Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica

Zawartość

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2013 | vol. 55 | No 2 |

Abstrakt

Stem structure strongly influences the drought response across a diverse group of temperate and tropical tree species. The stem of Salvadora persica (miswak), used as a chewing stick in the Islamic world, has a number of distinctive xeromorphic characteristics adapting it to arid or semi-arid conditions. The thick periderm is interrupted at points around the stem by transversely oriented lenticels to moderate exchange of vital gases. On the stem surface are 3-dimensional epicuticular crystals of various shape and size, present to protect against UV exposure, insects and pathogens. The secondary xylem contains groups of xylem fibers which consist of thickwalled narrow cells. Vessels are axially oriented without branching for interconnection. The xylem is also composed of parenchyma cells, which are characterized as ray parenchyma and wood parenchyma. The woodparenchyma become crushed in the middle, forming a chamber which is later filled with amorphous inclusions or rhombohedral crystals. SEM-EDX analysis revealed sulphur in wood parenchyma cells, likely a defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Apart from its adaptive value, the sophisticated stem anatomy of Salvadora persica, in combination with its chemistry, makes it an effective tool for oral hygiene.

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Abstrakt

This paper is both a review and a study. It discusses the taxonomic status of Yellow Archangel (Galeobdolon luteum Huds.) from historical and contemporary perspectives, and gives a comprehensive list of synonyms for the discussed genera, species and lower taxonomic units, including their publication details. In the study it is postulated that G. luteum should be included in the genus Lamium. The hypothesis is verified by a comparative analysis between the representatives of the genera Galeobdolon and Lamium in four DNA regions: ITS, accD, rpoC1 and trnH-psbA. The analysis supported the determination of phylogenetic relationships among the studied taxa: G. luteum is not genetically distant enough from Lamium to be considered a separate genus, and integration of Galeobdolon and Lamium is legitimate.

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Abstrakt

This study used ISSR markers to assess the genetic diversity of a collection of 15 genotypes of Salix purpurea and 6 interspecific hybrids, employing 40 of 60 tested ISSR primers generating polymorphic amplification products. The PCR-ISSR method was adapted for S. purpurea by optimizing the annealing temperature for each primer. The polymorphism index of ISSR amplification products was 91.8% for all studied genotypes and 70.4% for S. purpurea genotypes. Nei's genetic identity statistics ranged from 0.538 to 0.958. Nei's genetic distance values were used to build a dendrogram (UPGMA) for the investigated genotypes. The dendrogram shows five clusters, and principal coordinate analysis yielded nearly the same genetic relationships among the studied genotypes. The results confirm the usefulness of ISSR markers for determining genetic diversity in S. purpurea.

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Abstrakt

An effective procedure for producing transformed Centaurium erythraea plants from synthetic seeds is described. Explants were encapsulated in 3% sodium alginate with 3% sucrose. Encapsulated hairy roots were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/2 MS) or Woody Plant (WPM) agar-solidified regeneration media supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or without the cytokinin. The use of WPM with 0.5 mg/L of BAP gave the best shoot formation frequency (86%) and mean number of shoots (15) per root segment. Shoots rooted with 97% frequency on 1/2 MS without growth regulators. Encapsulated shoot buds were cultured on onethird- strength MS agar medium (1/3 MS) supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0.05 mg/L). The plantlet conversion frequency was 32%. The encapsulated hairy roots and shoot buds were stored for 4, 6 or 14 weeks at 4°C. Synthetic seeds encapsulated with 3% sodium alginate with 3% sucrose stored at 4°C remained viable for 6 weeks but their developmental parameters significantly decreased. Adding nutrient medium and growth regulator to the alginate matrix increased plantlet recovery from both non-stored and stored synthetic seeds: synthetic seeds retained their viability and ability to form plantlets even after 14 weeks of storage. Regenerated transformed plantlets of C. erythraea were acclimatized in the greenhouse.

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Abstrakt

The study examined changes in lysine decarboxylase (LDC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC) activity in tissues of pea (Pisum sativum L.) infested by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). The aphid induced increased ODC activity after one day and at two weeks. The effect was clearly systemic. TyDC activity increased after one day and at one week at feeding sites (aerial parts), while LDC activity increased only after one day of infestation and then decreased. Attack by aphids also affected enzyme activity in root tissues not directly damaged by the herbivores. The mechanisms of the response induced by pea aphid infestation in pea are discussed.

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Abstrakt

We measured the total chlorophyll (Chl a+b) content in seedling leaves of fifteen maize cultivars infested by two studied aphid species (oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L., monophagous Sitobion avenae F.) 7 and 14 days after the beginning of infestation, using a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. Chlorophyll loss was more severe in R. padi-infested than in S. avenae-infested plants. Chlorophyll depletion was greater after long-term (14 days) than after short-term aphid infestation in the investigated host systems. Seedlings of Złota Karłowa and Tasty Sweet were more damaged by aphid feeding; Ambrozja and Płomyk plants were less damaged by aphid feeding.

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Abstrakt

Isatis cappadocica Desv. is a newly found As-hyperaccumulator showing very high remediation efficiency in polluted soils. We studied the effects of arsenic at 0-1400 μM concentrations on seed germination, relative root length, relative shoot height, and root and shoot biomass in young seedlings of I. cappadocica. The seeds were from Iranian arsenic-contaminated mine spoils and from a non-contaminated population. The control for reference was brassica (Descurenia sofia). Germination decreased significantly versus the control with increasing arsenic concentrations. The response to arsenic exposure differed between the I. cappadocica populations and D. sofia. I. cappadocica from mine spoil seeds showed strong resistance to the highest As concentration, with no adverse effects until the 1000 μM dose. Germination from non-mine seeds of I. cappadocica decreased to 89.6% at 1400 μM As. D. sofia germination was completely inhibited at 400 μM As. Relative root length (RRL) and relative shoot height (RSH) decreased with increasing As concentration. Overall, RRL correlated with RSH. Shoot height and root length were more sensitive to arsenic than other endpoints, and might be used as arsenic toxicity indicators. I. cappadocica showed more As tolerance than the reference brassica.

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Abstrakt

It has long been observed that toxic heavy metals at different concentrations can induce root hair development in plants. In oilseed rape we studied ethylene levels and root hair initiation under Cd2+ stress. Growth of the primary root was inhibited but close to root tips the development of subapical root hairs was significantly stimulated by Cd2+ at 30 μM. Versus the control, the distance between the root tip and the root hair zone and the length of the epidermal cell in the elongation zone were significantly reduced by Cd2+ at the same concentration. Exogenous application of Cd2+ and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) to roots had similar effects on subapical root hair development. Hair density increase and hair elongation in the presence of Cd2+ were reduced by the ethylene inhibitors CoCl2 at 15 μM and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) at 10 μM. Exposing roots to Cd2+ caused a rapid increase in superoxide radical (O2 ·-) production in the root hair differentiation zone, and at the tips of emerging and newly formed root hairs. Cd2+-induced O2 ·- production at the growing hair tips was blocked in the presence of AOA. Our findings suggest that Cd2+-induced ethylene signaling may act upstream of O2 ·-. Cd2+ promotion of O2 ·- production may operate through an ethylene signaling pathway, and O2 ·- itself may stimulate root hair elongation.

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Abstrakt

The Crassulaceae family mainly comprises herbaceous leaf succulents, some of which are used as ornamentals. The development of the embryo suspensor in Sedum reflexum L. was investigated using cytochemical methods, light and electron microscopy. The full development and functioning of the suspensor occurs during the late globular and heart-stage embryos. The suspensor consists of a large basal cell and a single row of 6-10 chalazal cells. The basal cell produces a branched haustorium which invades ovular tissues. The walls of the haustorium and the micropylar part of the basal cell form the wall ingrowths that are typical for transfer cells. The dense cytoplasm filling the basal cell is rich in profiles of endoplasmic reticulum, active dictyosomes, mitochondria, plastids, microtubules, bundles of microfilaments, microbodies and lipid droplets. The present work reveals that the suspensor structure in S. reflexum markedly differs from that found in other representatives of Crassulaceae. Ultrastructural analysis and cytochemical tests (including proteins, insoluble polysaccharides and lipids) indicate that in S. reflexum the embryo suspensor is involved mainly in absorption and transport of metabolites from the ovular tissues to the developing embryo proper via the chalazal suspensor cells.

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Abstrakt

cAMP is a second messenger which plays a regulatory role in a wide variety of biological processes in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes, but knowledge of its role in macroalgae and vascular plants is limited. We modified cAMP levels in the macroalga Chara vulgaris thallus and studied the effects on thallus growth and gametangia development: db-cAMP (permeable analog of cAMP), adenylate cyclase (AC) activator, forskolin and theophylline (cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor) were used to elevate cAMP levels, and the AC inhibitors 2'-dAdo and 2'-d3'-AMP were used to decrease them. The results suggest that in Chara vulgaris the cAMP pathway may regulate both vegetative thallus growth and gametangia development, and that these effects may depend on this second-messenger level. Elevated cAMP stimulated thallus growth and delayed gametangia development; decreased cAMP inhibited thallus growth and accelerated maturation of both antheridia and oogonia. These results suggest that the cAMP pathway participates in regulation of developmental processes in Chara vulgaris and that thallus growth and gametangia development require different cAMP levels in cells.

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Abstrakt

Morphological description of seeds is a required step for analysis of biodiversity in natural populations and may give clues to adaptive strategies in species evolution. A cardioid is the curve described by a point of one circumference rolling around another circumference of equal radius. Models based on adjustment of seed shape with cardioid curves have been described for Arabidopsis thaliana and the model legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In this work the model is applied to analyze seed morphology in populations of two subspecies of Capparis spinosa growing in Tunisia. Adjustment of seed images to cardioid curves, followed by statistical analysis of similarity in the complete images as well as in each of four quadrants, allows an accurate description of seed shape. The results show differences in morphology between subspecies. Seeds of subsp. rupestris present higher diversity of shape than seeds of subsp. spinosa. This may indicate primitiveness of C. subsp. rupestris seeds, associated with nonspecialization. The results are discussed in relation to the ecological strategies of both subspecies in their evolution.

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Abstrakt

We studied the thermophilous grass Bromus erectus in Central Europe to determine its pattern of population genetic structure and genetic diversity, using ISSR-PCR fingerprinting to analyze 200 individuals from 37 populations. We found three genetic groups with a clear geographic structure, based on a Bayesian approach. The first group occurred west and south of the Alps, the second east and north of the Alps, and the third was formed by four genetically depauperated populations in Germany. The populations from Germany formed a subset of the Bohemian-Moravian populations, with one private allele. Two differentiation centers, one in the Atlantic- Mediterranean and the second in the Pannonian-Balkan area, were recognized by species distribution modeling. The geographic distribution of the genetic groups coincides with the syntaxonomic split of the Festuco-Brometea class into the Festucetalia valesiaceae and Brometalia erecti orders. We found a statistically significant decrease in mean ISSR bands per individual from south to north, and to a lesser extent from the east to west. The former was explained by Holocene long-distance migrations from southern refugia, the latter by the difference in the gradient of anthropopression. We hypothesize a cryptic northern shelter of the species in Central Europe in the putative Moravian-Bohemian refugium.

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Abstrakt

An efficient system for plant regeneration of Senna occidentalis from hypocotyl-derived callus was developed. Callus was induced from leaf and hypocotyl explants on MS medium amended with 9.04 μM 2,4-D + 2.22 μM BAP and 10.74 μM NAA + 2.22 μM BAP. Medium browning due to leaching of compounds from callus was encountered and ameliorated through incorporation of 2.84 μM ascorbic acid. Leaf-derived callus showed no shoot induction ability, while hypocotyl-derived callus produced shoots in all cytokinin-amended treatments and also in combination with 2.68 μM NAA. For shoot formation, BAP-augmented treatments were better than medium with Kin added. Rhizogenesis was better on 1/2 MS basal medium with IBA than in the NAA and IAA treatments. Regenerated plants were acclimatized with 94% survival and showed similar morphology to field-grown plants.

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Abstrakt

The study examined tyrosol glucosyltransferase activity and the efficiency of salidroside production in natural and transformed root cultures of Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Regel et Maximowicz. Neither enzyme activity nor salidroside accumulation were detected in natural and transformed root cultures maintained in media without tyrosol. To induce TGase activity in biotransformation reactions, tyrosol was added to natural and transformed root cultures on the day of inoculation. The first peak of TGase activity (0.23 U/μg) was detected on day 9 in natural root culture, accompanied by the highest salidroside content (15.79 mg/g d.w.), but TGase activity was highest (0.27 U/μg) on day 15. In transformed root culture, day 18 showed the highest TGase activity (0.15 U/μg), which coincided with the highest salidroside content (2.4 mg/g d.w.). Based on these results, tyrosol was added to the medium on the days of highest previously detected activity of TGase: day 15 for natural root cultures and day 18 for transformed root cultures. This strategy gave significantly higher yields of salidroside than in the cultures supplemented with tyrosol on the day of inoculation. In natural root culture, salidroside production reached 21.89 mg/g d.w., while precursor feeding in transformed root cultures caused a significant increase in salidroside accumulation to 7.55 mg/g d.w. In all treatments, salidroside production was lower in transformed than in natural root cultures.

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Abstrakt

In flowering plants, seeds are produced both sexually (double fertilization is required) and asexually via apomixis (meiotic reduction and egg fertilization are omitted). An apomictic-like pattern of endosperm development in planta is followed by fis mutants of sexual Arabidopsis thaliana. In our experiments in planta, autonomous endosperm (AE) developed in met1 mutants. Furthermore we obtained autonomous endosperm formation in vitro not only in unfertilized ovules of fie mutants but also in wild genotypes (Col-0, MET1/MET1, FIE/FIE) and met1 mutants. AE induction and development occurred in all genotypes on the each of the media used and in every trial. The frequency of AE was relatively high (51.2% ovaries) and genotype-dependent. AE induced in vitro represents a more advanced stage of development than AE induced in fie mutants in planta. This was manifested by a high number of nuclei surrounded by cytoplasm and organized in nuclear cytoplasmic domains (NCDs), nodule formation, division into characteristic regions, and cellularization. The high frequency of AE observed in homozygous met1 (met1/met1) mutants probably is due to accumulation of hypomethylation as an effect of the met1 mutation and the in vitro conditions. AE development was most advanced in FIE/fie mutants. We suggest that changes in the methylation of one or several genes in the DNA of Arabidopsis genotypes caused by in vitro conditions resulted in AE induction and/or further AE development.

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Abstrakt

Self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetic system that promotes outcrossing by rejecting self-pollen. In the Brassicaceae the SI response is mediated by the pistil S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its ligand, pollen Slocus cysteine-rich (SCR) protein. Transfer of SRK-SCR gene pairs to self-fertile Arabidopsis thaliana enabled establishment of robust SI, making this transgenic self-incompatible A. thaliana an excellent platform for SI analysis. Here we report isolation of a novel A. thaliana self-incompatibility mutant, AtC24 SI mutant, induced by heavy-ion beam irradiation. We show that the AtC24 SI mutant exhibits breakdown of SI, with pollen hydration, pollen tube growth and seed set resembling the corresponding processes in wild-type (self-fertile) A. thaliana. Further reciprocal crosses indicated that some perturbed SI factor in the stigmatic cell of the AtC24 SI mutant is responsible for the observed phenotype, while the pollen response remained intact. Our results demonstrate successful application of heavy-ion beam irradiation to induce a novel A. thaliana self-incompatibility mutant useful for SI studies.

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Abstrakt

Somatic chromosome numbers are given for the following Taraxacum species: T. pieninicum, 2n=16; T. dentatum, 2n=24; T. fascinans, 2n=24; T. mendax, 2n=40; T. subalpinum, 2n=24; T. telmatophilum, 2n=24; T. cyanolepis, 2n=24; T. fulgidum, 2n=24; T. gentile, 2n=24; and T. undulatum, 2n=24. Chromosome numbers from Poland are published for the first time for T. dentatum, T. fascinans, T. mendax, T. subalpinum, T. telmatophilum, T. cyanolepis, T. fulgidum, T. gentile and T. undulatum.

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Redakcja

Editor
ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl


Managing Editor
MONIKA TULEJA
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl



Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA; ballardh@ohio.edu
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland; ancyt@biotop.umcs.lublin.pl
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; borut.bohanec@bf.uni-lj.si
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy; cresti@unisi.it
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland; marlig@biol.uw.edu.pl
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland; dubert@ifr-pan.krakow.pl
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria; johann.greilhuber@univie.ac.at
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia; anna.koltunow@csiro.au
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland; jolanta.maluszynska@us.edu.pl
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic; karol.marhold@savba.sk
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France; ematthysr69@gmail.com
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland; m.pajak@iphils.uj.edu.pl
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland; jryb@obpan.pl
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom; twe@leicester.ac.uk
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria; hanna.schneeweiss@univie.ac.at
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey; pharmacogalev@gmail.com
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants


Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
e-mail: jurboh@biotech.univ.gda.pl

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
e-mail: robert.hasterok@us.edu.pl

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: robert.konieczny@uj.edu.pl

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland
e-mail: pharmaceutical.biology@wp.eu

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland
e-mail: m.ronikier@botany.pl

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland
e-mail: elwira@utp.edu.pl

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: i.slesak@ifr-pan.krakow.pl

Kontakt

 

Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594
e-mail:
a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl

 

Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl

 

Instrukcje dla autorów

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study. Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.
2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager:
https://www.editorialsystem.com/abcsb
Editor: Prof. Dr. ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
e-mail: a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl
Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.
3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.
4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).
5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.
6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.
7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.
8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.
9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.
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The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.
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