Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2018 | vol. 67 | No 3 |


Both the growing number of dispersed generation plants and storage systems

and the new roles and functions on the demand side (e.g. demand side management) are

making the operation (monitoring and control) of electrical grids more complex, especially

in distribution. This paper demonstrates how to integrate phasor measurements so that

state estimation in a distribution grid profits optimally from the high accuracy of PMUs.

Different measurement configurations consisting of conventional and synchronous mea-

surement units, each with different fault tolerances for the quality of the calculated system

state achieved, are analyzed and compared. Weighted least squares (WLS) algorithms for

conventional, linear and hybrid state estimation provide the mathematical method used in

this paper. A case study of an 18-bus test grid with real measured PMU data from a 110 kV

distribution grid demonstrates the improving of the system’s state variable’s quality by

using synchrophasors. The increased requirements, which are the prerequisite for the use

of PMUs in the distribution grid, are identified by extensively analyzing the inaccuracy of

measurement and subsequently employed to weight the measured quantities.

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Wind energy has achieved prominence in renewable energy production. There fore, it is necessary to develop a diagnosis system and fault-tolerant control to protect the system and to prevent unscheduled shutdowns. The presented study aims to provide an experimental analysis of a speed sensor fault by hybrid active fault-tolerant control (AFTC) for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The hybrid AFTC switches between a traditional controller based on proportional integral (PI) controllers under normal conditions and a robust backstepping controller system without a speed sensor to avoid any deterioration caused by the sensor fault. A sliding mode observer is used to estimate the PMSG rotor position. The proposed controller architecture can be designed for performance and robustness separately. Finally, the proposed methodwas successfully tested in an experimental set up using a dSPACE 1104 platform. In this experimental system, the wind turbine with a generator connection via a mechanical gear is emulated by a PMSM engine with controled speed through a voltage inverter. The obtained experimental results show clearly that the proposed method is able to guarantee service production continuity for the WECS in adequate transition.

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The optimal energy management (OEM) in a stand-alone microgrid (SMG) is a challenging job because of uncertain and intermittent behavior of clean energy sources (CESs) such as a photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine (WT). This paper presents the effective role of battery energy storage (BES) in optimal scheduling of generation sources to fulfill the load demand in an SMG under the intermittency of theWT and PV power. The OEM is performed by minimizing the operational cost of the SMG for the chosen moderate weather profile using an artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) in four different cases, i.e. without the BES and with the BES having a various level of initial capacity. The results show the efficient role of the BES in keeping the reliability of the SMG with the reduction in carbon-emissions and uncertainty of the CES power. Also, prove that the ABC provides better cost values compared to particle swarm optimization (PSO) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Further, the robustness of system reliability using the BES is tested for the mean data of the considered weather profile.

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Mitigation of electromagnetic inference (EMI) is currently a challenge for scientists and designers in order to cope with electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) compliance in switching mode power supply (SMPS) and ensure the reliability of the whole system. Standard filtering techniques: passive and active ones present some insufficiency in terms of performance at high frequencies (HF) because analog components would no longer be controllable and this is mainly due to their parasitic elements. So developing EMI digital filters is very interesting, especially with the embedment of a machine control system on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. In this paper, we present a design of an active digital EMI filter (ADF) to be integrated in a drive train system of an electric vehicle (EV). Hardware design as well as FPGA implementation issues have been presented to prove the efficiency of the developed digital filtering structure.

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Power systems that are highly loaded, especially by a stochastic supply of renewables and the presence of storages, require dynamic measurements for their optimal control. Phasor measurement units (PMUs) can be used to capture electrical parameters of a power system. Standards on the PMU dynamic performance have been modified to incorporate their new dynamic mode of operation. This paper examines the PMU dynamic performance and proposes essential algorithms for measurement accuracy verification. Measurements of dynamic input signals, which vary in amplitude or frequency, were taken during automated tests of two PMUs. The test results are presented and expounded with further recommendation for the performance requirements. This paper also presents and examines applied testing procedures with relevance to the specifications of the IEEE Standard for Synchrophasor C37.118.1™-2011 and its amendment C37.118.1a™-2014.

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The deployment of a distributed power-flow controller (DPFC) in a single-machine infinite-bus power system with two parallel transmission lines are considered for the analysis in this paper. This paper presents the network analysis of the DPFC for power flow control. The performance is evaluated on a given test system with a single line-to-ground fault. The improvement in the stability as well as power quality is evident from the results. Thus the DPFC has the ability to enhance the stability and power quality of the system.

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The analysis of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by the use of state-feedbacks is addressed. Generalized Frobenius matrices are proposed and their properties are investigated. It is shown that if the state matrix of an electrical circuit has generalized Frobenius form then the closed-loop system matrix is not positive and asymptotically stable. Different cases of modification of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by state-feedbacks are discussed and necessary conditions for the existence of solutions to the problem are established.

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In this paper, a three-air-gapped structure of a ferrite core for a resonant inductor is proposed. The electromagnetic and thermal field models are built using a 3D finite element method. Compared with the conventional signal-air-gapped structure of a ferrite core, the simulation and analysis results show that the proposed three-air-gapped ferrite core resonant inductor can reduce eddy-current loss and decrease temperature rise. In addition, the optimal position of air-gapped is presented.

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The paper includes a summary and a background of long-time research conducted by a research team in the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at SilesianUniversity of Technology. The researchwork has principally been related to selected problems in the field of analysis and synthesis of systems aimed at symmetrisation and improvement of some power quality parameters. This paper constitutes a first part of the report on the research. It has been devoted to effective elimination of higher harmonics and reactive power compensation by means of parallel active power filters. The other problem discussed in this paper is related to this issue and it is very important from the economic point of view; it addresses optimal sizing and placement of active power filters in investigated power networks.

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The paper includes a summary of long-time research conducted by a research team in the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Silesian University of Technology. The research work has principally been related to selected problems in the field of analysis and synthesis of systems aimed at symmetrisation and improvement of some power quality parameters. This paper constitutes the second part of the report on the research. It has been devoted to three-phase system symmetrisation as well as effective elimination of higher harmonics and substantial improvement of power quality by means of hybrid active power filters.

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This paper presents a concept and the results of an investigation of a DC–DC boost converter with high voltage gain and a reduced number of switches. The novel concept assumes that the converter operates in a topology composed of series connection switched- capacitor-based multiplier (SCVM) sections. Furthermore, the structure of the sections has significant impact on parameters of the converter which is discussed in this paper. The paper demonstrates the basic benefit such a multisection SCVM idea in the converter, which is the significant reduction in the number of switches and diodes for high voltage gain in comparison to an SCVM converter. Aside from the number of switches and diodes, such parameters as efficiency and volume of passive components in the multisection converter are analyzed in this paper. In figures, the analysis is demonstrated using the example of 100 kW thyristor-based converters. All the characteristics of the converter are compared between various configurations of switching cells in the particular sections, thus the paper can be useful for a design approach for a high voltage gain multicell converter.

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The paper presents general solutions for fractional state-space equations. The analysis of the fractional electrical circuit in the transient state is described by the equation of the state and space equations. The results are presented for the voltage of a capacitor and current in a coil, for different alpha values. The Caputo and conformable fractional derivative definitions have been considered. At the end, the results have been obtained.

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A large amount of electric vehicles (EVs) charging load will bring significant impact to the power system. An appropriate resource allocation strategy is required for securing the power system safety and satisfying EVs charging demand. This paper proposed a power coordination allocation strategy of EVs’ in distribution systems. The strategy divides the allocation into two stages. The first stage is based on scores assigned to EVs through an entropy method, whereas the second stage allocates energy according to EV’s state of charge. The charging power is delivered in order to maximize EV users’ satisfaction and fairness without violation of grid constraints. Simulation on a typical power-limited residential distribution network proves the effectiveness of the strategy. The analysis re- sults indicate that compared with traditional methods, EVs, which have higher charging requirement and shorter available time will get more energy delivered than others. The root- mean-square-error (RMSE) and standard-deviation (SD) results prove the effectiveness of the methodology for improving the balance of power delivery.

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This paper is devoted towards life cycle economic analysis (LCEA) of a solar photovoltaic (PV) powered tri-cycle. The paper is meant to propose a more systematic approach in determining the optimum use of scarce resources in order to determine the most cost-effective option of the solar tri-cycle. This analysis is based on the life cycle cost of this solar vehicle, involving its comparison with the customary fuel-based tri-cycle which exhibits the relatively less expenditure of the solar alternative. The economic analysis takes into account the fact that over 20 years, the overall price of solar component, replacement and electricity charges, is much lower as compared to that of a fuel-based tri-cycle in India taking into consideration the fuel cost, maintenance and annual inflation over the same period.

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The growth in the system load accompanied by an increase of power loss in the distribution system. Distributed generation (DG) is an important identity in the electric power sector that substantially overcomes power loss and voltage drop problems when it is coordinated with a location and size properly. In this study, the DG integration into the network is optimally distributed by considering the load conditions in different load models used to surmount the impact of load growth. There are five load models tested namely constant, residential, industrial, commercial and mixed loads. The growth of the electrical load is modeled for the base year up to the fifth year as a short-term plan. Minimization of system power loss is taken as the main objective function considering voltage limits. Determination of the location and size of DG is optimally done by using the breeder genetic algorithm (BGA). The proposed studies were applied to the IEEE 30 radial distribution system with single and multiple placement DG scenarios. The results indicated that installing an optimal location and size DG could have a strong potential to reduce power loss and to secure future energy demand of load models. Also, commercial load requires the largest DG active injection power to maintain the voltage value within tolerable limits up to five years.

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The research on the coupling electromagnetic effect was studied in this paper, in consideration of the wreaking damage of the powerful electromagnetic pulse to the electronic products. The characteristic of the metallic via and stub interconnect with the coupling voltage was calculated by the model, which was the transfer function F( f ) of the protection circuit parameters of DC power source. The research showed that: the smaller radius of Metallic via, the lower amplitude of F( f ), the less energy of a power electro- magnetic pulse (PEP); the higher increase of the width of the stub interconnect, the bigger reduction of the characteristic impedance of plane wave coupling, the depth of the notch band significantly narrowed. The simulations and experiments were done to compare the protection effects of protection circuits with different parameters at last. The results showed that the protection circuit designed could be highly advantageous in protecting the DC power source in this article.

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Editorial office

Professor Andrzej Demenko, Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Deputy/ Managing Editor
Mariusz Barański, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Łukasz Knypiński, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman: Marian P. Kaźmierkowski, Warsaw, Poland
Secretary: Grzegorz Benysek, Zielona Gora, Poland

Members professors:
Antero Arkkio, Helsinki, Finland

Frede Blaabjerg,Aalborg, Denmark

Ion Boldea,Timisoara, Romania

Stanisław Bolkowski, Białystok, Poland

Herbert De Gersem,Darmstadt, Germany

Jacek Gieras, Rockford, USA

Kay Hameyer, Aachen, Germany

Mieczysław Hering,Warszawa, Poland

Marian K. Kazimierczuk, Dayton, USA

Stefan Kulig, Dortmund, Germany

David A. Lowther, Montreal, Canada

Jacek Marecki, Gdańsk, Poland

José Rodríguez Pérez,Valparaíso, Chile

Ryszard Sikora, Szczecin, Poland

Zbigniew Styczyński, Magdeburg, Germany

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK


Technical Editor

Ewa Rozmiarek, Scientific Publishers OWN, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

Language Editor

Krystyna Guzek

Statistical Editor

Mariusz Barański, Poznan, Poland
Poznan University of Technology

Theme Editors

Mieczysław Hering, Warszawa, Poland
Professor at Warsaw University of Technology

Zbigniew Lubosny, Gdansk, Poland
Professor at Gdańnk University of Technology

Marian Łukaniszyn, Opole, Poland
Professor at Opole University of Technology

Marian Pasko, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Stanisław Piróg, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

Henryka Danuta Stryczewska, Lublin, Poland
Professor at Lublin University of Technology

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK
Professor at University of Southampton

Adam Szelag, Warsaw, Poland
Professor at Warsaw University of Technology

Romulad Włodek, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology


All contributions should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or the Editorial Office:

Address of the Editorial Office:

Archives of Electrical Engineering
Piotrowo 3A (Room 612X)
60-965 Poznan, Poland
tel: (48-61) 665-26-36
fax: (48-61) 665-23-81


Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.,

Journal Metrics:

Scoring assigned by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education: 15 points

CiteScore metrics from Scopus, CiteScore 2017: 0.86

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.233

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.661

ICI Journal Master List 2016, Index Copernicus Value: 121.43 ,

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.,


Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.
Please use Template AEE to prepare your paper. Template can be download from journal page -,

The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:
a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE
b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place
c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected
d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.
The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.,

Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscripts submitted for publication should not exceed 21 000 characters (ca. 12 pages of a manuscript written on an A4 sheet in Times New Roman, 10pt font size, single line spacing and 3.8 cm margins). The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").
All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.
If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.
The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.
Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.,


The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.,


Please use the Microsoft Equation 3.0 editor (comes with Microsoft Office 2007 and later versions) to build an equation in your paper.
To insert an equation in Word, choose Insert, then Object. This will bring up a dropdown menu, where the Object option should be chosen again. Pressing it opens a popup window, where the Create New option has to be clicked. Scrolling down the window allows to find Microsoft Equation 3.0.
Please note that the MathML editor as well as MathType editor is not recommended for typing equations.


Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.
If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use italic fonts. Symbols of vectors and matrices should be written in bold fonts. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.
Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.,

Unit Symbols, Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.
Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".
Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."
Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard,

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.
All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.
Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.
Authors are requested to send figures (diagrams, line drawings and photographic images) in separate computer files. JPG, PNG or TIF are the recommended file formats. Photographs, colour and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400dpi. Linear, including tables should be at a minimum of 600dpi.
All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.
When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.
Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).
AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.,


A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.,


References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.
Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.
You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript
[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).
[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.
[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript
[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual
[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).
[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).
[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).
[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms
[8] Author A., Title of article, in [Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], [copyright year] © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record]. doi: [DOI number].
[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller, in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC, 2016, doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

[9], accessed April 2010.,


Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.,

Fees for printing the papers in AEE:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all our articles on the Internet are available for readers free of charge, however it is requested that the authors pay an article-processing charge (reviewing, editing, proofreading, checking for plagiarism, distribution and so on) in order for their articles to be published and made freely available online immediately on publication.
The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 210 Euro.,

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