Life Sciences and Agriculture

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica


Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2014 | No 1 |


Abstract The chromosome numbers and frequency of polyploids were compared in life forms of Asteraceae, Poaceae and Rosaceae. Both parameters were higher in Poaceae and Rosaceae than in Asteraceae. Among the life forms, long-lived plants including perennials and woody plants (shrubs and trees) generally had higher chromosome numbers and consequently polyploid frequencies than short-lived species (annuals and biennials). The families surveyed have different frequencies of life forms. Asteraceae and Rosaceae are both dicots, but the life forms in Asteraceae are more similar to Poaceae than to Rosaceae. To separate the influence of life form, in a series of tests we compared life forms from the same families. These results also showed that long-lived forms generally have more chromosomes than short-lived ones.
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Abstract The genetic diversity of potato cultivars collected from Yunnan Province was evaluated using 24 pairs of SSR markers. SSR analysis of 24 pairs of primers showed varying degrees of polymorphism among the 85 cultivars: 297 of the 304 bands were polymorphic. The primers yielded between 5 (STM2028) and 19 (StI029) bands (mean 12). The ratio of polymorphic bands ranged from 83.33% to 100% (mean 97.75%). Polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 69.31% to 93.67% (mean 86.47%). Genetic similarity ranged from 0.5987 to 0.7632, indicating relatively low genetic diversity in the potato cultivars from Yunnan Province. Cluster analysis by UPGMA and PCA clearly delineated the genetic relationships of all cultivars; 83 of the 85 cultivars could be discriminated by only two pairs of primers, STM0030 and STM1104. The high polymorphism and good resolution of the primers used in this study make them good tools for discriminating potato cultivars.
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Abstract Cell pattern and ultrasculpture were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy in bulb tunics of 46 Allium species to determine the diagnostic value of micromorphological characters. The study examined the diversity of these characters, evaluated their usefulness at different taxonomic levels (species, section, subgenus), and considered the results in relation to the recent intrageneric classification of the genus. Detailed characteristics are provided for the investigated species, and taxa showing the presence of calcium oxalate crystals in bulb tunic cells are indicated. The results suggest that several bulb tunic characters are of taxonomic significance in Allium as their variation between specimens of the same species was negligible; they can be useful elements of species descriptions and determination keys. Allium subgenus Allium shows considerable variation of bulb tunic ultrasculpture and hexagonal or elongated cell patterns. Differences in ultrasculpture are sufficient to distinguish species within the Amerallium subgenus. Three subgenera (Anguinum, Butomissa, Reticulatobulbosa) are characterized by fibrous tunics with reticulate ultrasculpture. Rectangular to elliptic cells with thick walls, giving the bulb tunic an almost perforated structure, are characteristic for Allium subgenus Cepa. No specific pattern was found for Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum and Polyprason. The only representative of subgenus Microscordum (Allium monanthum) showed distinct herringbone ultrasculpture. The bulbs of Allium subgenus Rhizirideum representatives can be distinguished by their linear ultrasculpture following the long axis of the elongated cells. Allium bulb tunic ultrasculpture and cell pattern show some degree of variability. These characters are of potential use in taxonomic delimitation, species determination and further study of the relationships between species, particularly in members of subgenus Amerallium.
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Abstract Stellaria holostea is a clonal herb highly confined to well-established deciduous forests. This study examined whether its genetic diversity and spatial genetic organization in urban forest islands is similar to the values from well-established populations outside urban landscape. We studied four populations in Warsaw and two populations from well preserved forests outside the city. Genetic diversity was greater in populations from well-preserved forests than from forests heavily exploited in the past. High clonal diversity indices indicate that the studied populations did not lose the ability to reproduce sexually. The small populations in urban forests differed from the remaining sites in spatial organization. High overall FST (0.24) and the lack of correlation between genetic and geographic distance between the studied populations indicate limited gene flow. Urban forests may be of great value for conservation of S. holostea and other ancient forest species as they may still harbor substantial genetic variability despite their isolation.
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Abstract Mechanical damage to scales of Hippeastrum × hybr. bulbs leads to the formation of phytoalexin-like compounds which redden the wounded tissue. The reaction is accompanied by an increase in methyl jasmonate (JA-Me). Applying 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid, a jasmonate biosynthesis inhibitor, decreases the level of endogenous jasmonates and decreases the plant's ability to produce the red pigment. Experimental results indicate that jasmonates are involved in the defense response to wounding in Hippeastrum, which is manifested in the formation of red pigment, a compound of chalcones and flavans with phytoalexin-like properties.
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Abstract A chlorophyll fluorescence technique enabled early detection of disturbances in the activity of the photosynthet-ic apparatus under Phoma lingam infection. The photosynthetic apparatus of leaves and cotyledons exhibited a negative response to P. lingam inoculation. The effect disappeared more rapidly in leaves, which were not inoculated directly, than in cotyledons, which were inoculated directly. Photosynthetic apparatus disturbances were detected in cotyledons and leaves as early as 24 h after inoculation. Photosynthetic apparatus activity can be affected by the level of hydrogen peroxide, which in cotyledons probably was an element of the hypersensitive response and in leaves could induce an increase in pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase.
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Abstract RAPD analysis was applied to assess the degree of DNA polymorphism in A. fistulosum calli of high chromosomal instability. Nineteen of 24 randomly selected RAPD primers revealed scorable polymorphism between calli and seeds (reference material). Polymorphic band frequency was 55/237 in seeds and 36/233 in calli; variability on the DNA level was thus lower in calli than in seeds (15.4% vs. 23.2% of band positions). UPGMA analysis of Jaccard's coefficients confirmed the genetic similarity of the analyzed cultures. The most distinctive DNA changes in calli involved coincident loss of original bands or the appearance of novel bands. Seven such changes (4 losses, 3 gains) were observed. Our results suggest that changes on the chromosomal level and on the DNA level occurred independently of each other and that different callus lines underwent similar genetic changes during culture, presumably due to strong selection pressure effected by standard in vitro conditions.
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Abstract Current biotechnology research is focused on tissue-specific expression of genes of interest in plants. Promoters with specific spatial and temporal expression profiles in targeted organisms are in wide use for this. This study investigated whether the Arabidopsis thaliana seed- and pollen-specific promoter MXL maintains its specificity in transgenic tobacco plants. Histochemical analysis revealed that the MXL fusion promoter drives slightly different GUS expression in that heterologous organism. GUS staining was clearly detected in the bicellular stage of pollen development and later in germinating tobacco pollen grains. Unlike in A. thaliana, where the MXL promoter is active during the whole period of embryo development, in tobacco its activity was restricted to a short temporal and spatial window from late-heart to mid-torpedo stages, mainly in the apical part of the developing embryo. These results point to the need to test the expression profiles of heterologous promoters in targeted species before they are used in particular biotechnological programs.
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Abstract The function of one-helix proteins (OHPs) in the thylakoid membrane remains poorly understood but may be linked to plant photosystem protection. In Arabidopsis, the 3'UTRs of the genes encoding OHP and OHP2 partially overlap with NDP1 and MES14 respectively. Antisense orientation of genes has the potential to form double-stranded transcript (dsRNA) molecules which can be processed to siRNA and trigger RNA interference (RNAi). Natural siRNAs are induced by abiotic and biotic stresses. We examined whether the expression of the OHP-NDP1 and OHP2-MES14 gene pairs is regulated in this way. Both OHP genes, but neither NDP1 nor MES14, were activated by light in etiolated seedlings, whereas cold and prolonged heat treatment elevated the OHP transcript level. Expression of OHP2 was down-regulated after 2 h of osmotic and heat stress, while salt and osmotic stress increased MES14 transcript levels. No inverse regulation of these overlapping gene pairs was observed, excluding RNAi as a regulatory mechanism in the tested conditions. The presence of alternatively polyadenylat-ed transcripts of the studied genes raises the possibility of another regulatory mechanism of 3'UTR overlap.
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Abstract The study examined the influence of light and auxin on the transcription level of PnACO3, a gene involved in ethylene production, in relation to the inhibitory effect of ethylene on flower induction in the short-day plant Pharbitis nil (=Ipomoea nil). Exogenous auxin was shown to increase the level of PnACO3 mRNA, with the effect depending on the experimental conditions. Light did not affect the level of PnACO3 mRNA. Applying auxin to seedling cotyledons at the beginning of inductive night boosted PnACO3 transcriptional activity even threefold during the next few hours, supporting our previous suggestion that the inhibitory effect of auxin on P. nil flowering results from its stimulatory effect on ethylene production.
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Abstract The genus Verbascum L. belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae and its members are used as medicinal herbs in traditional medicines worldwide. In this study we achieved plant regeneration in Verbascum sinuatum L. via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis by culture of mature embryos. Embryogenic and nonembryogenic calli were induced from mature embryos on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyl adenine (BA) and a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (but not for 1.5 and 3 mg l−1 NAA). For multiplication of somatic embryoids and differentiation of shoot buds, yellow and friable embryonic calli were transferred to MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose, 0.5 mg l−1 charcoal and 0.1 or 1 mg l−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) or to MS medium containing 60 g l−1 sucrose, 50 mg l−1 casein hydrolysate (CH), 0.5 mg l−1 kinetin (Kin), 5 mg l−1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg l−1 charcoal. Shoot multiplication and plantlet regeneration were achieved by transferring shoot buds to MS medium supplemented with 1 mg l−1 BA or Kin.
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Abstract The content of four tanshinones was determined in different in vitro cultures of Salvia przewalskii. Accumulation of tanshinones depended on the type and age of tissue and could be altered by growth conditions. Differentiated tissues (in vitro cultured shoots, shoots and roots of plantlets regenerated in vitro) contained more diterpenoids than undifferentiated tissues (i.e., the four callus lines). Root was the most important organ for tan-shinone accumulation. The highest levels were achieved in roots of 4-week-old plantlets (5.1-5.6 mg g−1 DW); the shoots used for root induction were maintained on multiplication medium for 2.5-4 years with regular subcultures every 4 weeks.
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Abstract The pattern of endopolyploidy in the genus Trifolium was studied in mature organs of T. montanum and T. repens at reproductive stage, with comparative data for T. pratense, all from natural populations. Endopolyploidy in root, stem, petiole, leaf, inflorescence stalk, sepal, petal, stamen and carpel was detected by flow cytometry. 2C, 4C and 8C nuclei were found in organs of T. montanum and T. repens, and additionally 16C nuclei in organs of T. repens. The organs of T. montanum and T. repens differed in degree of endopolyploidy based on cycle values calculated from flow cytometry data; it was lowest in leaf and sepal in T. montanum and T. repens, and highest in T. montanum in petal and carpel and in T. repens in petiole and inflorescence stalk. These results are also seen in the two or more peaks of interphase nuclei in the flow cytometry histograms. There were significant correlations between the organs of T. pratense and T. repens as well as substantial differences between Trifolium species in the degree of endopolyploidy. T. pratense showed higher absolute endopolyploidy than T. montanum and T. repens. Principal component analysis showed that individuals of T. repens and T. montanum are more similar to each other than to individuals of T. pratense in degree of endopolyploidy. The observed variation between species might be explained by phylogenetic relationships and genome size differences.
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Abstract The effect of feeding by the grain aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on chlorophyll, carotenoid and flavonoid content was studied in waxy and waxless triticale genotypes. On both sampling dates (5 and 10 days after infestation), seedlings of infested waxy and waxless plants had lower chlorophylls and carotenoids and higher flavonoids than in uninfested plants.
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Abstract Reproductive processes including male and female lines, embryo and endosperm development were studied in Cardaminopsis arenosa (syn. Arabidopsis arenosa) growing on two metalliferous sites (Bukowno and Bolesław, S. Poland), rich in Zn, Pb, Cd and other metals. Disturbances of developmental processes and necroses observed in anthers and ovules influenced plant fertility and seed set of plants from both metal-polluted sites. In anthers, disturbances and necrosis during male meiosis and pollen development occurred at low frequency (4-5%). Pollen grain viability was very high, reaching over 90%. In ovules the frequency of abnormal meiosis, female gametophyte developmental disturbances and necrosis was high, 23.5-28% depending on site. The polluted environment also affected embryo and endosperm. Necrosis of whole generative structures decreased plant fertility. This study indicates that the range of disturbances and necroses in embryological structures and processes (at gametophyte level) gives a set of useful characters to determine plant tolerance to stress, complementary to many tolerance characters at the sporophyte level of plant ontogenesis.
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Editorial office

Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Managing Editor
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA;
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland;
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia;
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy;
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland;
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland;
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria;
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia;
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland;
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic;
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France;
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland;
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland;
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom;
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria;
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey;
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants

Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland



Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594


Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891


Instructions for authors

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study. Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.
2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager:
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.
3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.
4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).
5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.
6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.
7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.
8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.
9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.
10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.
11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.
12. Proof will be sent directly to the authors in electronic form as a pdf file. Authors’ corrections have to be inserted in the printout of the PDF proof. The corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor within six days via Editorial Manager or by e-mail. Proofs not returned promptly by authors will be corrected by the Editor.
13. Copyright. Exclusive copyright in all papers accepted for publication must be assigned to the Polish Academy of Sciences, but the Academy will not restrict the authors’ freedom to use material contained in the paper in other works by the authors (with reference where they were first published).
14. Offprints. A pdf of each paper is supplied to the authors free of charge.

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