Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

Content

Polish Polar Research | 2017 | No 2 |

Abstract

It is generally accepted that ice cores archive amount-weighted water stable isotope signals. In order to achieve an improved understanding of the nature of water stable isotope signals stored in ice cores annual δ18O and δ2H averages (i.e. amount-weighted) were calculated for two Antarctic meteorological stations, Vernadsky and Hal-ley Bay, using monthly precipitation amount and monthly net accumulation as weights, respectively. These were then compared with the annual mean δ18O δ2H and records of the nearest available ice cores. In addition, at the stations, both arithmetic means (i.e. time-weighted) and amount-weighted (precipitation amount and net accumulation used as weights) annual air temperature averages were calculated and then compared to amount weighted annual mean δ18O and δ2H using correlation- and regression analyses. The main hypothesis was that amount weighted annual mean water isotope and temperature records from the stations would be able to replicate the annual water isotope signal stored in ice cores to a higher degree. Results showed that (i) amount weighting is incapable of ameliorating the signal replication between the stations and the ice cores, while arithmetic means gave the stronger linear relationships; (ii) post depositional processes may have a more determining effect on the isotopic composition of the firn than expected; and (iii) mean annual air temperature provided the closest match to ice core derived annual water isotope records. This latter conveys a similar message to that of recent findings, in as much as ambient temperature, via equilibrium isotope fractionation, is imprinted into the uppermost snow layer by vapor exchange even between precipitation events. Together, these observations imply that ice core stable water isotope records can be a more continuous archive of near-surface temperature changes than hitherto believed.
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Abstract

Soils of Russian European North were investigated in terms of stability and quality of organic matter as well as in terms of soils organic matter elemental composi-tion. Therefore, soil humic acids (HAs), extracted from soils of different natural zones of Russian North-East were studied to characterize the degree of soil organic matter stabilization along a zonal gradient. HAs were extracted from soil of different zonal environments of the Komi Republic: south, middle and north taiga as well as south tundra. Data on elemental composition of humic acids and fulvic acids (FAs) extracted from different soil types were obtained to assess humus formation mechanisms in the soils of taiga and tundra of the European North-East of Russia. The specificity of HAs elemental composition are discussed in relation to environmental conditions. The higher moisture degree of taiga soils results in the higher H/C ratio in humic substances. This reflects the reduced microbiologic activity in Albeluvisols sods and subsequent conser-vation of carbohydrate and amino acid fragments in HAs. HAs of tundra soils, shows the H/C values decreasing within the depth of the soils, which reflects increasing of aromatic compounds in HA structure of mineral soil horizons. FAs were more oxidized and contains less carbon while compared with the HAs. Humic acids, extracted from soil of different polar and boreal environments differ in terms of elemental composition winch reflects the climatic and hydrological regimes of humification.
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Abstract

This paper addresses the influence of land topography and cover on 3D radiative effects under cloudless skies in the Hornsund area, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The authors used Monte Carlo simulations of solar radiation transfer over a heterogeneous surface to study the impact of a non-uniform surface on: (1) the spatial distribution of irradiance transmittance at the fjord surface under cloudless skies; (2) the spectral shortwave aerosol radiative forcing at the fjord surface; (3) normalized nadir radiance at the Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA) over the fjord. The modelled transmittances and radiances over the fjord are compared to the transmittances and radiances over the open ocean under the same conditions. The dependence of the 3D radiative effects on aerosol optical thickness, aerosol type, surface albedo distribution, solar azimuth and zenith angle and spectral channel is discussed. The analysis was done for channels 3 (459-479 nm) and 2 (841-876 nm) of the MODIS radiometer. In the simulations a flat water surface was assumed. The study shows that snow-covered land surrounding the fjord strongly modifies the radiation environment over the fjord surface. The enhancement of the mean irradiance transmittance over the fjord with respect to the open ocean is up to 0.06 for channel 3. The enhancement exceeds 0.11 in the vicinity of sunlit cliffs. The influence of the snow-covered land on the TOA radiance over the fjord in channel 3 is comparable to the impact of an increase in aerosol optical thickness of over 100%, and in lateral fjords of up to several hundred percent. The increase in TOA radiance is wavelength dependent. These effects may affect retrievals of aerosol optical thickness.
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Abstract

Lacydonia (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida) is a poorly known genus containing 16 species that are sporadically collected in low densities all over the world oceans. During three cruises (in June 2014 in Ullsfjorden, northern Norway, in January 2015 in Kongsfjorden, and in June 2012 in Smeerenburg, Svalbard) nine specimens of Lacydonia eliasoni were found on sandy and muddy sediments at depths from 180 to 350 m. All specimens were incomplete and consisted of 10 to 29 chaetigers. This study presents the first record of the Lacydonia genus in the waters of Svalbard as well as the first record of L. eliasoni in coastal waters off northern Norway. This species has been reported previously in the Skagerrak and Trondheimsfjorden (southern Norway), our findings therefore may indicate a northward extension of its range, possibly due to climate changes.
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Abstract

Plants adapt to extremely low temperatures in polar regions by maximizing their photosynthetic efficiency and accumulating cryoprotective and osmoprotective compounds. Flowering plants of the family Poaceae growing in the Arctic and in the Antarctic were investigated. Their responses to cold stress were analyzed under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected after 24 h and 48 h of cold treatment. Quantitative and qualitative changes of sugars are found among different species, but they can differ within a genus of the family Poaceae. The values of the investigated parameters in Poa annua differed considerably depending to the biogeographic origin of plants. At the beginning of the experiment, Antarctic plants were acclimatized in greenhouse characterized by significantly higher content of sugars, including storage reserves, sucrose and starch, but lower total protein content. After 24 h of exposure to cold stress, much smaller changes in the examined parameters were noted in Antarctic plants than in locally grown specimens. Total sugar content and sucrose, starch and glucose levels were nearly constant in P. annua, but they varied significantly. Those changes are responsible for the high adaptability of P. annua to survive and develop in highly unsupportive environments and colonize new regions.
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Abstract

The identification of macroalgal beds is a crucial component for the description of fjord ecosystems. Direct, biological sampling is still the most popular investigation technique but acoustic methods are becoming increasingly recognized as a very efficient tool for the assessment of benthic communities. In 2007 we carried out the first acoustic survey of the littoral areas in Kongsfjorden. A 2.68 km2 area comprised within a 12.40 km2 euphotic zone was mapped along the fjord's coast using single- and multi-beam echosounders. The singlebeam echosounder (SBES) proved to be a very efficient and reliable tool for macroalgae detection in Arctic conditions. The multibeam echosounder (MBES) was very useful in extending the SBES survey range, even though it's ability in discriminating benthic communities was limited. The final result of our investigation is a map of the macroalgae distribution around the fjord, showing 39% macroalgae coverage (1.09 km2) of investigated area between isobaths -0.70 m and -30 m. Zonation analysis showed that most of the studied macroalgae areas occur up to 15 m depth (93%). These results were confirmed by biological sampling and observation in key areas. The potential of acoustic imaging of macrophytes, and a proposed methodology for the processing of acoustic data, are presented in this paper along with preliminary studies on the acoustic reflectivity of macroalgae, also highlighting differences among species. These results can be applied to future monitoring of the evolution of kelp beds in different areas of the Arctic, and in the rest of the world.
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Abstract

The paper summarizes results of twenty years of seabird observations carried out between 1977 and 1996 on the western shore of Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctic). Changes in population size, distribution and phenology of the breeding species as well as the appearance of non-breeding species are reported. A total of 34 species of birds were observed, including 13 breeding species. Among the non-breeding species, four were observed to visit the site regularly, six rarely, and the remaining 11 were observed only occasionally. Among breeding populations, three Pygoscelis penguin species, the main krill consumers, were most numerous. The Adélie Penguin (P. adeliae) dominated among the penguins nesting in the investigated areas, reaching 23,661 breeding pairs in 1978. Two other penguin species were less abundant with population sizes of approximately 7,200 breeding pairs for the Chinstrap Penguin (P. antarcticus) and 3,100 breeding pairs for the Gentoo Penguin (P. papua) in the same year. During the following two decades, breeding populations of pygoscelid species experienced a declining trend and their numbers were reduced by 68.0% for Chinstrap, 67.1% for Gentoo, and 33.9% for Adélie Penguins. The data reported here represent a unique reference basis and provide valuable information about indicator species, suitable for comparison with contemporary observations of bird populations in the Antarctic Peninsula region, a place of rapidly occurring climate changes and intensive harvesting of marine living resources.
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Editorial office

Editors-in-Chief

Magdalena BŁAŻEWICZ (Life Sciences), University of Łódź, Poland
e-mail: magdalena.blazewicz@biol.uni.lodz.pl
Wojciech MAJEWSKI (Geosciences), Institute of Paleobiology PAS, Poland
e-mail: wmaj@twarda.pan.pl

Associate Editors
Krzysztof HRYNIEWICZ (Warszawa),
e-mail:krzyszth@twarda.pan.pl
Piotr JADWISZCZAK (Białystok),
e-mail: piotrj@uwb.edu.pl
Piotr Pabis (Łódź),
e-mail: cataclysta@wp.pl
Krzysztof Jażdżewski (Łódź),
e-mail: krzysztof.jazdzewski@biol.uni.lodz.pl

Editorial Advisory Board
Krzysztof BIRKENMAJER (Kraków),
Angelika BRANDT (Hamburg),
Claude DE BROYER (Bruxelles),
Peter CONVEY (Cambridge, UK),
J. Alistair CRAME (Cambridge, UK),
Rodney M. FELDMANN (Kent, OH),
Jane E. FRANCIS (Cambridge, UK),
Marek GRAD (Warszawa),
Aleksander GUTERCH (Warszawa),
Jacek JANIA (Sosnowiec),
Jiří KOMÁREK (Třeboň),
Wiesława KRAWCZYK (Sosnowiec),
German L. LEITCHENKOV (Sankt Petersburg),
Jerónimo LÓPEZ-MARTINEZ (Madrid),
Sergio A. MARENSSI (Buenos Aires),
Jerzy NAWROCKI (Warszawa),
Ryszard OCHYRA (Kraków),
Maria OLECH (Kraków) - President,
Sandra PASSCHIER (Montclair, NJ),
Jan PAWŁOWSKI (Genève),
Gerhard SCHMIEDL (Hamburg),
Jacek SICIŃSKI (Łódź),
Michael STODDART (Hobart),
Witold SZCZUCIŃSKI (Poznań),
Andrzej TATUR (Warszawa),
Wim VADER (Tromsø),
Tony R. WALKER (Halifax, Nova Scotia),
Jan Marcin WĘSŁAWSKI (Sopot)

Technical Editors
Dom Wydawniczy ELIPSA, ul. Inflancka 15/198, 00-189 Warszawa, tel./fax 22 635 03 01, 22 635 17 85

 

Contact

Geosciences
Wojciech MAJEWSKI
e-mail: wmaj@twarda.pan.pl
phone: (48 22) 697 88 53

Instytut Paleobiologii
Polska Akademia Nauk
ul. Twarda 51/55
00-818 Warszawa, POLAND

Life Sciences
Magdalena BŁAŻEWICZ
e-mail: magdalena.blazewicz@biol.uni.lodz.pl
phone: (48 22) 635 42 97

Zakład Biologii Polarnej i Oceanobiologii Uniwersytet Łódzki
ul. S. Banacha 12/16
90-237 Łódź, POLAND

Instructions for authors

Instructions for authors

The quarterly Polish Polar Research invites original scientific papers, dealing with all aspects of polar research. The journal aims to provide a forum for publication of high quality research papers, which are of international interest.

Articles must be written in English. Authors are requested to have their manuscript read by a person fluent in English before submission. They should be not longer than 30 typescript pages, including tables, figures and references. All papers are peer-reviewed. With the submitted manuscript authors should provide the names, addresses and e-mail addresses of three suggested reviewers.

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously nor is under consideration by another journal.

The contribution should be submitted as Word file. It should be prepared in single-column double-spaced format and 25 mm margins. Consult a recent issue of the journal for layout and conventions (http://www.versita.com/ppr). Prepare figures and tables as separate files. For computer-generated graphics, editor Corel Draw is preferred. Line art images should be scanned and saved as bitmap (black and white) images at a resolution of 600–1200 dpi and tightly cropped. Computer versions of the photographs should be saved in TIFF format of at least 400 dpi (non-interpolated). Maximal publication size of illustrations is 126 × 196 mm. The cost of color reproduction in print is EUR 80 per page, or equivalent in any convertible curency. Color artwork in PDF is free of charge.

Title should be concise and informative, no longer than 15 words. Abstract should have no more than 250 words. The authors are requested to supply up to 5 keywords. The references should be arranged alphabetically and chronologically. Journal names should not be abbreviated. Please, ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list and vice versa. Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors. References in the text to papers should consist of the surname of the author(s) followed by the year of publication. More than two authors should be cited with the first author’s surname, followed by et al. (Dingle et al. 1998) but in full in the References.

 

Examples:
ANDERSON J.B. 1999. Antarctic Marine Geology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 289 pp.
BIRKENMAJER K. 1991. Tertiary glaciation in the South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica: evaluation of data. In: M.R.A. Thomson, J.A. Crame and J.W. Thomson (eds) Geological Evolution of Antarctica. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 629–632.
DINGLE S.A., MARENSSI S.A. and LAVELLE M. 1998. High latitude Eocene climate deterioration: evidence from the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 11: 571–579.
SEDOV R.V. 1997. Glaciers of the Chukotka. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskikh Issledovaniy 82: 213–217 (in Russian).
SOBOTA I. and GRZEŚ M. 2006. Characteristic of snow cover on Kaffi oyra’s glaciers, NW Spitsbergen in 2005. Problemy Klimatologii Polarnej 16: 147–159 (in Polish).

 

The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

 

Twenty-five reprints of each article published are supplied free of charge. Additional charged reprints can be ordered.

 

Please submit your manuscripts to Polish Polar Research via email to Editors-in-Chief:

Magdalena BŁAŻEWICZ (Life Sciences) magdalena.blazewicz@biol.uni.lodz.pl

Wojciech MAJEWSKI (Geosciences) wmaj@twarda.pan.pl

 

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Technical Editors

Dom Wydawniczy ELIPSA, ul. Inflancka 15/198, 00-189 Warszawa, tel./fax 22 635 03 01, 22 635 17 85

 

Contact:

 

Geosciences

Wojciech MAJEWSKI

e-mail: wmaj@twarda.pan.pl

phone: (48 22) 697 88 53

Instytut Paleobiologii

Polska Akademia Nauk

ul. Twarda 51/55

00-818 Warszawa, POLAND

 

Life Sciences

Magdalena BŁAŻEWICZ

e-mail: magdalena.blazewicz@biol.uni.lodz.pl

phone: (48 22) 635 42 97

Zakład Biologii Polarnej i Oceanobiologii Uniwersytet Łódzki

ul. S. Banacha 12/16

90-237 Łódź, POLAND

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