Applied sciences

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management


Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management | 2018 | vol. 34 | No 3 |


Several surface measurement methods for determining the volume of deep or layered stone exist.

One of the key indicators of coal extraction efficiency in open cast mining is to determine the volume

of excavated rock. Procedures for determining the volume have been used for many centuries.

Determining the extracted volume or layered material has been a periodically recurring role of mine

-surveying practice, and mine surveyors apply different methods for its determination. The incorrect

determination of the rock volume may result in large economic losses of the mining enterprise. The

choice of the method for determining the volume depends on the deadline by which the determined

volume has to be submitted to the superior components or the mining enterprise management, as well

as on the requirements for accuracy of the volume determination, and a financial limit beyond which

this volume determination has to be done. Secondary conditions for determining the volumes include

the level of personnel training in the individual procedures and methods of measuring and calculating

volumes, the technical standards of the enterprise, the applied instrumentation, hardware and

software. The article compares the values of the accurately defined mathematical solid (a cylindrical

segment) to the methods of calculating the volume normally used in mining and surveying practice

and programs commonly used to calculate volumes in order to determine the threshold value of the

systematic deviation in input measurements to determine the volume. The mathematical model is the

basis for determining the correct volumes of the extracted material. The surface of the drawn or layered

material does not form a smooth surface as a mathematical model. The process of determining

volume errors on the mathematical model has been verified on the real body of coal deposition. The

comparison of the determination of the errors between the digital terrain model on the mathematical

body and the real homogenization coal stock is presented at the Conclusion of the article.

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Image processing techniques (band rationing, color composite, Principal Component Analyses)

are widely used by many researchers to describe various mines and minerals. The primary aim of

this study is to use remote sensing data to identify iron deposits and gossans located in Kaman,

Kırşehir region in the central part of Anatolia, Turkey. Capability of image processing techniques is

proved to be highly useful to detect iron and gossan zones. Landsat ETM+ was used to create remote

sensing images with the purpose of enhancing iron and gossan detection by applying ArcMap image

processing techniques. The methods used for mapping iron and gossan area are 3/1 band rationing,

3/5 : 1/3 : 5/7 color composite, third PC and PC4 : PC3 : PC2 as RG B which obtained result from

Standard Principal Component Analysis and third PC which obtained result from Developed Selected

Principal Component Analyses (Crosta Technique), respectively. Iron-rich or gossan zones were mapped

through classification technique applied to obtained images. Iron and gossan content maps were

designed as final products. These data were confirmed by field observations. It was observed that iron

rich and gossan zones could be detected through remote sensing techniques to a great extent. This

study shows that remote sensing techniques offer significant advantages to detect iron rich and gossan

zones. It is necessary to confirm the iron deposites and gossan zones that have been detected for the

time being through field observations.

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The Bogdanka coal mine, the only currently operating mine in the Lublin Coal Basin (LCB),

extracts coal from the Upper Carboniferous formations of the LCB. The average sulfur content in

the No. 385/2 seam is 0.98%, while in the case of the No. 391 seam it is slightly higher and amounts

to 1.15%. The iron sulfides (pyrite and marcasite) in bituminous coal seams form macroscopically

visible massive, vein, and dispersed forms. A microscopic examination has confirmed their complex

structure. Massive forms contain euhedral crystals and framboids. The sulfide aggregations are often

associated with a halo of dispersed veins and framboids. Pyrite and marcasite often fill the fusinite

cells. Framboids are highly variable when it comes to their size and the degree of compaction within

the carbonaceous matter. Their large aggregations form polyframboids. The cracks are often filled

with crystalline accumulations of iron sulfides (octaedric crystals). The Wavelenth Dispersive Spectrometry

(WDS) microanalysis allowed the chemical composition of sulfides in coal samples from the

examined depoists to be analyzed. It has been shown that they are dominated by iron sulfides FeS2 –

pyrite and marcasite. The examined sulfides contain small admixtures of Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Co,

Ni, As, and Cd. When it comes to the examined admixtures, the highest concentration of up to 0.24%,

is observed for As. In addition, small amounts of galena, siderite, and barite have also been found in

the examined coal samples. The amounts of the critical elements in the examined samples do not allow

for their economically justified exploitation. Higher concentrations of these elements can be found in

the ashes resulting from the combustion process.

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The study included bituminous coal seams (30 samples coal from the Bogdanka and Chełm deposits)

of the Lublin Formation, the most coal-bearing strata in the best developed and recognized in

terms of mining parts of the Lublin Coal Basin in Poland. High phosphorus concentrations in coal of

the Lublin Formation were found (1375 g/Mg) as well as P2O5 in coal ash (2.267 wt%). The phosphorus

contents in coal and coal ash from the 385 and 391 coal seams in the area of the Lubelski Coal Bogdanka

Mine and in the area of its SE neighbor is the highest (max. 2.644 wt. % in coal and 6.055 wt. %

of P2O5 in coal ash). It has been shown that mineral matter effectively affects phosphorus contents

in coal and coal ash. At the same time, phosphate minerals (probably apatite and crandallite) present

in kaolinite aggregates of tonsteins contain the most of phosphorus and have the greatest impact on

the average P content in the 382, 385, 387, and 391. The secondary source of phosphorus in these

coal seams and main source of phosphorus in these coal deposits that do not contain mineral matter

of pyroclastic origin (378, 389, 394) may be clay minerals, which absorbed phosphorus compounds

derived from organic matter released during coalification. Phosphorus-rich ash from the combustion

of the Lublin Formation coal tend to be environmentally beneficial to the environment and also useful

for improving the soil quality. Due to the low degree of coalification and high content of phosphorus

in coal, this coals of little use for coking.

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 Widespread opinion holds that calcareous rocks have limited suitability for use in the production
 of aggregates and stone products having adequate frost resistance. However, some of the rocks, in
 particular those from earlier geological periods, provide a promising alternative to silicate rocks.
 The paper presents results of the analysis of Devonian carbonate rock originating from two selected
 mines in the Swietokrzyskie region. The examined mines extract limestone from two different
 deposits of the same age. The rock samples are collected from beds lying at different depths, distinct
 in texture and color in macroscopic examination. It was found that despite the changes in bulk density,
 porosity and absorption, all the examined samples were frost resistant.
 Using the Differential Analysis of Volumetric Strain method, the content of ice formed in the pore
 spaces was determined. In addition, the ratio of the content of water capable of freezing to the total
 pore volume, and the total amount of water absorbed due to capillary action in rock samples soaked
 in water, were analyzed. In all cases, it was revealed that the destructive action of freezing water was
 weakened due to a relatively low content of water capable of freezing and a substantial volume of
 pores that are not filled with water in capillary absorption.
 It is extremely important to be able to classify the available rock material. The generally adopted
 methods, including absorptivity tests, do not allow for precise categorization. In the investigations,

the authors focused on the analysis of the basic factors that are decisive for rock durability, including bulk density, pore filling level and volume absorption. The authors do not correspond compressive

strength and resistance to abrasion as this will be the subject of further research.

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At present, industrial development is increasing pollution of soils, air and natural waters. These

pollutants have a negative effect on the health and life of living organisms. Metals which interfere with

the natural biological balance and inhibit self-cleaning processes in water bodies have particularly

toxic effects. Cobalt, which gets into the environment from industrial sewage from electrochemical

plants and the metallurgical industry, also belong to this group. This is also relatively rare and precious

element, so it is important to look for additional sources of its recovery. Chemical and physicochemical

methods such as: precipitation, extraction, membrane processes – nanofiltration, reverse

osmosis, sorption and ion exchange are used to recover cobalt. The choice of method depends on: the

kind and composition of wastewaters as well as on form and concentration of the pollutants.

Ion exchange resins produced by Purolite which were used to remove cobalt ions from solutions

with concentrations corresponding to its contents in galvanic wastewater was the subject of the study.

It has been shown that the C 160 ion exchange resin has the best the sorption properties for Co2+ ions

(54.7 mg/g). In case of this ion exchange resin, after sorption process carried out in one 50 minute cycle,

cobalt concentration decreased from about 30 g/L to about 9 g/L. The values of the sorption capacity

do not depend on the method of introducing the solution into an ion exchange column (pouring or dropping).

E ach of the tested ion exchange resins is characterized by a high degree of cobalt concentration

after regeneration using mineral acids, which can be advantageous in selecting the recovery method for

this metal.

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At present, with the increase of production capacity and the promotion of production, the reserves

of most mining enterprises under the original industrial indexes are rapidly consumed, and the full

use of low-grade resources is getting more and more attention. If mining enterprises want to make

full use of low-grade resources simultaneously and obtain good economic benefits to strengthening

the analysis and management of costs is necessary. For metal underground mines, with the gradual

implementation of exploration and mining projects, capital investment and labor consumption are

dynamic and increase cumulatively in stages. Consequently, in the evaluation of ore value, we should

proceed from a series of processes such as: exploration, mining, processing and the smelting of

geological resources, and then study the resources increment in different stages of production and the

processing. To achieve a phased assessment of the ore value and fine evaluation of the cost, based on

the value chain theory and referring to the modeling method of computer integrated manufacturing

open system architecture (CIMOSA), the analysis framework of gold mining enterprise value chain is

established based on the value chain theory from the three dimensions of value-added activities, value

subjects and value carriers. A value chain model using ore flow as the carrying body is built based on

Petri nets. With the CPN Tools emulation tool, the cycle simulation of the model is carry out by the

colored Petri nets, which contain a hierarchical structure. Taking a large-scale gold mining enterprise

as an example, the value chain model is quantified to simulate the ore value formation, flow, transmission

and implementation process. By analyzing the results of the simulation, the ore value at different

production stages is evaluated dynamically, and the cost is similarly analyzed in stages, which can improve mining enterprise cost management, promote the application of computer modeling and

simulation technology in mine engineering, more accurately evaluate the economic feasibility of ore

utilization, and provide the basis for the value evaluation and effective utilization of low-grade ores.

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The aim of the article is to present the selected results of analytical investigations concerning

possible directions of reducing the unit production costs in the mining company together with some

results of practical calculations. The investigations emphasize the role of the rate of utilising the

production capacity leading to reducing the unit production costs. The main component having an

essential influence on the unit production costs are the fixed unit costs. Two basic indices of a crucial

meaning for searching for possibilities leading to decreasing the unit production costs are assumed.

The first index (w1) is a measure of the rate of utilising the production capacity, the second one (w2)

concerns the fixed costs coincided with the unit of the production capacity. Theoretical considerations

concerning the mathematical modelling of the unit production costs as the values depending on the

rate of utilising the production capacity and the fixed costs coincided with the production capacity

unit, are presented in the first part of the paper. The rationalisation criteria of the mine unit production

costs are formulated. These criteria can constitute the elements of restructuring program for the mining

company. The calculation example with the use of the practical input data shows the impact of the

rate of utilising the production capacity on the mine unit production costs. In the example two variants

of annual working time are taken into account. Results of appropriate calculations are presented and

analysed in an aspect of reducing unit costs of production as a result of increasing rate of utilising the

mine production capacity.

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Potential sources of rare earth elements are sought after in the world by many researchers. Coal

ash obtained at high temperatures (HTA ) is considered among these sources.

The aim of the study was an evaluation of the suitability of the high temperature ash (HTA ) formed

during the combustion of bituminous coal from the Ruda beds of the Pniówek coal mine as an

potential resource of REY . The 13 samples of HTA obtained from the combustion of metabituminous

(B) coal were analyzed.

The analyses showed that the examined HTA samples varied in their chemical composition.

In accordance with the chemical classification of HTA , the analyzed ash samples were classified

as belonging to the following types: sialic, sialocalcic, sialoferricalcic, calsialic, fericalsialic,


The research has shown that the rare earth elements content (REY ) in examined HTA samples

are characterized by high variability. The average REY content in the analyzed ashes was 2.5 times

higher than the world average (404 ppm).

Among rare earth elements, the light elements (LREY ) were the most abundant. Heavy elements

(HREY ) had the lowest share.

A comparison of the content of the individual rare earth elements in HTA samples and in UCC

showed that it was almost 20 times higher than in UCC.

The distribution patterns of REY plotted for all samples within their entire range were positioned

above the reference level and these curves were of the M-H or M-L type. The data presented indicate, that the analyzed ash samples should be regarded as promising REY

raw materials. Considering the fact that in 7 out of 13 analyzed ash samples the REY content was

higher than 800 ppm, REY recovery from these ashes may prove to be economic.

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For years, the Polish hard coal mining has been struggling with the problem of fire hazards in

areas with coal residue, mainly in goafs. Currently, a common method of limiting this hazard is the

fire prevention involving use of fine-grained hydromixtures based on power generation waste, mainly

fly ashes. The hydromixture is introduced into the caving zone created by the advancement of exploitation

face and its task is to fill in voids, limiting the possibility of access to the mine air oxygen to

a minimum. The first part of the article presents theoretical fundamentals of determining the parameters

of gravitational hydraulic transport of water and ash hydromixtures used in the mining pipeline

systems. Each hydromixture produced based on fine-grained wastes is characterized by specified

rheological parameters that have a direct impact on the future flow parameters of a given pipeline

system. Additionally, the gravitational character of the hydraulic transport generates certain limitations

concerning the so-called correct hydraulic profile of the system in relation to the applied hydromixture

characterized by required rheological parameters that should ensure safe flow at a correct

efficiency. This paper shows an example of optimisation of the composition of a selected fly ash-water

hydromixture in relation to its capacity for hydrotransport in gravity pipeline installations, as well as

the amount of excess water that will always drain from the location of feeding the hydromixture to

the underground workings.

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Editorial office

Editorial Board
  • Editor-in-Chief: Eugeniusz Mokrzycki
  • Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Ryszard Uberman (section: mining)
  • Editorial Secretary: Krzysztof Galos (section: mineralogy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Lidia Gawlik (section: mineral and energy economy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Beata Klojzy-Karczmarczyk (section: environmental engineering in mining)
  • Statistical Editor: Jacek Mucha
Advisory Board
  • Mattias Bäckström, Assistant Professor, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  • Wiesław Blaschke, PhD(Eng), Professor, The Institute of Mechanised Construction and Rock Mining, Katowice, Poland
  • Jan Butra, Professor, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland
  • Dennis L. Buchanan, Professor, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  • Michal Cehlár – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
  • Józef Dubiński, Professor, The Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
  • Jakub Jirasek, Associate Professor, The Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
  • Roman Magda, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Antonio Mateus, Professor, Universidade de Lisboa, Lizbona, Portugal
  • Jacek Motyka, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Marek Nieć, DSc(Eng), Professor, The MEERI PAS, Kraków, Poland
  • James Otto, Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA
  • Marian Radetzki, Professor, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
  • Anton Sroka, Professor, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, University of Resources, Freiberg, Germany
  • Krzysztof Szamałek, Professor, The University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Günter Tiess, Assistant Professor, MinPol GmbH, Dreistetten, Austria
Publishing Committee
  • Emilia Rydzewska – linguistic editor (Polish)
  • Michelle Atallah – linguistic editor (English)
  • Barbara Sudoł – technical editor


Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of
Sciences J. Wybickiego 7A, 31-261 Kraków,
Phone: (+48) 12 632 33-00, Fax: +48 12 632 35-24

Additional information

The subject matter of the articles published in Mineral Resources Management covers issues related to minerals and raw materials, as well as mineral deposits, with particular emphasis on:

  • The scientific basis for mineral resources management,
  • The strategy and methodology of prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits,
  • Methods of rational management and use of deposits,
  • The rational exploitation of deposits and the reduction in the loss of raw materials,
  • Mineral resources management in processing technologies,
  • Environmental protection in the mining industry,
  • Optimization of mineral deposits and mineral resources management,
  • The rational use of mineral resources,
  • The economics of mineral resources,
  • The raw materials market,
  • Raw materials policy,
  • The use of accompanying minerals,
  • The use of secondary raw materials and waste,
  • Raw material recycling,
  • The management of waste from the mining industry.

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