the amount of sampling data in our test area. However, ANN are more stable when using a very small subset of points.
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### Abstrakt

The objective of research concerned verifying the accuracy of the location and shape of selected lakes presented on topographical maps from various periods, drawn up on different scales. The area of research covered lakes situated in North- Western Poland on the Międzychód-Sieraków Lakeland . An analysis was performed of vector maps available in both analogue and digital format. The scales of these studies range from 1:50 000 to 1:10 000. The source materials were current for the years 1907 through 2013. The shape and location of lakes have been verified directly by means of field measurements performed using the GPS technology with an accuracy class of RTK. An analysis was performed of the location and shape of five lakes. The analysed water regions were vectorised, and their vector images were used to determine quantitative features: the area and length of the shoreline. Information concerning the analysed lakes obtained from the maps was verified on the basis of direct field measurements performed using a GPS RTK receiver. Use was made of georeferential corrections provided by the NAVGEO service or a virtual reference station generated by the ASG EUPOS system. A compilation of cartographic and field data formed the basis for a comparison of the actual area and the length of the shoreline of the studied lakes. Cartographic analyses made it possible to single out the most reliable cartographic sources, which could be used for the purposes of hydrographical analyses. The course of shorelines shows the attached map.
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### Abstrakt

A condition which determines the location of technical infrastructure is an entrepreneur holding the right to use the property for construction purposes. Currently, there are parallel separate legal forms allowing the use of a real property for the purpose of locating transmission lines, i.e. transmission easement (right-of-way) established under the civil law and expropriation by limiting the rights to a property under the administrative law. The aim of the study is to compare these forms conferring the right to use real properties and to analyze the related surveying and legal problems occurring in practice. The research thesis of the article is ascertainment that the current legal provisions for establishing legal titles to a property in order to locate transmission lines need to be amended. The conducted study regarded legal conditions, extent of expropriation and granting right- of-way in the city of Krakow, as well as the problems associated with the ambiguous wording of the legal regulations. Part of the research was devoted to the form of rights to land in order to carry out similar projects in some European countries (France, Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden). The justification for the analysis of these issues is dictated by the scale of practical use of the aforementioned forms of rights to land in order to locate technical infrastructure. Over the period of 2011-2014, 651 agreements were concluded on granting transmission right-of-way for 967 cadastral parcels owned by the city of Krakow, and 105 expropriation decisions were issued, limiting the use of real properties in Krakow.
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### Abstrakt

One of the important issues concerning development of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) is the carrying out of economic and financial analysis. It is essential to determine expenses and also assess effects resulting from the development and use of infrastructures. Costs and benefits assessment could be associated with assessment of the infrastructure effectiveness and efficiency as well as the infrastructure value, understood as the infrastructure impact on economic aspects of an organisational performance, both of an organisation which realises an SDI project and all users of the infrastructure. The aim of this paper is an overview of various assessment methods of investment as well as an analysis of different types of costs and benefits used for information technology (IT) projects. Based on the literature, the analysis of the examples of the use of these methods in the area of spatial data infrastructures is also presented. Furthermore, the issues of SDI projects and investments are outlined. The results of the analysis indicate usefulness of the financial methods from different fields of management in the area of SDI building, development and use. The author proposes, in addition to the financial methods, the adaptation of the various techniques used for IT investments and their development, taking into consideration the SDI specificity for the purpose of assessment of different types of costs and benefits and integration of financial aspects with non- financial ones. Among the challenges are identification and quantification of costs and benefits, as well as establishing measures which would fit the characteristics of the SDI project and artefacts resulting from the project realisation. Moreover, aspects of subjectivity and variability in time should be taken into account as the consequences of definite goals and policies as well as business context of organisation undertaking the project or using its artefacts and also investors.
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### Redakcja

Editor-in-Chief
Elżbieta Bielecka, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland

Aleksandra Bujakiewicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Beata Medynska-Gulij, Adam Mickiewicz University (UAM), Poland
Edward Osada, University of Lower Silesia, Poland
Jan Krynski, Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (IGiK), Poland
Jerzy Rogowski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Zbigniew Wisniewski, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (UWM), Poland
Josef Adam, University of Technology and Economics, Hungary
Dorota Grejner-Brzezińska, The Ohio State University, USA
Jaakko Makinen, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Finland
Helmut Moritz, Graz University of Technology, Austria
Heinz Ruther, University of Cape Town, RSA
Michael Sideris, University of Calgary, Canada
Gabriel Strykowski, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Jaroslaw S. Yatskiv, Main Astronomical Observatory, Ukraine

Editors
Statistical
Pawel Kamiński, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland

Technical Editors
Karolina Krawczyk, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland
Krzysztof Bielecki, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland

### Kontakt

Editor-in-Chief
Elżbieta Bielecka
e-mail:
ebielecka@wat.edu.pl
gik@igik.edu.pl

### Instrukcje dla autorów

GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY is a semiannually journal publishing peer-reviewed articles with original solutions of theoretical, experimental or applicable problems in the field of geodesy, surveying engineering, cartography, photogrammetry and related disciplines. Besides original research papers, the journal includes commissioned review papers on topical subjects and special issues arising from chosen scientific symposia or workshops.
Legal requirements
The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners, that the rights of the third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Manuscript submission
Submission of the manuscript implies: that the work has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as a part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.
Articles should be submitted on line www.editorialsystem.com/geocart/
In case the manuscript has more than one author its submission should include the list specifying contribution of each author to the manuscript with indicating who is the author of the concept, assumptions, research methodology, data processing. Major responsibility is of the author submitting the manuscript.
The Editor will counteract in GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY against Ghostwriting, i.e. when someone substantially contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but has neither been included to the list of authors nor his role is mentioned in the acknowledgements as well as Ghost authorship, i.e. when the author/co-author did not contribute to the manuscript or his contribution is negligible. Any detected case of Ghostwriting and Ghost authorship will be exposed and the appropriate subjects, i.e. employers, scientific organisations, associations of editors etc, will be informed.
Electronic submission of a manuscript
Use the template to format your paper.

Layout guidelines:- use a normal, plain Times Roman font for text, italics for textual emphasis, bold for mathematical vectors,
- use the table functions of your word processing program, not spreadsheets, to make tables,
- use the equation editor of your word processing program for equations,
- place all figures with figure legends and tables with table legends in the manuscript,
- submit also all figures as separate files.
Data format:
Save your manuscript in RTF or DOC Microsoft Word for Windows format.
Illustrations:
Figures should be provided in the vector graphics or JPG or TIF (specifically for halftone illustrations) formats will be accepted. The filename should include the figure number. Figure legends should be included in the text and not in the figure file. Scanned line drawings should be digitised with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi relative to the final figure size. For digital halftones, 300 dpi is usually sufficient. Non-standard fonts used in the vector graphics must be included. Please do not draw with hairlines. The minimum line width is 0.2 mm (0.567 pt) relative to the final size.
Manuscript preparation
Manuscripts should be typed in single-line spacing throughout on the A4 sheet with 2.5 cm margins .
1. Title page:
- a concise and informative title
- the name(s) of the author(s)
- the name(s) and address(es) of the affiliation(s) of the author(s)
- the e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the communicating author
2. Abstract: the paper must be preceded by a sufficiently informative abstract presenting the most important results and conclusions.
3. Keywords: three to five keywords should be supplied.
4. Introduction: should state the purpose of the investigation and give a short review of the pertinent literature.
5. Main text: including method and input data (working details must be given concisely; well-known operations should not be described in detail); results presented in tabular or graph form, with appropriate statistical evaluation, discussion of results - statement of conclusions drawn from the work, conclusions.
6. Acknowledgements: should be brief and consist of grant or individuals that require acknowledgement.
The names of funding organizations or institutions providing data should be given in full.
7. References: the list of references should be in alphabetical order and should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications could only be mentioned in the text. References should consist of the complete list of authors and should be given in the following form:
In the text, references should be cited by author(s) last name and year: e.g. (Beutler, 2003a), (Featherstone and Kirby, 2000), (Schwarz et al., 1990), (Sjöberg et al., 2000; Strykowski, 2001b; 2002).
8. Formulae and symbols: must be written legibly and will be typeset in italics. One-layer indexing is preferable. Numbering of formulae, if necessary should be given in brackets fitted to the right margin.
9. Footnotes: to the text should be numbered consecutively and placed on the bottom of the page to which they refer. Footnotes to the tables should be indicated by superscript lowercase letters.
10. Illustrations and tables: all figures (photographs, graphs or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text and each numbered consecutively throughout. Lowercase roman letters should identify figure parts. Figure legends must be brief and must contain self-sufficient explanations of the illustrations. Each table should have a title and a legend explaining any abbreviation used in that table.
11. Units: SI units must be used.
12. Running head: consisting of at most 60 characters a concise banner representing the title of the article must be submitted by the author(s).
Proofreading is the responsibility of the author. Corrections should be clear; standard correction marks should be used. Corrections that lead to a change in the page layout should be avoided. The author is entitled to formal corrections only. Substantial changes in content, e.g. new results, corrected values, title and authorship are not allowed without the approval of the editor. In such case please contact the Editor-in-chief before returning the proofs.
References formatting
a. Journal Article (one author)
Nikora, V. (2006). Hydrodynamics of aquatic ecosystems: spatial-averaging perspective. Acta Geophysica, 55(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-006-0043-6.
b. Journal Article (two or more authors)
Cudak, M. and Karcz J. (2006). Momentum transfer in an agitated vessel with off-centred impellers. Chem. Pap. 60(5), 375-380. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-006-0068-y.
c. Journal article from an online database
Czajgucki Z., Zimecki M. & Andruszkiewicz R. (2006, December). The immunoregulatory effects of edeine analogues in mice [Abstract]. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12(3), 149-161. Retrieved December 6.
d. Book (one author)
Baxter, R. (1982). Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Academic Press.
e. Book (two or more authors)
Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. and Tansey R.G. (2001). Gardner’s art through the ages (11th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Harcourt College Publishers.
f. Book chapter or article in an edited book
Roll, W.P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley and H.L. Edge (Eds.), Philosophical dimensions of parapsychology (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press.
g. Proceedings from a conference
Field, G. (2001). Rethinking reference rethought. In Revelling in Reference: Reference and Information Services Section Symposium, 12-14 October 2001 (pp. 59-64). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Library and Information Association.
h. ebook
Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink http://springerlink.com/content/w25154. DOI: 10.1007/b138965.
i. Report
Osgood, D. W., and Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS).
j. Government publication
Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. (1997). The national drug strategy: Mapping the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

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