Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze

Journal of Plant Protection Research


Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2018 | vol. 58 | No 3 ahead of print |


Barley phylloplane is seriously colonized by Drechslera graminea, the causal agent of leaf

stripe disease in the hos. The present study involved the elucidation of alterations induced

in the protein content of the host due to Drechslera infection. Naturally growing barley

plants were obtained from fields and Drechslera graminea was isolated and identified from

diseased plants’ leaves. After identification and preparation of the pure culture, the pathogen

was inoculated on plants grown under aseptic and controlled laboratory conditions.

Changes in the total soluble cytoplasmic proteins and defense enzymes of the host such

as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), phenylalanine lyase (PAL) and tyrosine

ammonia lyase (TAL) were observed up to 5 h after inoculation. The results demonstrated

a significant effect of the pathogen on the cytoplasmic protein expression of the host as well

as in its defense system.

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The rules and guidelines for integrated pest management specified in Annex III, sections 2

and 3, state “General principles of integrated pest management”: Harmful organisms must

be monitored by adequate methods and tools, where available. Such adequate tools should

include observations in the field as well as scientifically sound warnings, forecasting and

early diagnostic systems, where feasible, as well as advice from professionally qualified advisors.

As part of Multiannual Programs, the Institute of Plant Protection – NRI in Poznań

has been carrying out work and research for many years to develop or modify guidelines for

monitoring short- and long-term forecasting of pest occurrence on crops. These guidelines

are extremely helpful for farmers and advisers in determining the optimum date of chemical

control of pests on plants. Regularly revised and improved the guidelines deal with pests

which currently pose a threat to crops. They are developed according to the latest scientific

findings and are successfully promoted among professional users and agricultural advisors.

These guidelines are standardized to include descriptions of species, life cycles, symptoms

of damage/infestation of crops, methods of observation targeted at warning of the need

for plant protection treatments, and threshold values of harmfulness. All guidelines include

extensive photographic material. Guidelines for the monitoring of pests on orchard

plants, vegetables and others are prepared at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation

− NRI in Puławy and the Institute of Pomology in Skierniewice. Guidelines for about

80 pests of crops are available for public use in the on-line Pest Warning System (Platforma

Sygnalizacji Agrofagów,

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The use of suitable mass rearing methods is crucial to establish successful inundative or

inoculative biological control programs. The development of an artificial diet considerably

reduces costs of mass rearing. In this study, the efficacy of a new meridic artificial

diet for rearing the predatory bug, Orius albidipennis (Het., Anthocoridae), was studied.

The artificial diet was composed of some natural materials including lamb liver, hen yolk,

whey protein, honey, royal jelly and some specific vitamins. To determine the artificial diet

efficacy life table parameters of the bugs, using the two-sex life table method, fed artificial

and factitious diets, Ephestia kuehniella egg + date palm pollen, were compared. Results

showed that O. albidipennis could complete its life stages and reproduce when reared on the

recommended artificial diet. However, its fecundity and survival rate when fed the artificial

diet was lower than the controls. Overall, due to lower production costs the artificial diet

can be recommended for mass rearing of O. albidipennis despite the lower fecundity and

survival rate.

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Ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, is a serious disease of common and

narrow-leaved ash in Europe. The resistance of individual trees seems to be important for

the maintenance of ash in European forests. In this in situ wound inoculation study, the

susceptibility and differences in resistance to H. fraxineus between Fraxinus excelsior and

F. angustifolia clones were assessed. Neither of the tested clones revealed total resistance

to ash dieback; variety between the tested clones was observed. Differences in necroses

lengths were significant between clones and between two ash species. Longer necroses were

formed in F. angustifolia than in F. excelsior. Some clones exhibiting some resistance to the

pathogen were identified.

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This study was executed to investigate the potential of agar-agar, a nontoxic and non-degradable

gelling agent, as a promising coating agent to improve and protect banana fruit

against fungal postharvest diseases i.e., crown, finger, neck and flower end rots which are

caused by fungal isolates of Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium moniliforme. Coated-ba-nana

fruit samples with different concentrations of agar-agar suspension particularly at

2.0 g · l−1 exhibited a significant reduction in incidence and severity of postharvest diseases

compared to untreated fruit. Banana fruits dipped in agar suspension at 2.0 g · l−1 for 5, 10

and 15 min showed significant reduction in disease incidence and severity. Moreover,

application of agar suspension as a coating agent at 2.0 g · l−1 significantly decreased

weight loss (%), firmness loss (%), and soluble solid concentration of banana fruit for

15 days at 25 ± 2°C. Scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed that the fruit

coated with agar colloid at 2.0 g · l−1 had significantly fewer cracks and showed smoother

surfaces than untreated fruit. This explains the quality improvement in agar-coated fruit

compared to uncoated fruit. Overall, agar colloid, a safe coating agent, could be used to

protect banana fruit against postharvest rot diseases and extend fruit storage life during

ripening and storage.

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This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate on physiological parameters of a common ornamental plant Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta). The herbicide was applied in the following doses: 720 g ⋅ ha–1 (standard field dose), 144 g ⋅ ha–1, 28.8 g ⋅ ha–1, and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1, in the form of a spraying treatment of plants in a specialist spraying chamber. The net assimilation rate and leaf greenness index were then determined. Herbicide application in the sublethal doses, i.e. below 720 g ⋅ ha–1, caused disorders in both analyzed physiological parameters of plants. The glyphosate dose of 144 g ⋅ ha–1 elicited transient disorders in the leaf greenness index. In turn, the use of the lower doses (28.8 g ⋅ ha–1 and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1) caused a short-term increase in the net photosynthesis rate in the plants which was accompanied by a decreased value of the leaf greenness index. Study results demonstrated the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate as a stress factor in parameters associated with the process of photosynthesis in plants.

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Several species of Solanum produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity. In

the present study, the inhibitory activity of Solanum chrysotrichum, S. erianthum, S. torvum

and S. rostratum against phytopathogenic Curvularia lunata was determined. Methanol extracts

from roots, stems, leaves and fruits were evaluated by the method of mycelial inhibition

on agar and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on a liquid

medium. To increase the antimicrobial activity, the combined activity of the most active

extracts for each phytopathogen was also determined (a combination of intra and interspecies

extracts). The results showed that 12 of the 16 methanolic extracts of Solanum species

had antifungal effects against C. lunata. The extracts of S. rostratum and S. erianthum

developed the highest activity (~80% inhibition and 28.4 MIC μg . ml–1), even, equal to or

greater than, the reference fungicide. The mixture of the active extracts of S. chrysotrichum

and S. torvum increased their activity. Various extracts affected the macro and microscopic

morphology and most of them reduced the number of conidia of the fungus. This resulted

in the capacity to control the vegetative growth and reproduction of C. lunata, the causal

fungus of corn leaf spot disease.

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Morocco is basically an agricultural country; almost 40% of the workforce is employed in

this sector. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-inhabiting pathogen which can infect more than

300 plant species, although most host species are symptomless. Until relatively recently,

X. fastidiosa was primarily limited to North and South America, but in 2013 a widespread

epidemic of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in

southeastern Italy, and later several cases of X. fastidiosa outbreaks have been reported

in other European countries (France, Germany and Spain). Following these recently confirmed

findings of X. fastidiosa in the European Union, this bacterium has become a serious

threat to the Moroccan flora. The national phytosanitary authorities have adopted several

measures to prevent the introduction of X. fastidiosa into the national territory by deciding,

inter alia, to suspend importation of host plant species to the bacterium from infected

areas. This paper presents the phytosanitary risk of this bacterium in Morocco.

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Early blight disease caused by Alternaria sp. is one of the most devastating diseases of

Solanaceous crops widely distributed in Sudan. The aim of this study was to determine the

genetic variation among different Alternaria isolates recovered from different Solanaceae

crops showing typical symptoms of early blight disease. Infected leaves of tomato, potato,

eggplant and pepper were collected from different geographical zones in Sudan. The recovered

fungal isolates were identified to the genus level based on cultural and morphological

characteristics. Five representative isolates were sent to the CABI Bioscience, U.K. for confirmation.

The genetic relationship among the isolates was determined using the amplified

fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) technique and the generated data were used to

create similarity matrices using the PAST 3.01 software package. Dendrograms were constructed

based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficients. A total of 70 fungal isolates was recovered

from the tested plants and all of them showed morphological characteristics typical

of Alternaria spp. The conidia appeared in multiple-branched chains with spore sizes in

the range of 2.38−13.09 μm × 12.30−43.63 μm. Therefore, the isolates were identified as

Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl. The identification was then confirmed by CABI.AFLPbased

dendrogram which revealed five clusters with a significant cophenetic correlation

coefficient (r = 0.834) between the dendrogram and the original similarity matrix irrespective

of their geographical origins. Eighteen (75%) of the Alternaria isolated from tomato

leaves were clustered together in cluster I and five isolates formed two separate clusters,

viz. cluster IV (T-Kh5 and T-H1) and cluster V (T-H4 and T-Med2). The remaining isolate,

T-Am5, grouped with one of the potato isolates in cluster III. The other isolates which were

recovered from potato, pepper and eggplants were all separated from the tomato isolates

in the largest cluster.

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The increased cultivation of highbush blueberry in Poland has been paralleled with enhanced

damage to this crop by different pests and diseases, including soft scales. We have

carried out trials to assess methods for controlling soft scales of the genus Parthenolecanium

in highbush blueberry grown in open fields or under a plastic tunnel, with an approach

based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. The reduction of Lecanium

scale population using alternative products, with mechanical mechanisms of action, was

similar to that achieved with treatments of different formulations of neonicotinyl-based

pesticides; sometimes they were even more effective on protected crops. Control programs

on plantations with a large population of Lecanium scales based on the application of these

alternative products in spring and at harvest time and chemical compounds in autumn resulted

in a very high efficacy and are considered the most suitable strategies to assure yields

without residues and a reduced impact on the environment.

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Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting many plants but Mentha viridis L., and Mentha piperita L., were low in number of infestation. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the resistance of M. viridis and M. piperita plants against T. urticae by studying the external shape and internal contents of those plants. For morphological studies, dried leaves were covered with gold utilizing an Edwards Scan coat six sputter-coater. For histological studies, arrangements of Soft Tissue technique were used. For phytochemical studies, the plants were cut, dried and then high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. While feeding the mites were collected from the area between oily glands, trichomes and respiratory stomata in both mint species. The most important leaf structures in aromatic plants are the oily glands found on the external part of the leaves (both upper and lower epidermis). The number of oil glands in M. viridis leaves was greater than in M. piperita; the trichomes on the epidermis of M. viridis were greater in number than in M. piperita; the spongy mesophyll in M. viridis was much thicker than in M. piperita. The essential oils in the leaves of both mint species contained 71 compounds representing 99.61% of the total oil constituents identified from M. viridis before infestation, and 90.95% after infestation, and about 99.65% from M. piperita before infestation, and 99.98% after infestation.

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Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate (H1) and fluazifop- -P-butyl (H2) herbicides with adjuvants on the common reed without cutting and at two different cutting levels (10 and 30 cm). The adjuvants were urea, nitric acid and sulfonic acid. The relative importance value (RIV), leaf chlorophyll content and plant density were determined to assay the efficacy of herbicides. Glyphosate treatment only (H1a) was more effective than fluazifop-P-butyl (H2a) on reeds without cutting and at the 10 cm cutting level. However, no significant difference was observed between them at the 30 cm cutting level. A positive effect of plant cutting occurred on the efficacy of all herbicides applied alone or in a tank mix with adjuvants. Furthermore, the 10 cm cutting level was more effective in eradication of reeds than the 30 cm cutting level. The adjuvants significantly improved the efficacy of the recommended (Hb) and half recommended (Hc) herbicide rates in comparison to being used alone on uncut reeds. The reduction percentages were 94.5, 86.99, 76.61 and 69.94 for H1b, H1c, H2b and H2c treatments, respectively. However, the adjuvants did not improve the glyphosate effect at different levels of cutting. Conversely the reduction percentage of reeds was improved by the recommended rate of fluazifop-P-butyl with adjuvants (H2b) to 92.77% and 84.62% at 10 and 30 cm cutting levels, respectively.
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Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: Monika Kardasz e-mail: Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski


Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak

Monika Kardasz

Instrukcje dla autorów


Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61,5 € per one colour page

Please submit your manuscript to Journal of Plant Protection Research via:


The Journal of Plant Protection Research accepts only papers covering the fundamental and applied studies of pests, pathogens and weeds noxious to agricultural crops. JPPR is published quarterly. Papers are submitted with an understanding that they have not been published elsewhere and are not being considered for publication elsewhere (exception: abstracts published in connection with conferences). The Journal of Plant Protection Research publishes original research articles, reviews and short communications.

It is assumed that all people listed as authors of submitted papers meet both basic authorship criteria: (1) they contributed substantially to study planning, data collection or interpretation of results; (2) wrote or critically revised the paper.

It is also assumed that all people listed as authors are aware of it and have agreed to be listed. On the other hand, it is assumed that no person who meets the authorship criteria has been omitted. Moreover, all people who are not listed as authors but contributed substantially to the study reported in submitted paper or assisted in its writing (e.g. language professionals) should be mentioned in the acknowledgements, with their agreement. Finally, all sources of funding for the study reported in the submitted papers should be revealed.

Acting against the above rules, especially every discovered case of scientific misconduct (ghostwriting, guest authorship, etc.), will be treated seriously by Editors. They will inform scientific bodies and/or employers of dishonest authors about it.

All submitted papers are initially evaluated by Editors according to the following criteria: compatibility of paper topic with journal policy, paper originality, importance and timeliness. The papers with insufficient priority are rejected. The other papers are sent to at least two expert referees for peer review. The existence of a paper under review is not revealed to anyone other than peer referees and editorial staff. Final decision is made by Editors after receiving all referee opinions. The authors are informed about paper acceptance or rejection within two-three months.

Manuscripts that do not strictly follow the instructions will be declined at the submission stage. An Advisory Board evaluates articles before sending them for in-depth review. About 70% of submitted articles are declined at this stage, notably because instructions are not applied strictly.


This Journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author identities are concealed form the reviewers, and vice versa, throughout the review process.
To facilitate this, authors need to ensure that their manuscripts are prepared in a way that does not give away their identity. To help with this preparation please ensure the following when submitting to Journal of Plant Protection Research:
• Submit the Title Page containing the Authors detailed and Blinded Manuscript with no author details as two separate files

Information to help prepare the Title Page

This should include a concise and informative title, name of authors with an asterisk “*” highlighting the corresponding author, the affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s), the e-mail address of the corresponding author.
The Title Page submit as an Companion Files – not with submitted manuscript as PDF.


Reviewer get on e-mail invitation for review an article, with title and abstract of the article, and have 7 days for accept or decline the invitation.
If reviewer did not respond during 7 days Managing Editor can un-invite him and invite another reviewer.
For review the reviewer has 21 days. If after that time reviewer did not resend the review, Managing Editor send him a reminder letter.
After acceptance of invitation reviewer download full manuscript, and perform the descriptive review, clearly writing their own decision about the manuscript.
Reviewer must select one of four possibilities:
– Accept
– Minor Revision
– Major Revision
– Reject.

Descriptive review should include answers to the following issues:
– Does the subject addressed in the article is worthy of investigation,
– Does the presented information is new,
– Does the conclusion were supported by the data,
– Does the materials and methods were used adequate (for the problem under investigation) and sufficiently well documented, such that work could be repeated.

Because the Journal practice Double Blind review, the reviewer cannot sign a review. In the event of reviewer answer (minor or major revision) Managing Editor send reviews with decision letter to author. Author must have answer to review point by point and resend revised manuscript to Editorial Office. Author should assign two version of revised manuscript: one with changes marked in red color and one with changes without any color. Managing Editor, on that stage, has following options: accept, send to review once again, reject. At the end Managing Editor after consultation with Editor-in-Chief take a final decision. Reviewing procedure in force in the Journal of Plant Protection Research is consistent with the guidelines of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education on reviewing publications in research journals.


Articles for publication should be submitted online, at the following address:

Original article

Original article meeting the scientific criteria. Each manuscript should present the result of an independent, cohesive study. The original research articles should contain the following sections:
• Title - the title should focused on the main scientific discovery
• Abstract - less than 300 words
• Keywords - maximum 6
• Introduction
• Materials and Methods
• Results
• Discussion
• Acknowledgements
• References

The text length is limited to 15 pages, including figures, tables and references. The number of literature references is limited to 30, except for review articles. All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides. Lines, as well as every page of the manuscript, references, tables, etc. should be numbered.

Rapid communication

Rapid communication should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they have to present completed studies and to follow the same scientific standards as original article.
Rapid communication should contain the following sections:
• Title
• Abstract - less than 300 words
• Keywords - maximum 6
• Text body
• Acknowledgements
• References

The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.


Review articles are invited by the editors. Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references.Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to “hot” topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum of two figures, two tables and 20 references.


All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission.


The abstract should be informative, concise, and in a form that is fully intelligible in conjunction with the title. It should not include citation of references or reference to figures and tables in the text. Abstract should contain 400-500 words.


Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Color figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, color figures are payed (65 Euro per one color page). Attaching files please write if you want only color in online version or both online and hardcopy.
Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution, so if they should occupy text column width (8 cm) they must have at least 1000 pixels width. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo.
Bitmaps combined with text objects descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size).
Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size).
Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with number of the figure attached. Please don't use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use color fills only if necessary.
Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as “Fig.” and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.


In Acknowledgements should be included information about financial support for research presented in the paper – please give the research funder and the grant number.
Authors must provide a short description of the contributions made by each listed author (please use initials). This will be published in the Acknowledgments.

For example: AM and DB conceived and designed research. AM and BB conducted experiments. GR contributed new reagents or analytical tools. AM and GR analyzed data. AM wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.


In order to transfer copyright please download, fill in and sign the form and then send it via post or after scanning via email to JPPR office. License to publish form can be downloaded from here:


We strongly recommend that authors cite papers written by other authors published in previous issues of Journal of Plant Protection Research.

Please use Chicago style for references. References should be listed alphabetically.
Cite references in text by name and year in parentheses (from oldest one). Some examples:

1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
3. This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995a; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999).

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. The DOI should be indicated when available.
Full journals names must be written, not abbreviations.

Journal article

Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303–307. DOI:

Online article

Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI:


Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp.

Book chapter

Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463–469. In: “IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop” (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp.

Online document

Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: [Accessed: June 22, 2007]


Trent J.W. 1975. Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California, USA, 76 pp.

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