Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Acoustics

Zawartość

Archives of Acoustics | 2016 | vol. 41 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

Historic interiors with large cubature, such as reception, theatrical, and concert halls, need to be renovated periodically if they are to be preserved as cultural heritage for future generations. In such cases it is necessary to maintain appropriate balance between requirements imposed by heritage conservation authorities office which are usually being given a higher priority, applicable safety regulations, and the comfort of use, including good acoustics. The paper is a presentation of architectural interference in three historic interiors with large cubature leading to changes in their acoustic qualities. In two cases, the changes were beneficial to the functional qualities of the halls to satisfaction of the investors carrying out the renovation work. In the third instance, the architectural interference aimed at showing off the monumental valor of the interior resulted in significant degradation of its acoustics. To remedy the situation impairing the functional program of the facility, corrective measures are proposed neutral with respect to its historic character.
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Abstrakt

The paper presents the research studies carried out on the reverberation time of rooms, in terms of theoretical aspects and applicability potentials. Over the last century a very large number of scientists have been attempting to work out models describing the reverberation time in enclosed rooms. They have also been trying to apply these models for the description of various acoustic parameters of the interior, i.e. the intelligibility of speech, clarity, articulation, etc. In fact, all these models are based on the Sabine’s statistical method. The paper presents the work of the scientists working on this problem, together with prospective applicability potentials. Such a review may be helpful for researchers, designers or architects involved in the discussed subject.
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Abstrakt

A theoretical method has been presented to describe sound decay in building enclosures and to simulate the room impulse response (RIR) employed for prediction of the indoor reverberation characteristics. The method was based on a solution of wave equation having the form of a series whose time-decaying components represent responses of acoustic modes to an impulse sound source. For small sound absorption on room walls this solution was found by means of the method of variation of parameters. A decay function was computed via the time-reverse integration of the squared RIR. Computer simulations carried out for a rectangular enclosure have proved that the RIR function reproduces the structure of a sound field in the initial stage of sound decay suffciently well. They have also shown that band-limitedness of the RIR has evident influence on the shape of the decay function and predicted decay times.
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Abstrakt

Most researchers have explored noise reduction effects based on the transfer matrix method and the boundary element method. However, maximum noise reduction of a plenum within a constrained space, which frequently occurs in engineering problems, has been neglected. Therefore, the optimum design of multi-chamber plenums becomes essential. In this paper, two kinds of multi-chamber plenums (Case I: a two-chamber plenum that is partitioned with a centre-opening baffle; Case II: a three-chamber plenum that is partitioned with two centre-opening baffles) within a fixed space are assessed. In order to speed up the assessment of optimal plenums hybridized with multiple partitioned baffles, a simplified objective function (OBJ) is established by linking the boundary element model (BEM, developed using SYSNOISE) with a polynomial neural network fit with a series of real data – input design data (baffle dimensions) and output data approximated by BEM data in advance. To assess optimal plenums, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied. The results reveal that the maximum value of the transmission loss (TL) can be improved at the desired frequencies. Consequently, the algorithm proposed in this study can provide an efficient way to develop optimal multi-chamber plenums for industry.
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Abstrakt

Longitudinal and shear ultrasonic wave velocities were measured versus temperature in the viscosity standards of Paragon S8000S, N30000S and Cannon N2700000. The measurements were performed by the through-transmission method at the frequency of 2 MHz. Ultrasonic pulses were sent via polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) waveguides between the tips of which a small amount of the particular standard liquid was placed. The velocities of longitudinal and shear waves were determined to depend on the viscosity of the liquid and increase with the viscosity.
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Abstrakt

The nonlinearity parameter B/A, internal pressure, and acoustic impedance are calculated for a room temperature ionic liquid, i.e. for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide for temperatures from (288.15 to 318.15) K and pressures up to 100 MPa. The B/A calculations are made by means of a thermodynamic method. The decrease of B/A values with the increasing pressure is observed. At the same time B/A is temperature independent in the range studied. The results are compared with corresponding data for organic molecular liquids. The isotherms of internal pressure cross at pressure in the vicinity of 70 MPa, i.e. in this range the internal pressure is temperature independent.
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Abstrakt

The distribution of perturbations of pressure and velocity in a rectangular resonator is considered. A resonator contains a gas where thermodynamic processes take place, such as exothermic chemical reaction or excitation of vibrational degrees of a molecule’s freedom. These processes make the gas acoustically active under some conditions. We conclude that the incident and reflected compounds of a sound beam do not interact in the leading order in the case of the periodic sound with zero mean pressure including waveforms with discontinuities. The acoustic field before and after forming of discontinuities is described. The acoustic heating or cooling in a resonator is discussed.
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Abstrakt

A rigorous analysis of sound radiation by a pulsating sphere forming a resonator together with a semi-spherical cavity is presented. Both hard/soft boundaries are considered, as well as mixed. The problem is solved by dividing the entire region into two subregions, one surrounding the sphere and containing the cavity and the other for the remaining half-space. Continuity conditions are applied to obtain the acoustic pressure. Then the acoustic radiation resistance is calculated both in the near- and far-field. The acoustic radiation reactance is calculated in the impedance approach. The resonance frequencies are determined, for which a significant growth of the sound pressure level is observed as well as the sound field directivity. These rigorous results are presented in the form of highly convergent, accurate and numerically efficient series.
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Abstrakt

This work focuses on finding a numerical solution for vehicle acoustic studies and improving the usefulness of the numerical experimental parameters for the development stage of a new automotive project. Specifically, this research addresses the importance of modal cavity damping for vehicle exerts during numerical studies. It then seeks to suggest standardized parameter values of modal cavity damping in vehicular acoustic studies. The standardized value of modal cavity damping is of great importance for the study of vehicular acoustics in the automotive industry because it would allow the industry to begin studies of the acoustic performance of a new vehicle early in the conception phase with a reliable estimation that would be close to the final value measured in the design phase. It is common for the automotive industry to achieve good levels of numerical-experimental correlation in acoustic studies after the prototyping phase because this phase can be studied with feedback from the simulation and experimental modal parameters. Thus, this research suggests values for modal cavity damping, which are divided into two parts due to their behaviour: ξ(x) = -0.0126(x − 100) + 6.15 as a variable function to analyse up to 100 Hz and 6.15% of modal cavity damping constant for studies between 30 Hz and 100 Hz. The sequence of this study shows how we arrived at these values.
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Abstrakt

Urethane foam mattresses are commonly used as cushioning when placing panel flooring on the floor slab of a building. Urethane foam consists of elastic fibres with pores. Both elements can affect the performance of the insulation against impact sounds. However, these effects have not yet been detailed, and they may change if the material properties or constitution of the fibres and pores in the cushioning change. In this paper, we propose an analytical model for use in evaluating the performance of insulation against floor impact sound. This model was used to examine the contribution of the pores versus the elastic fibres to wave transmissions from the flooring surface to the slab. The results reveal that the constitution of the foam (either open or closed cells of pores) and the thickness and hardness of the cushion layer strongly affect the sound insulation performance of the floor.
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Abstrakt

The same speech sounds (phones) produced by different speakers can sometimes exhibit significant differences. Therefore, it is essential to use algorithms compensating these differences in ASR systems. Speaker clustering is an attractive solution to the compensation problem, as it does not require long utterances or high computational effort at the recognition stage. The report proposes a clustering method based solely on adaptation of UBM model weights. This solution has turned out to be effective even when using a very short utterance. The obtained improvement of frame recognition quality measured by means of frame error rate is over 5%. It is noteworthy that this improvement concerns all vowels, even though the clustering discussed in this report was based only on the phoneme a. This indicates a strong correlation between the articulation of different vowels, which is probably related to the size of the vocal tract.
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Abstrakt

The paper is an exploration of the optimal design parameters of a space-constrained electromagnetic vibration-based generator. An electromagnetic energy harvester is composed of a coiled polyoxymethylen circular shell, a cylindrical NdFeB magnet, and a pair of helical springs. The magnet is vertically confined between the helical springs that serve as a vibrator. The electrical power connected to the coil is actuated when the energy harvester is vibrated by an external force causing the vibrator to periodically move through the coil. The primary factors of the electrical power generated from the energy harvester include a magnet, a spring, a coil, an excited frequency, an excited amplitude, and a design space. In order to obtain maximal electrical power during the excitation period, it is necessary to set the system’s natural frequency equal to the external forcing frequency. There are ten design factors of the energy harvester including the magnet diameter (Dm), the magnet height (Hm), the system damping ratio (ζsys), the spring diameter (Ds), the diameter of the spring wire (ds), the spring length (ℓs), the pitch of the spring (ps), the spring’s number of revolutions (Ns), the coil diameter (Dc), the diameter of the coil wire (dc), and the coil’s number of revolutions (Nc). Because of the mutual effects of the above factors, searching for the appropriate design parameters within a constrained space is complicated. Concerning their geometric allocation, the above ten design parameters are reduced to four (Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc). In order to search for optimal electrical power, the objective function of the electrical power is maximized by adjusting the four design parameters (Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc) via the simulated annealing method. Consequently, the optimal design parameters of Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc that produce maximum electrical power for an electromagnetic energy harvester are found.
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Słowa kluczowe: noise propagation

Abstrakt

Transportation noise is a main source of noise pollution. It is assumed that it consists of recognizable noise events which come from moving aircrafts, trains and boats. The noise of an isolated sound event is assessed by the sound exposure level, LAE. Much legislation and many regulations and guidelines employ the A-weighted time-average sound level, LAeq,T, with the time interval T of one hour or longer. LAE measurements enable an approximation of LAeq,T. The key point is the uncertainty of this approximation. It has been shown that an increase in the number of LAE categories brings about a decrease in uncertainty. For illustrative purposes, LAE measurements of aircrafts taking off and landing were carried out.
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Abstrakt

The aim of this paper is to present methods of digitally synthesising the sound generated by vibroacoustic systems with distributed parameters. A general algorithm was developed to synthesise the sounds of selected musical instruments with an axisymmetrical shape and impact excitation, i.e., Tibetan bowls and bells. A coupled mechanical-acoustic field described by partial differential equations was discretized by using the Finite Element Method (FEM) implemented in the ANSYS package. The presented synthesis method is original due to the fact that the determination of the system response in the time domain to the pulse (impact) excitation is based on the numerical calculation of the convolution of the forcing function and impulse response of the system. This was calculated as an inverse Fourier transform of the system’s spectral transfer function. The synthesiser allows for obtaining a sound signal with the assumed, expected parameters by tuning the resonance frequencies which exist in the spectrum of the generated sound. This is accomplished, basing on the Design of Experiment (DOE) theory, by creating a meta-model which contains information on its response surfaces regarding the influence of the design parameters. The synthesis resulted in a sound pressure signal in selected points in space surrounding the instrument which is consistent with the signal generated by the actual instruments, and the results obtained can improve them.
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Abstrakt

Low frequency noise is one of the most harmful factors occurring in human working and living environment. Low frequency noise components from 20 to 250 Hz are often the cause of employee complaints. Noise from power stations is an actual problem for large cities, including Cairo. The noise from equipments of station could be a serious problem for station and for environmental area. The development of power stations in Cairo leads to appearing a wide range of gas turbines which are strong source of noise. Two measurement techniques using C-weighted along side the A-weighted scale are explored. C-weighting is far more sensitive to detect low frequency sound. Spectrum analysis in the low frequency range is done in order to identify a significant tonal component. Field studies were supported by a questionnaire to determine whether sociological or other factors might influence the results by using annoyance rating mean value. Subjects included in the study were 153 (mean = 36.86, SD = 8.49) male employees at the three electrical power stations. The (C-A) level difference is an appropriate metric for indicating a potential low frequency noise problem. A-weighting characteristics seem to be able to predict quite accurately annoyance experienced from LFN at workplaces. The aim of the present study is to find simple and reliable method for assessing low frequency noise in occupational environment to prevent its effects on work performance for the workers. The proposed method has to be compared with European methods.
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Abstrakt

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) synthesised chemically usually need the modification of the particle surface. Other natural sources of magnetic particles are various magnetotactic bacteria. Magnetosomes isolated from magnetotactic bacteria are organelles consisting of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) crystals enclosed by a biological membrane. Magnetotactic bacteria produce their magnetic particles in chains. The process of isolation of magnetosome chains from the body of bacteria consists of a series of cycles of centrifugation and magnetic decantation. Using a high-energy ultrasound it is possible to break the magnetosome chains into individual nanoparticles – magnetosomes. This study presents the effect of sonication of magnetosome suspension on their acoustic properties, that is speed and attenuation of the sound. Acoustic propagation parameters are measured using ultrasonic spectroscopy based on FFT spectral analysis of the received pulses. The speed and attenuation of ultrasonic waves in magnetosome suspensions are analysed as a function of frequency, temperature, magnetic field intensity, and the angle between the direction of the wave and the direction of the field.
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Abstrakt

The 16th International Symposium on Sound Engineering and Tonmeistering (ISSET) organized by the Institute of Radioelectronics and Multimedia Technology (Warsaw University of Technology), Department of Sound Engineering (Fryderyk Chopin University of Music) and the Polish Radio, under auspicious of the Polish Section of the Audio Engineering Society was held in Warsaw on October 8-10 in 2015. The main topics of the Symposium covered mostly all domains of audio engineering, i.e. musical acoustics, noise control, signal processing, room acoustics, radio and television, multimedia, sound engineering and tonmeistering, perception and quality assessment, and many others. The extra attention has been paid for the problems of loudness of audio programs in radio and TV broadcasting. Over 60 people from different branches of audio technology participated in this Symposium and shared their knowledge and experiences during the paper sessions, technical tours, workshops and special presentations. The selection of abstracts of the papers presented at the ISSET’2015 are inserted below.
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Abstrakt

On behalf of Upper Silesian Division of the Polish Acoustical Society (main organizer) and Committee of Acoustics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (co-organizer) we are pleased to announce that it is nearing the end of preparations for the conduct traditionally organized Conferences, which will take place as previously in Szczyrk. At the moment, more than 50 people have confirmed participation in Conferences. They will present more than 40 lectures and reports. 45th Winter School on Wave and Quantum Acoustics constitutes a platform for sharing the results and achievements obtained in different branches of physical acoustics (e.g. molecular acoustics, quantum acoustics, acousto-optics, magnetoacoustics, photoacoustics, acoustics of solid state etc.). Moreover, researches in some selected topics related to those mentioned above (e.g. optoelectronics, relaxation processes) will also be presented during the school. Currently, during the Conference Workshop on Acoustoelectronics and Workshop on Molecular Acoustics, Relaxation and Calorimetric Methods will be held – however, there is a possibility of organizing workshops on other subjects in the future. We would like to invite scientific centers and groups to cooperate in organizing workshops on the subjects of their interests. XLIVth Winter School on Environmental Acoustics and Vibroacoustics is the forum for all environmental and vibroacoustics fields. Particularly it concerns traffic noise, vibroacoustics of machines, room acoustics, building acoustics, noise protection and similar problems.
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Redakcja

Editorial Board
Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej Nowicki (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Barbara Gambin (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Associate Editors
Genaral linear acoustics and physical acoustics
• Wojciech P. Rdzanek (University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów)
• Anna Snakowska (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Architectural acoustics
• Tadeusz Kamisiński (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Musical acoustics and psychological acoustics
• Andrzej Miśkiewicz (The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music, Warszawa)
• Anna Preis (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)
Underwater acoustics and nonlinear acoustics
• Grażyna Grelowska (Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk)
Speech, Computational acoustics and signal processing
• Ryszard Gubrynowicz (Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Warszawa)
Ultrasonics, transducers and instrumentation
• Krzysztof Opieliński (Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław)
Electroacoustics
• Jan Żera (Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa)
Noise control and environmental acoustics
• Jan Adamczyk (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
• Mirosław Meissner (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
• Janusz Kompała (Central Mining Institute, Katowice)
Secretary
• Izabela Ewa Mika

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• Manuscripts intended for publication in Archives of Acoustics should be submitted in pdf format by an on-line procedure.
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