Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research


Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2018 | No 2 |


Severe leaf spot disease was observed on Aloe vera plants in the winters of 2011 and 2012 during a survey of various nurseries of Gwalior, India. Irregular, sunken, dark creamish brown spots having reddish brown margin were noticed on both surfaces of the leaves. The causal organism was consistently isolated from symptomatic leaves on potato dextrose agar media (PDA). A total 59 isolates of fungi were recovered from diseased A. vera leaves, and 37 isolates were identified as belonging to the genus Fusarium. On the basis of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA amplified using the primers ITS4/ITS5 the pathogen was identified as Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg and pathogenicity of the isolate was confirmed by using Koch’s postulates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of leaf spot disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum on A. vera plants in India.
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Biological control of plant diseases is strongly emerging as an effective alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fungicides. Stress tolerance is an important attribute in the selection of bacteria for the development of microbial inoculants. Fourteen salt-tolerant bacteria showing different morphological features isolated from the rhizosphere of maize were evaluated for different plant growth-promoting activities. All isolates showed auxin production ranging from 5 to 24 μg ⋅ ml–1 after 48 h incubation in tryptophan supplemented media. Phosphate solubilization ranged from 15 to 419 μg ⋅ ml–1. 1-aminocycloproprane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity was shown by 6 isolates, ammonia production by 9 isolates, siderophore production by 8 isolates while HCN production by 4 isolates. Four bacterial isolates with all plant growth-promoting properties also showed strong antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum, F. verticillioides, Curvularia lunata and Alternaria alternata and abiotic stress tolerance against salinity, temperature, pH and calcium salts. Two selected bacterial isolates significantly enhanced the growth of pea and maize test plants under greenhouse conditions. The bacterial isolate M1B2, which showed the highest growth promotion of test plants, was identified as Bacillus sp. based on phenotypic and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The results indicated that Bacillus sp. M1B2 is a potential candidate for the development of microbial inoculants in stressful environments.
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The response of the Mi-1 gene to different densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 was investigated under controlled conditions. Susceptible and resistant tomato seedlings were inoculated with 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10000 second-stage juveniles of M. incognita. Plants were uprooted 8 weeks after inoculation and the numbers of egg masses and galls on the roots, and second-stage juveniles in 100 g soil per pot were counted. In susceptible plants, there was a correlation between the number of egg masses on roots until 2000 J2 inoculum densities. In resistant plants, when inoculum densities increased, the number of egg masses and galls also increased. The reproduction factor ratio was >1 in the susceptible plant and <1 in the resistant plant. The data showed that the 5000 J2 inoculum was a critical limit, and 10000 J2s were above threshold for resistant plants. The data indicate that densities of M. incognita can seriously affect the performance of the Mi-1 gene.
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Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most destructive viruses infecting potato in Egypt and worldwide. Recent research has shown that a necrotic PVY-NTN strain is infecting potato in Upper Egypt. Chemical control is not effective to control this viral pathogen. An alternative to control PVY infecting potato is using a mild PVY strain to elicit systemic cross protection in potato plants against infection with a severe necrotic strain of PVY. Results of this study showed that a PVY necrotic strain produced a significant lesser number of local lesions on diagnostic plants (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) when these plants were treated first with a mild PVY strain. Data obtained from greenhouse and field experiments indicated that treatment of potato plants (variety Burna) with a mild PVY strain significantly protected potato from infection with a severe necrotic PVY strain, and resulted in a significant increase in tuber yield compared with infected plants without prior treatment with a mild PVY strain. The highest increase in potato tuber yield was obtained when potato plants were inoculated with a mild PVY strain 3 days before challenging with the severe necrotic PVY strain. This study proved that using a mild strain of PVY can significantly protect potato plants from infection with a severe strain of this virus under both greenhouse and field conditions and can present a potential method to reduce losses due to infection of this virus in Assiut governorate and Upper Egypt.
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In August 2016, tomato plants grown during a hot, wet summer with heavy soil flooding, displaying symptoms of wilting, dead plant, root rot with crown and stem rot, at Beni Suef and Fayoum governorates were examined. A number of 16 fungal isolates were isolated from tomato plants displaying the above symptoms. These isolates were classified as belonging to six species, namely: Alternaria solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Isolates of Pythium spp. were prevalent and were found to be more pathogenic than the other fungal isolates. This species causes damping-off, root rot, sudden death, stem rot and fruit rot. The pathogen was identified as Pythium aphanidermatum based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced using the F. oxysporum strain and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of these spherical particles ranged from 10 to 30 nm. In vitro, biogenic AgNPs showed antifungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. In greenhouse and field experiments, AgNPs treatment significantly reduced the incidence of dead tomato plants due to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum compared to the control. All of the investigated treatments were effective and the treatment of root dipping plus soil drenching was the most effective. To the best of our knowledge, this study describes P. aphanidermatum on tomato in Egypt for the first time. Also, biogenic AgNPs could be used for controlling root rot disease caused by this pathogen.
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The aim of the present work was to evaluate the selectivity of nicosulfuron, alone and in combinations, applied in post-emergence (V4) of glyphosate and sulfonylurea tolerant (RR/STS) soybean. The experiments were conducted in 2015/16 and 2016/17, in Piracicaba – state of São Paulo (SP). In 2016/17, the experiment was also conducted in Palotina – state of Paraná (PR). The experiment was a randomized block design, with four repetitions and 16 treatments, with combinations of nicosulfuron, glyphosate, chlorimuron, sulfometuron and cloransulam, applied alone or in tank mixture. Crop injury and variables related to agronomic performance were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared by the Tukey test. The results obtained are significant in the positioning of herbicides in RR/STS soybean, since in the five experiments, all the treatments were selective, except for glyphosate + sulfometuron which reduced the yield of a cultivar (CD 2630 RR/STS) in the 2015/16 season.
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Control failure of pests and selectivity of insecticides to beneficial arthropods are key data for the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the control failure likelihood of Plutella xylostella and the physiological selectivity active ingredients to parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and to predators Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and Lasiochilus sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). In bioassays, P. xylostella larvae and O. sokolowskii, P. scutellaris and Lasiochilus sp. adults were used. Concentration-mortality curves of six insecticides for P. xylostella were established. These curves were used to estimate the mortality of P. xylostella at the recommended concentration, in order to check a control failure of insecticides to this pest. Furthermore, the lethal concentration for 90% of populations (LC90) and the half of LC90 were used in bioassays with the natural enemies to determine the selectivity of these insects to insecticides. All tested insecticides showed control failure to P. xylostella, indicated by high LC90 and low estimated mortalities (less than 80%). The cartap insecticide was selective in half of LC90 to Lasiochilus sp. and moderately selective in LC90 and the half of LC90, to Lasiochilus sp. and P. scutellaris, respectively. Deltamethrin was moderately selective in the half of LC90 to predator Lasiochilus sp. Cartap, carbaryl, and deltamethrin reduced the mortality of Lasiochilus sp. in the half LC90. The results also showed that the insecticides methamidophos, carbaryl, parathion methyl and permethrin were not selective to any of the tested natural enemies. The role of insecticides in IPM systems of Brassica crops is discussed based on their control failures to P. xylostella and selectivity to their natural enemies.
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Potato white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important plant disease occurring in many potato-producing areas throughout the world. In this study, a specific diagnostic method was used to detect and quantify S. sclerotiorum ascospores, and its forecasting ability was assessed in potato fields during flowering periods of 2011 to 2014 in Bahar County, Hamedan Province. Using GenEMBL database, a primer pair, HZSCREV and HZSCFOR, was designed and optimized for the pathogen. After testing the sensitivity of primers, DNA was extracted from samples of outdoor Burkard traps from potato fields. A linear association was observed between pathogen DNA and the number of ascospores using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique in the presence of SYBR dye. The qPCR could successfully detect DNA amounts representing two S. sclerotiorum ascospores and was not sensitive to a variety of tested fungi such as Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria brassicae, Fusarium solani. In contrast to the amount of rainfall, a direct relationship was found between ascospore numbers and the incidence of potato white mold from 2011 to 2014.
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Quantitative resistance in barley to four Fusarium head blight (FHB) species was investigated in vitro. Nine components involved in three assays (detached leaf, modified Petridish and seedling tests) were compared on two widely grown Syrian barley cultivars: Arabi Aswad (AS) and Arabi Abiad (AB). On AB, inoculation with FHB species resulted in a significantly shorter latent period and larger lesion length of detached leaf inoculation, more standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCstandard) of modified Petridish inoculation and a higher percentage of infected seedlings of pin-point inoculation than on AS. The latent period of AB was 14.89% less than AS, lesion length of AS was 6.01% less than AB, AUDPCstandard of AS was 17.07% less than AB and the percentage of infected seedlings of AS was 4.87% less than AB. Inoculation with FHB species resulted in no significant differences in the other five components measured: incubation period of detached leaf inoculation, germination rate reduction and coleoptile length reduction of modified Petridish inoculation, percentage of infected seedlings of foliar-spraying inoculation and lesion length of clip-dipping inoculation. AS was more resistant to in vitro FHB infection than AB. The latent period and AUDPCstandard recorded the highest values compared with the lowest values for lesion length and percentage of infected seedlings. It seems that measurement of the latent period and AUDPCstandard may be useful in identifying barley cultivars which are highly susceptible or resistant to FHB at early stages.
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The species structure of plant parasitic nematode populations from the rhizosphere of winter wheat grown with crop rotation or in 48-year-old monoculture was analyzed and compared. Dominating species: Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius microdorus, Paratylenchus neglectus and Heterodera avenae, in monoculture plots, had higher populations than in crop rotation plots. Heterodera avenae eggs and larvae were infected by pathogenic fungi in 68% of the monoculture crops (vs. 65–66% of the cysts from crop rotation), 12–20% of Paratylenchus sp. specimens were colonized by bacteria, mainly by Bacillus penetrans. This study shows nematological changes occurring in long-term wheat breeding, thus providing additional information necessary to fight dangerous viral vectors of the examined cereal.
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Concerns about food quality and environmental protection have led to the search for effective and safe insect control measures. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of some insecticides (malathion, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin) and clove oil, alone and in combinations, to protect wheat grain against Rhyzopertha dominica. Adult mortality, progeny emergence and weight loss of treated grain were examined. The results revealed that the tested insecticides and clove oil alone showed high efficiency to R. dominica with respect to mortality, progeny of the adults and weight loss of wheat grain. The mixing of lambda-cyhalothrin and clove oil with the most effective insecticide (alphacypermethrin) enhanced its efficacy to R. dominica. It was more efficient against R. dominica than when used alone with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. However, mixing alpha-cypermethrin with malathion reduced the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin against R. dominica with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. Combinations of alpha-cypermethrin and clove oil reduced wheat grain loss more than using them alone. Mixing lambda-cyhalothrin and clove oil with low concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin improved its efficacy against R. dominica and therefore may reduce environmental pollution, lower risks to human health, and delay insect resistance development.
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Water samples were collected from irrigation ditches and drainage canals surrounding fields in southern Greater Poland. Initially, the samples were subjected to low and highspeed centrifugation and obtained pellets were used to perform biological assays. Viral identification involved biological, electron microscopic as well as molecular methods. The occurrence of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was demonstrated in 12 of the 17 examined water sources. The molecular analysis results showed TMV and ToMV co-infections in the analysed water samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tobamoviruses being found in environmental water in Poland.
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Our research provides novel information concerning the insecticidal activity of Brassica alba mustard oil applied to the intestinal tract via insects’ diet against pests from the order Lepidoptera: Cydia pomonella, Dendrolimus pini, and Spodoptera exigua. The LC50 value of the oil against C. pomonella was 0.422 mg ⋅ ml–1. The LC50 of the plant oil against D. pini was 11.74 mg ⋅ ml–1. The LC50 of the botanical product against S. exigua was 11.66 mg ⋅ ml–1. The plant substance was the most active against C. pomonella in comparison with D. pini and S. exigua. The LC50 values of the oil against D. pini and S. exigua were similar. The plant oil exhibited high insecticidal activity against pests from the order Lepidoptera and may prove to be an effective biopesticide.
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Editorial office

Editorial BoardEDITOR-IN-CHIEFHenryk PospiesznyDepartment of Virology and BacteriologyInstitute of Plant Protection – National Research InstituteWładysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Polande-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.plASSOCIATE EDITORSZbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, PolandSylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, PolandPiotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, PolandTomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, PolandFranciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, PolandKinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, PolandPrzemysław Wieczorek (Molecular Biology) Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, PolandSCIENTIFIC BOARDUlrike DammSenckenberg Museum of Natural History, Görlitz, Germany Bernd FreierInstitut für Integrierten Pflanzenschutz, Kleinmachnow, GermanyBeata Hasiów-JaroszewskaInstitute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, PolandAsghar HeydariIranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Teheran, IranAndrew HewittThe University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaMichał HurejWrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, PolandKarl HurleUniversity of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, GermanyDr. Thomas JungPhytophthora Research and Consultancy, Brannenburg, GermanyDr. Opender KoulInsect Biopesticide Research Centre, Jalandhar, IndiaProf. Per KudskDanish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Slagelse, DenmarkProf. Thomas KühneJulius Kühn-Institut, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Quedlinburg, GermanyProf. Maria LópezThe Valencian Institute of Agrarian Research (IVIA), Moncada, SpainProf. Małgorzata MańkaUniversity of Life Sciences, Poznań, PolandProf. Enrique Monte VázguezUniversidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, SpainProf. Leszek B. OrlikowskiResearch Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Skierniewice, PolandDr., Assoc. prof. Aleksandra Obrempalska-StęplowskaInstitute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, PolandDr. Karel PetrzikInstitute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice, Czech RepublicProf. Baruch RubinThe Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Jerusalem, Israel Dr. Marcela Ines SchneiderCentro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE), La Plata, Argentina Prof. Piotr SobiczewskiResearch Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice, Poland Dr. James E. ThroneUnited States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Parlier, USA Prof. Marek TomalakInstitute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute, Poznań, PolandProf. Zenon WoźnicaUniversity of Life Sciences, Poznań, PolandMANAGING EDITORSMałgorzata Maćkowiake-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.plMonika Kardasze-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.plPROOFREADERS IN ENGLISH Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-GorączniakSTATISTICAL EDITOR Dr. Andrzej Podleśny


Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak

Monika Kardasz

Instructions for authors


Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61,5 € per one colour page

Please submit your manuscript to Journal of Plant Protection Research via:


The Journal of Plant Protection Research accepts only papers covering the fundamental and applied studies of pests, pathogens and weeds noxious to agricultural crops. JPPR is published quarterly. Papers are submitted with an understanding that they have not been published elsewhere and are not being considered for publication elsewhere (exception: abstracts published in connection with conferences). The Journal of Plant Protection Research publishes original research articles, reviews and short communications.

It is assumed that all people listed as authors of submitted papers meet both basic authorship criteria: (1) they contributed substantially to study planning, data collection or interpretation of results; (2) wrote or critically revised the paper.

It is also assumed that all people listed as authors are aware of it and have agreed to be listed. On the other hand, it is assumed that no person who meets the authorship criteria has been omitted. Moreover, all people who are not listed as authors but contributed substantially to the study reported in submitted paper or assisted in its writing (e.g. language professionals) should be mentioned in the acknowledgements, with their agreement. Finally, all sources of funding for the study reported in the submitted papers should be revealed.

Acting against the above rules, especially every discovered case of scientific misconduct (ghostwriting, guest authorship, etc.), will be treated seriously by Editors. They will inform scientific bodies and/or employers of dishonest authors about it.

All submitted papers are initially evaluated by Editors according to the following criteria: compatibility of paper topic with journal policy, paper originality, importance and timeliness. The papers with insufficient priority are rejected. The other papers are sent to at least two expert referees for peer review. The existence of a paper under review is not revealed to anyone other than peer referees and editorial staff. Final decision is made by Editors after receiving all referee opinions. The authors are informed about paper acceptance or rejection within two-three months.

Manuscripts that do not strictly follow the instructions will be declined at the submission stage. An Advisory Board evaluates articles before sending them for in-depth review. About 70% of submitted articles are declined at this stage, notably because instructions are not applied strictly.


This Journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author identities are concealed form the reviewers, and vice versa, throughout the review process.
To facilitate this, authors need to ensure that their manuscripts are prepared in a way that does not give away their identity. To help with this preparation please ensure the following when submitting to Journal of Plant Protection Research:
• Submit the Title Page containing the Authors detailed and Blinded Manuscript with no author details as two separate files

Information to help prepare the Title Page

This should include a concise and informative title, name of authors with an asterisk “*” highlighting the corresponding author, the affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s), the e-mail address of the corresponding author.
The Title Page submit as an Companion Files – not with submitted manuscript as PDF.


Reviewer get on e-mail invitation for review an article, with title and abstract of the article, and have 7 days for accept or decline the invitation.
If reviewer did not respond during 7 days Managing Editor can un-invite him and invite another reviewer.
For review the reviewer has 21 days. If after that time reviewer did not resend the review, Managing Editor send him a reminder letter.
After acceptance of invitation reviewer download full manuscript, and perform the descriptive review, clearly writing their own decision about the manuscript.
Reviewer must select one of four possibilities:
– Accept
– Minor Revision
– Major Revision
– Reject.

Descriptive review should include answers to the following issues:
– Does the subject addressed in the article is worthy of investigation,
– Does the presented information is new,
– Does the conclusion were supported by the data,
– Does the materials and methods were used adequate (for the problem under investigation) and sufficiently well documented, such that work could be repeated.

Because the Journal practice Double Blind review, the reviewer cannot sign a review. In the event of reviewer answer (minor or major revision) Managing Editor send reviews with decision letter to author. Author must have answer to review point by point and resend revised manuscript to Editorial Office. Author should assign two version of revised manuscript: one with changes marked in red color and one with changes without any color. Managing Editor, on that stage, has following options: accept, send to review once again, reject. At the end Managing Editor after consultation with Editor-in-Chief take a final decision. Reviewing procedure in force in the Journal of Plant Protection Research is consistent with the guidelines of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on reviewing publications in research journals.


Articles for publication should be submitted online, at the following address:

Original article

Original article meeting the scientific criteria. Each manuscript should present the result of an independent, cohesive study. The original research articles should contain the following sections:
• Title - the title should focused on the main scientific discovery
• Abstract - less than 300 words
• Keywords - maximum 6
• Introduction
• Materials and Methods
• Results
• Discussion
• Acknowledgements
• References

The text length is limited to 15 pages, including figures, tables and references. The number of literature references is limited to 30, except for review articles. All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides. Lines, as well as every page of the manuscript, references, tables, etc. should be numbered.

Rapid communication

Rapid communication should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they have to present completed studies and to follow the same scientific standards as original article.
Rapid communication should contain the following sections:
• Title
• Abstract - less than 300 words
• Keywords - maximum 6
• Text body
• Acknowledgements
• References

The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.


Review articles are invited by the editors. Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references.Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to “hot” topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum of two figures, two tables and 20 references.


All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission.


The abstract should be informative, concise, and in a form that is fully intelligible in conjunction with the title. It should not include citation of references or reference to figures and tables in the text. Abstract should contain 400-500 words.


Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Color figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, color figures are payed (65 Euro per one color page). Attaching files please write if you want only color in online version or both online and hardcopy.
Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution, so if they should occupy text column width (8 cm) they must have at least 1000 pixels width. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo.
Bitmaps combined with text objects descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size).
Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size).
Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with number of the figure attached. Please don't use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use color fills only if necessary.
Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as “Fig.” and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.


In Acknowledgements should be included information about financial support for research presented in the paper – please give the research funder and the grant number.
Authors must provide a short description of the contributions made by each listed author (please use initials). This will be published in the Acknowledgments.

For example: AM and DB conceived and designed research. AM and BB conducted experiments. GR contributed new reagents or analytical tools. AM and GR analyzed data. AM wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.


In order to transfer copyright please download, fill in and sign the form and then send it via post or after scanning via email to JPPR office. License to publish form can be downloaded from here:


We strongly recommend that authors cite papers written by other authors published in previous issues of Journal of Plant Protection Research.

Please use Chicago style for references. References should be listed alphabetically.
Cite references in text by name and year in parentheses (from oldest one). Some examples:

1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
3. This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995a; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999).

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. The DOI should be indicated when available.
Full journals names must be written, not abbreviations.

Journal article

Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303–307. DOI:

Online article

Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI:


Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp.

Book chapter

Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463–469. In: “IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop” (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp.

Online document

Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: [Accessed: June 22, 2007]


Trent J.W. 1975. Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California, USA, 76 pp.

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