Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica

Zawartość

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2011 | vol. 53 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

Intraspecific changes in genome size and chromosome number lead to divergence and species evolution. Heavy metals disturb the cell cycle and cause mutations. Areas contaminated by heavy metals (metalliferous sites) are places where microevolutionary processes accelerate: very often only a few generations are enough for a new genotype to arise. This study, which continues our long-term research on Viola tricolor (Violaceae), a species occurring on both metalliferous (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu) and non-metalliferous soils in Western and Central Europe, is aimed at determining the influence of environments polluted with heavy metals on genome size and karyological variability. The genome size of V. tricolor ranged from 3.801 to 4.203 pg, but the differences between metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations were not statistically significant. Altered chromosome numbers were significantly more frequent in material from the polluted sites than from the non-polluted sites (43% versus 28%). Besides the standard chromosome number (2n = 26), aneuploid cells with lower (2n = 18-25) or higher (2n = 27, 28) chromosome numbers were found in plants from both types of site, but polyploid (2n = 42) cells were observed only in plants from the metalliferous locality. The lack of correlation between chromosome variability in root meristematic cells and genome size estimated from peduncle cells can be attributed to elimination of somatic mutations in generative meristem, producing chromosome-stable non-meristematic tissues in the peduncle.

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Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Dar) leaves exposed to UV-B irradiation at a biologically effective dose of 9.5 kJ m-2d-1 showed decreased chlorophyll fluorescence parameter values versus the control; in peppermint (Mentha piperita L. cv. Asia) leaves those values were almost unchanged after treatment. Fv/Fo and Rfd were reduced more than other values, indicating inhibition of the oxygen-evolving complex and cooperation between the light and dark photosynthesis reactions as the primary targets of UV-B. The photosynthetic electron transport rate showed less change directly after irradiation, but after 24 h of recovery it was reduced to 50% of the control. Generally, photosystem II of peppermint leaves appeared more tolerant to the applied UV-B radiation than in cucumber leaves.

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We investigated the antioxidant defense mechanism, metal uptake and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels at different leaf positions in Mentha piperita L. grown in Mn2+-deficient and control conditions. Under manganese deficiency the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GuaPOX) and the content of ascorbate, chlorophyll, and carotenoid under Mn2+ deficiency were significantly lower than in the control for all leaf positions. SOD activity correlated positively with Mn2+ uptake. Fe2+ uptake was inhibited by Mn2+ deficiency. During early stages of Mn2+ deficiency, M. piperita leaves showed relatively more antioxidant activity and lower LPO. Towards the final stages of the treatment period, comparatively lower SOD, CAT and GuaPOX activity and higher LPO levels accelerated the senescence process.

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We investigated direct and indirect formation of somatic embryogenesis in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower), a very important vegetable crop worldwide. Direct somatic embryogenesis, which is rather rare, was achieved in culture of 2-week-old hypocotyl explants of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5 mg/l kinetin. Initial induction of embryogenic callus was achieved on MS supplemented with very low concentrations of 2,4-D (0.05 mg/l and 0.1 mg/l). Indirect somatic embryogenesis from leaf sections was obtained on MS supplemented with 0.05 or 0.1 mg/l 2,4-D. We examined various stages of somatic embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary). More embryos per explant were produced through the indirect pathway (23-25) than through the direct pathway (14-19). The number of embryos produced was high. There is a potential for recurrent, repeated or secondary somatic embryogenesis, possibly an unlimited source for mass propagation and ideal for synthetic seed production in this species. Plant regeneration was achieved on half-strength MS medium without any hormones.

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We examined whether allelochemical stress leads to increased lipoxygenase activity in roots of sweet maize (Zea mays L. ssp. saccharata), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and radish (Raphanus sativum L. var. radicula). The lipoxygenase activity of soluble and membrane-bound fractions was assessed in roots after exposure to ferulic and p-coumaric acids. Lipid peroxidation and membrane injury were determined as indicators of stress. Increased lipoxygenase activity of both studied fractions was followed by lipid peroxidation and plasma membrane injury. The results suggest the key role of lipoxygenase in plasma membrane injury during allelochemical stress caused by administration of hydroxycinnamic acids.

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We used via light and scanning electron microscopy to study the leaf epidermis of five Solidago taxa from south-western Poland. Light microscopy was employed to describe the epidermal surface, including stomatal types, the shape of epidermal cell walls, stomatal density, the distribution of stomata between the abaxial and adaxial epidermis, and stomatal guard cell length. From these observations we calculated the stomatal index (SI) and stomatal ratio (SR) as the basis for defining the type of leaf. From LM of transverse sections of leaf we described mesophyll structure, the presence of secretory canals, adaxial and abaxial epidermis thickness, and leaf thickness. We examined cuticular ornamentation, trichome features and epicuticular secretions by SEM. As determined by discriminatory analysis, the most important traits distinguishing these taxa were the stomatal index of the adaxial epidermis, leaf thickness, features of the walls of epidermal cells, and the presence and features of trichomes. On the basis of observations and measurements we created a key for distinguishing Solidago taxa.

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In order to evaluate morphological and physiological traits related to drought tolerance and to determine the best criteria for screening and identification of drought-tolerant genotypes, we grew two tolerant genotypes (MCC392, MCC877) and two sensitive genotypes (MCC68, MCC448) of chickpea under drought stress (25% field capacity) and control (100% field capacity) conditions and assessed the effect of drought stress on growth, water relations, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content in the seedling, early flowering and podding stages. Drought stress significantly decreased shoot dry weight, CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and Psii photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) in all genotypes. In the seedling and podding stages, Psii photochemical efficiency was higher in tolerant genotypes than in sensitive genotypes under drought stress. Water use efficiency (WUE) and CO2 assimilation rate were also higher in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes in all investigated stages under drought stress. Our results indicated that water use efficiency, A and Fv/Fm can be useful markers in studies of tolerance to drought stress and in screening adapted cultivars of chickpea under drought stress.

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Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important foliar diseases of cereals. Infection by this pathogen on triticale has intensified in Poland in the last few years. In this study we examined resistance to powdery mildew in triticale hybrids possessing resistance genes Pm4b and Pm6 introduced from common wheat. The materials tested were hybrids derived from triticale crosses with common wheat cultivars carrying the desired resistance genes. The presence of the transferred genes was reflected in increased field resistance and shown by the use of molecular markers. The paper discusses the potential introduction of the genes to improve powdery mildew resistance.

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Secretory ducts and cavities of roots and rhizomes are typical features of the Cardueae tribe in the Asteraceae family. We used light microscopy to analyze the anatomy of the subterranean organs of 21 species of 13 genera of the Cardueae, with particular attention to the secretory system, interpreted in taxonomic terms. The anatomy of secretory ducts varied greatly. A new measurement quotient, C1 [length of epithelial cells (longitudinal section)] and C2 [length of adjacent cells (longitudinal section)] was established. Different types of ducts are described based on type of development and the size ratios among epithelial cells. Detailed anatomical descriptions of the ducts are given, together with their occurrence in particular taxa. The simultaneous presence of various secretory ducts within a single species and their spatial position relative to other prominent anatomical features provide valuable characters for discriminating the studied Cardueae species. These analyses are of particular interest for identification of herbal drugs as, besides chemical analytical techniques such as chromatographic fingerprinting, light microscopy is a common method for purity controls and thus required in official pharmacopeias.

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We examined whether peroxidase activity in cutting bases and leaves and starch content in cutting bases can be used as rooting phase markers in the elepidote rhododendron cv. ‘Babites Baltais’ (Rhododendron L.). Changes in peroxidase activity in cutting leaves and bases, as well as starch content in cutting bases, were determined in relation to anatomical stages of rhizogenesis in leaf bud cuttings treated with 1% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA+) or without IBA (IBA-). The pattern of change of peroxidase activity was similar in cutting bases and leaves of IBA- leaf bud cuttings. Three phases of adventitious root formation were identified: induction, initiation and expression. During the induction phase peroxidase activity decreased, but no anatomical changes were observed in the cuttings. Peroxidase activity increased in the initiation phase when adventitious root initials were formed. Peroxidase activity decreased during the expression phase when adventitious root primordia developed. The starch content of IBA- leaf bud cuttings decreased during the first few days and then gradually rose to maximum, followed by a sharp reduction and another increase at the end of the experiment. The changes of starch content did not coincide with rooting phases as peroxidase activity did, and cannot be used as a rooting phase marker in rhododendrons. Adventitious root formation did not occur in IBA+ leaf bud cuttings, so distinct rooting phases could not be observed. There was a significant correlation between peroxidase activity in cutting bases and leaves of IBA- leaf bud cuttings. Peroxidase activity in leaves of rhododendron leaf bud cuttings are potentially useful as a marker for rooting phases, but that requires further anatomical and physiological study of rooting in leaf bud cuttings.

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Shoot tips excised from shoot culture of Salvia officinalis were encapsulated in 2% or 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and exposed to 50 mM calcium chloride for complexation. Immediately or after 6, 12 or 24 weeks of storage at 4°C, the synthetic seeds were cultured for 6 weeks on half-strength MS medium supplemented with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0.1 mg/l) and solidified with 0.7% agar. The frequency of shoot and root emergence from encapsulated shoot tips was affected by the concentrations of sodium alginate and additives in the gel matrix (sucrose, gibberellic acid, MS nutrient medium) as well as duration of storage. The frequency of shoot and root induction of non-stored synthetic seeds was highest with shoot tips encapsulated with 2% sodium alginate containing 1.5% sucrose and 0.5 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA3). Shoot tips maintained their viability and ability to develop shoots even after 24 weeks of storage when they were encapsulated in 3% alginate with 1/3 MS medium, sucrose (1.5%) and GA3 (0.25 mg/l). Root formation tended to decrease with storage time. Overall, 90% of the plantlets derived from stored and non-stored synthetic seeds survived in the greenhouse and grew to phenotypically normal plants. This procedure can enable the use of synthetic seed technology for germplasm conservation of S. officinalis, a plant species of high medical and commercial value.

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The paper reports meiotic studies on 50 populations comprising 12 species belonging to 5 genera of Caryophyllaceae from the Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in Arenaria kashmirica (n=20), Silene conoidea (n=20), S. edgeworthii (n=12 and n=24), S. moorcroftiana (n=24), S. nepalensis (n=12), Stellaria media (n=13), S. monosperma (n=13) and S. semivestita (n=13) are reported for the first time. The chromosome numbers in Lychnis coronaria (n=12) and Silene vulgaris (n=24) are given for the first time from India, along with Gypsophilla ceratioides (n=15) from the Western Himalayas. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Silene conoidea, S. edgeworthii, S. vulgaris, Stellaria media, S. monosperma and S. semivestita. The course of meiosis was abnormal in all studied populations of Lychnis coronaria. Abnormal microsporogenesis (cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges) led to reduced pollen fertility and differences in pollen grain size.

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Poor seed set is a limiting factor in alfalfa breeding, as it slows the selection response. One strategy used to overcome this problem is to search for mutations of inflorescence morphology. Long-peduncle (lp), branched-raceme (br) and top-flowering (tf) inflorescence mutations increase the number of flowers per inflorescence, but they do not improve seed set per flower. Here we assessed pollen tube growth in styles of those inflorescence mutants and we observed embryo and endosperm development in seeds 1 to 16 days after pollination (DAP). The number of pollen tubes penetrating the style and the ovary was similar in all tested mutants and in the reference cultivar Radius. At 2 DAP, fertilized ovules were 2.7-3.9 times less numerous in certain inflorescence mutants than in the short-raceme cv. Radius. Ovule degeneration progressed at 2-4 DAP in all analyzed plants. Most ovules were not properly developed in the control cultivar (62%), nor in the forms with mutated inflorescence morphology (69-86%). The number of seeds per pod was lowest in the tf form despite its having the highest number of ovules per ovary. It appears that the number of ovules per pistil is not a crucial factor in seed set in alfalfa when fertilization efficiency is very low. Both poor fertilization and gradual ovule degeneration were factors causing poor seed set in the investigated alfalfa genotypes.

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Chromosome numbers of 46 Hieracium L. and Pilosella Vaill. taxa from Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Slovakia are presented. Chromosomes numbers are given for the first time for Hieracium amphigenum Briq. 2n = 3× = 27, H. bohatschianum Zahn 2n = 4× = 36, H. borbasii R. Uechtr. 2n = 4× = 36, H. cernuum Friv. 2n = 2× = 18, H. hazslinszkyi Pax 2n = 3× = 27, H. mirekii Szeląg 2n = 4× = 36, H. polyphyllobasis (Nyár. & Zahn) Szeląg 2n = 3× = 27, H. porphyriticum A. Kern. 2n = 4× = 36, H. racemosum Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. subsp. racemosum 2n = 3× = 27, H. scardicum Borm. & Zahn 2n = 4× = 36, H. sparsum subsp. ipekanum Rech. fil. & Zahn 2n = 4× = 36, H. sparsum subsp. peristeriense Behr & Zahn, H. sparsum subsp. squarrosobracchiatum Behr & al. 2n = 3× = 27, H. tomosense Simk. 2n = 4× = 36, H. tubulare Nyár. 2n = 4× = 36, H. werneri Szeląg 2n = 3× = 27 and Pilosella fusca subsp. subpedunculata (Zahn) Szeląg, as well as five species of Hieracium sect. Cernua R. Uechtr. not described to date and a hybrid between H. bifidum s. lat. and H. pojoritense Woł

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Triploid viviparous onions [Allium x cornutum Clementi ex Visiani 1842, syn Allium cepa L. var. viviparum Metzg. (Alef.), auct.] (2n = 3x = 24), are known in some countries only as rare relict crops. In other parts of the world they are still traditionally or even commercially cultivated. In previous cytogenetic studies of the Croatian triploid viviparous onion Ljutika, Giemsa C-banding, chromosome pairing analysis during meiosis, and genomic hybridization in situ indicated a complex hybrid with highly heterozygous karyotype structure, with possible triparental genome organization. This study continues an analysis of the karyotype structure of Ljutika. Staining with fluorochromes CMA3 (Chromomycin A3) and Dapi (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) confirmed previous results from Giemsa C-banding and revealed GC-rich heterochromatic regions associated mainly with chromosome ends and nucleolus organizing regions (NORs), and only a few interstitial bands. Fish mapping of the ribosomal 18S-5.8S-26S genes revealed two major rDNA signals on the short arms of two subtelocentric satellite chromosomes in almost all metaphase plates of Ljutika. The largest subtelocentric chromosome lacked rDNA signals. A significantly smaller rDNA signal was occasionally located on one small submetacentric chromosome. These results are in agreement with previously published results from identification of NORs by silver-staining technique, which confirmed a maximum three nucleoli in interphase nuclei. We discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying rearrangements and activity of ribosomal genes in the triploid karyotype.

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We used chromosome data to verify the taxonomic affiliation of specimens previously recognized as Brachyactis ciliata. All analyzed plants were diploids based on x = 7 (2n = 2x = 14), the basic number characteristic for Symphyotrichum ciliatum, allowing the examined species to be shifted from the genus Brachyactis to the genus Symphyotrichum sect. Conyzopsis. The chromosome number (2n = 2x = 14) for specimens of S. ciliatum from Poland is reported for the first time.

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This communication reports detection of somaclonal variation among tissue culture-raised plants of Amorphophallus rivieri Durieu, an economically important crop in China, with high content of glucomannan in its corms. A population of regenerated plants was obtained from a single donor plant of A. rivieri via corm organogenesis, and 28 plants were randomly selected as a representative sample and subjected to analysis of somaclonal variation using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Of the 26 ISSR primers screened, 13 gave distinct and reproducible band patterns, yielding 131 bands with an average of 10.1 bands per primer. Ten primers were polymorphic and generated 16 polymorphic bands with 12.2% mean polymorphism. Based on the ISSR data from the regenerated plants and the donor plant, Jaccard's similarity coefficients were calculated; they ranged from 0.961 to 1.000 with a mean of 0.982. A dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (Upgma); it showed that a majority of regenerated plants (including the donor plant) clustered closely, with a mean similarity coefficient of 0.987. Low somaclonal variation observed in the regenerated plants indicates that rapid propagation of A. rivieri via corm organogenesis is a practicable method with a low risk of genetic instability.

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We used the Dpph method to assess in vitro the antiradical activity of extracts from the roots, leaves and fruits of six Rumex L. (dock) species. Data from preliminary screening indicated that all the tested extracts showed antioxidant properties. The degree of antiradical activity depended upon the plant part. Fruit extracts from R. hydrolapathum Huds., R. obtusifolius L. and R. confertus Willd. showed stronger antiradical properties than the other tested material. We also determined tannin content levels in the extracts and their correlation with antioxidant activity.

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Redakcja

Editor
ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl


Managing Editor
MONIKA TULEJA
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl



Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA; ballardh@ohio.edu
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland; ancyt@biotop.umcs.lublin.pl
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; borut.bohanec@bf.uni-lj.si
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy; cresti@unisi.it
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland; marlig@biol.uw.edu.pl
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland; dubert@ifr-pan.krakow.pl
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria; johann.greilhuber@univie.ac.at
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia; anna.koltunow@csiro.au
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland; jolanta.maluszynska@us.edu.pl
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic; karol.marhold@savba.sk
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France; ematthysr69@gmail.com
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland; m.pajak@iphils.uj.edu.pl
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland; jryb@obpan.pl
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom; twe@leicester.ac.uk
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria; hanna.schneeweiss@univie.ac.at
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey; pharmacogalev@gmail.com
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants


Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
e-mail: jurboh@biotech.univ.gda.pl

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
e-mail: robert.hasterok@us.edu.pl

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: robert.konieczny@uj.edu.pl

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland
e-mail: pharmaceutical.biology@wp.eu

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland
e-mail: m.ronikier@botany.pl

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland
e-mail: elwira@utp.edu.pl

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: i.slesak@ifr-pan.krakow.pl

Kontakt

 

Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594
e-mail:
a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl

 

Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl

 

Instrukcje dla autorów

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study. Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.
2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager:
https://www.editorialsystem.com/abcsb
Editor: Prof. Dr. ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
e-mail: a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl
Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.
3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.
4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).
5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.
6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.
7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.
8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.
9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.
10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.
11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.
12. Proof will be sent directly to the authors in electronic form as a pdf file. Authors’ corrections have to be inserted in the printout of the PDF proof. The corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor within six days via Editorial Manager or by e-mail. Proofs not returned promptly by authors will be corrected by the Editor.
13. Copyright. Exclusive copyright in all papers accepted for publication must be assigned to the Polish Academy of Sciences, but the Academy will not restrict the authors’ freedom to use material contained in the paper in other works by the authors (with reference where they were first published).
14. Offprints. A pdf of each paper is supplied to the authors free of charge.

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