Nauki Ścisłe i Nauki o Ziemi

Archives of Mining Sciences

Zawartość

Archives of Mining Sciences | 2018 | No 2 |

Abstrakt

Gas emissions from underground sites to the atmosphere depend on many factors. Pressure drops are considered to be the most important. However, emissions can also be observed during the initial phase of the pressure rise, following a previous drop in pressure. On the other hand, gas emissions may not be detected when the pressure drops, especially when a previous pressure rise has taken place. The aim of the research was to determine the role of variations in baric tendency on airflow rate and its direction. To solve this problem a numerical model was built utilizing the Ansys Fluent software package. Subsequently, three scenarios of baric tendency variations were tested: a) rise – drop, b) drop – drop, c) drop – rise. The results showed inert behavior of gases. Under scenario (c), 1 hour after the change in tendency gases still were flowing out to the atmosphere. Considering scenario (a), it was proved that even during a pressure drop gas emissions do not take place, which can be crucial for further determination of the gas hazard at the surface or for assessment of the rate of gas emissions from a particular gas emitter. Scenario (b) merely gave an overview of the process and was mainly used for validation purposes. It gave a maximal CO2 concentration of 2.18%vol (comparable to measurements) and a CO2 mass flow rate 0.15kg/s. Taking into account greenhouse gas emissions this amounted to 514 kg CO2/h.
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In order to optimize the stope structure parameters in broken rock conditions, a novel method for the optimization of stope structure parameters is described. The method is based on the field investigation, laboratory tests and numerical simulation. The grey relational analysis (GRA) is applied to the optimization of the stope structure parameters in broken rock conditions with multiple performance characteristics. The influencing factors include stope height, pillar diameter, pillar spacing and pillar array pitch, the performance characteristics include maximum tensile strength, maximum compressive strength and ore recovery rate. The setting of influencing factors is accomplished using the four factors four levels Taguchi experiment design method, and 16 experiments are done by numerical simulation. Analysis of the grey relational grade indicates the first effect value of 0.219 is the pillar array pitch. In addition, the optimal stope structure parameters are as follows: the height of the stope is 3.5 m, the pillar diameter is 3.5 m, the pillar spacing is 3 m and the pillar array pitch is 5 m. In-situ measurement shows that all of the pillars can basically remain stable, ore recovery rate can be ensured to be more than 82%. This study indicates that the GRA method can efficiently applied to the optimization of stope structure parameters.
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Abstrakt

It is meaningful to study the issues of CO migration and its concentration distribution in a blind gallery to provide a basis for CO monitoring and calculation of fume-drainage time, which is of a great significance to prevent fume-poisoning accidents and improve efficiency of an excavation cycle. Based on a theoretical analysis of a differential change of CO mass concentration and the CO dispersion model in a fixed site, this paper presents several blasting fume monitoring test experiments, carried out with the test location to the head LP in arrange of 40-140 m. Studies have been done by arranging multiple sensors in the arch cross-section of the blind gallery, located at the Guilaizhuang Gold Mine, Shandong Province, China. The findings indicate that CO concentrations in the axial directions are quadratic functions with the Y and Z coordinate values of the cross-section of the blind gallery in an ascending stage of CO time- -concentration curve, with the maximum CO concentrations in Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. Also, the gradients of CO concentration in the gallery are symmetrical with the Y = 150 cm and Z = 150 cm. In the descending stage of CO time-concentration curve, gradients of CO concentration decrease in lateral sides and increase in the middle, then gradually decrease at last. The rules of CO concentration distribution in the cross-section are that airflow triggers the turbulent change of the CO distribution volume concentration and make the CO volume concentration even gradually in the fixed position of the gallery. Moreover, the CO volume concentrations decrease gradually, as well as volume concentration gradients in the cross-section. The uniformity coefficients of CO concentration with duct airflow velocities of 12.5 m/s, 17.7 m/s and 23.2 m/s reach near 0.9 at 100-140 m from the heading to the monitoring spot. The theoretical model of a one-dimensional migration law of CO basically coincides with the negative exponential decay, which is verified via fitting. The average effective turbulent diffusion coefficient of CO in the blind gallery is approximate to 0.108 m2/s. There are strong linear relationships between CO initial concentration, CO peak concentrations and mass of explosive agent, which indicates that the CO initial concentration and the CO peak concentration can be predicted, based on the given range of the charging mass. The above findings can provide reliable references to the selection, installation of CO sensors and prediction of the fume-drainage time after blasting.
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The hereby paper is devoted to the analysis of operational properties of vibratory conveyors, which principle of operations is based on the Frahm’s dynamic elimination effect (Den Hartog, 1971). These conveyors, according to the data given by their producers have several advantages, among others, higher vibrations amplitudes at the same drive and exceptionally low dynamic forces transmitted to the foundation. The simulation model of such conveyor loaded with a feed was created in this work and investigations of the transport efficiency and forces transmitted to the foundation at stationary states as well as at start up and coasting periods were performed. Analytical tests of vibrations during unsteady motion periods were also performed and the method of determining maximum amplitudes of conveyors in the transient resonance during coasting was proposed. The research results indicate the possibility of a wide application of this type of machines in loose materials handling in various industry branches.
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The paper presents a new method for measuring the strain and load of wire ropes guide using fiber optic sensors with Bragg gratings. Its principle consists in simultaneous fiber optic measurement of longitudinal strain of the rope and transverse strain of the bolt fixing the rope. The tensometric force transducers which have been used so far were only able to determine the load in the head securing the rope through an indirect measurement using a special strain insert. They required calibration, compensation of temperature changes, as well as periodic checking and calibration. The head fastening the rope required significant design changes. Measurement based on fiber optic sensors does not have these drawbacks and is characterized by a much higher accuracy and safety of measurements, because the working medium is light. The fastening head does not change. The measurement of the rope load may be based on the change of strain value or indirectly by means of measuring the deflection of the bolt fixing the rope holder. The proposed solution consists in placing the optical fiber with Bragg grating inside the bolt. It enables continuous measurements with a frequency of 2 kHz. A special test bench was built at the Research and Supervisory Centre of Underground Mining. Testing on guide ropes was carried out in a mining hoist in the Piast mine.
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The presented paper describes the results of an experiment determining the instantaneous values of velocity vector components of the air stream at selected spots of the boundary layer formed at the sidewalls of the mine heading in the ŁP type steel arch support. The experiment was carried out in a mine heading in an active hard coal mine. A 3-axis thermoanemometric probe was used to obtain three-dimensional distributions of the velocity and turbulent values, such as turbulence intensity and turbulent kinetic energy of the flowing ventilation air stream. The analysis of the measurement results was aided by a numerical solution of the discussed case of flow. The research results presented in this paper provide a basis for extensive studies of the description of velocity distribution and other turbulent quantities within the near-sidewall structures of a mine heading. The objective of these tasks is to improve the accuracy and reliability of numerical calculations relating to air flow in mine headings.
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Abstrakt

The evaluation accuracies of rock mass structures based on the ratings of the Rock Quality Designation (RQD) and discontinuity spacing (S) in the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system are very limited due to the inherent restrictions of RQD and S. This study presents an improvement that replaces these two parameters with the modified blockiness index (Bz) in the RMR system. Before proceeding with this replacement, it is necessary for theoretical model building to make an assumption that the discontinuity network contains three sets of mutually orthogonal disc-shaped discontinuities with the same diameter and spacing of discontinuities. Then, a total of 35 types of theoretical DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models possessing the different structures were built based on the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) discontinuity classification (ISRM, 1978). In addition, the RQD values of each model were measured by setting the scanlines in the models, and the Bz values were computed following the modified blockiness evaluation method. Correlations between the three indices (i.e., Bz, RQD and S) were explored, and the reliability of the substitution was subsequently verified. Finally, RMR systems based on the proposed method and the standard approach were applied to real cases, and comparisons between the two methods were performed. This study reveals that RQD is well correlated with S but is difficult to relate to the discontinuity diameter (D), and Bz has a good correlation with RQD/S. Additionally, the ratings of RQD and S are always far from the actual rock mass structure, and the Bz ratings are found to give better characterizations of rock mass structures. This substitution in the RMR system was found to be acceptable and practical.
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Abstrakt

The geodetic measurements optimization problem has played a crucial role in the mining areas affected by continuous ground movement. Such movements are most frequently measured with the classical geodetic methods such as levelling, tachymetry or GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). The measuring techniques are selected with respect to the dynamics of the studied phenomena, surface hazard degree, as well as the financial potential of the mining company. Land surface changes caused by underground exploitation are observed with some delay because of the mining and geological conditions of the deposit surroundings. This delay may be considerable in the case of salt deposits extraction due to slow convergence process, which implies ground subsidence maximum up to a few centimeters per year. Measuring of such displacements requires high precision instruments and methods. In the case of intensely developed urban areas, a high density benchmark network has to be provided. Therefore, the best solution supporting the monitoring of vertical ground displacements in the areas located above the salt deposits seems to be the Sentinel 1-A radar imaging satellite system. The main goal of the investigation was to verify if imaging radar from the Sentinel 1 mission could be applied to monitor of slow ground vertical movement above word heritage Wieliczka salt mine. The outcome of the analysis, which was based on DInSAR (Differential SAR Interferometry). technology, is the surface distribution of annual subsidence in the period of 2015-2016. The comparison of the results with levelling confirmed the high accuracy of satellite observations. What is significant, the studies allowed to identify areas with the greatest dynamics of vertical ground movements, also in the regions where classical surveying was not conducted. The investigation proved that with the use of Sentinel-1 images sub centimeters slow vertical movements could be obtained.
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The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of the subsurface geological structure in Nam Son landfill by hydrogeophysical method. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Self- -Potential (SP) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) method was used for geological structure investigation. Three profiles (total 900 m long) of two-dimensional ERT, VLF density sections and 180 SP data points scattered within the study area near the disposal site were implemented. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected from 10 sites in the area for hydrochemical analysis. Interpretations of geophysical data show a low resistivity zone (<15 Ω m), which appears to be a fully saturated zone with leachate from an open dumpsite. There is a good correlation between the geophysical investigations and the results of hydrochemical analysis.
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Abstrakt

Lower Carboniferous limestone has been extracted in the “Czatkowice” open-pit hill-slope quarry in southern Poland since 1947, for the needs of metallurgical and building industries, as well as farming. We can distinguish two aquifers in the Czatkowice area: the Quaternary porous aquifer and the Carboniferous fissure-porous one. Two vertical zones representing different hydrodynamic characteristics can be indentified in the Carboniferous formations. One is a weathering zone and the other one the zone of fissures and interbedding planes. Groundwater inflows into the quarry workings have been observed at the lowest mining level (+315 m above the sea level (asl)) for over 30 years. This study concerns two hypotheses of the sources of such inflows originating either from (a) the aeration zone or from (b) the saturation zone. Inflows into the quarry combine into one stream flowing gravitationally to the doline under the pile in the western part of the quarry. This situation does not cause a dewatering need. Extending eastward mining and lowering of the exploitation level lead to increased inflows.
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Abstrakt

Lower Carboniferous limestone has been extracted in the “Czatkowice” open-pit hill-slope quarry in southern Poland since 1947, for the needs of metallurgical and building industries, as well as farming. We can distinguish two aquifers in the Czatkowice area: the Quaternary porous aquifer and the Carboniferous fissure-porous one. Two vertical zones representing different hydrodynamic characteristics can be indentified in the Carboniferous formations. One is a weathering zone and the other one the zone of fissures and interbedding planes. Groundwater inflows into the quarry workings have been observed at the lowest mining level (+315 m above the sea level (asl)) for over 30 years. This study concerns two hypotheses of the sources of such inflows originating either from (a) the aeration zone or from (b) the saturation zone. Inflows into the quarry combine into one stream flowing gravitationally to the doline under the pile in the western part of the quarry. This situation does not cause a dewatering need. Extending eastward mining and lowering of the exploitation level lead to increased inflows.
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Abstrakt

In technology of coal fines beneficiation in Poland mainly fines jigging processes are in use. In case of steam coal fines beneficiation it is till 80% of the whole amount of produced assortments, while in case of coking coal fines it is 100%. The necessary condition of not homogenous feed separation which is directed to beneficiation process in pulsating water stream is a sufficient liberation of particles. The stratification of particles in working bed causes that particles of certain size, density and shape gather in individual layers in working bed of jig. The introduction of sufficient amount of additional water determines appropriate liberation of particles group, which generates partition into concentrate and tailings. The paper presents the results of sampling of industrial jig used for the beneficiation of coal fines by three various settings of additional amount of water under sieve which is directed to jigging. These amounts were equal to 35, 50 and 70 [m3/h]. Collected samples of separation products were then sieved into narrow particle size fractions and divided into density fractions. In such narrow size-density fractions the coordinates of partition curves were calculated for tailings of hard coal fines, which were subsequently approximated by means of Weibull distribution function. The separation precision measured by separation density, probable error and imperfection were determined on the basis of obtained model separation curves. The evaluation of separation effects was performed for a wide particle size fraction: feed directed to jigging process and narrow particle size fractions. The analysis of separation results in size-density fractions allowed to determine the influence of particle size change on the value of probable error. The results of separation precision in size-density fractions were compared with effects of separation of wide particle fraction, i.e. feed directed to jigging process.
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Abstrakt

To solve the problem of large deformation soft rock roadway with complicated stress condition in Baluba copper mine, the characteristics of roadway deformation and failure modes are analyzed deeply on the basis of geological survey. Combined with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, the new reinforcement technology with floor mudsill and grouting anchor cable is proposed. Moreover, the three dimension numerical simulation model is established by the software FLAC-3D, the support parameter is optimized by it. The results show that the optical array pitch of the U-steel shelf arch is 0.8 m, and the optical array pitch of the grouting anchor cable is 2.4 m. At last, the field experiments are done all over the soft rock roadway. Engineering practice shows that the deformation of soft rock roadway in Baluba copper mine is effectively controlled by adopting the new reinforcement technology, which can provide certain references for similar engineering.
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The article concerns investigations over benefits of application of HRC devices into sulphide copper ore processing plant. High pressure comminution appears to be very effective technology in hard ore processing circuits, especially in terms of energy consumption. This can be particularly observed in downstream grinding and beneficiation operations. A series of pilot-scale crushing tests in HRC roller press for various levels of operating pressure, were performed. HRC crushing effectiveness along with downstream grinding process course for each crushing product were also under analysis. The investigations were supplemented by analysis of flotation process effectiveness and impact of the process of high-pressure comminution on environment (dust emission). The results of investigation show that operating pressure level influences the obtained comminution results (comminution degree, yield of finest particle size fractions). The grinding effectiveness, measured through production of the finest particle size fractions was significantly influenced by the operating pressure. The results show that higher values of operating pressure (4.0 and 4.5 N/mm2) are not as efficient within this scope as the pressure 3.5 N/mm2. Dust emission is also correlated with the operating pressure value.
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The article presents the results of tests on SHC-40 hydraulic props equipped with two types of valve blocks: standard (with spring steel cylinder) and BZG-2FS (with gas spring). The research was conducted using impact mass of 4,000 kg and with extreme dynamic load of free fall impact mass of 20,000 kg released from different heights h. The dynamic tests involved a camera with the speed of image capture up to 1,200 frames/sec, which made it possible to register the stream of liquid at the dynamic load and to determine the valve opening time. The study conducted on SHC-40 NHR10 props equipped with two types of valve blocks: a standard and the BZG-2FS fast acting relief, showed that the prop with the BZG-2FS block is more suitable and more effective in the case of areas with high risk of mining tremors and rapid stress relief of a seam. Research methodology developed in the Central Mining Institute combines digital recording technique of pressure in a prop and fast registration of the images, and allows to acquire more accurate analysis of dynamic phenomena in the prop during testing.
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Abstrakt

Sensitivity analysis of the dynamic response of both the designed and the actual models of a slewing superstructure with two masts to the variation of the counterweight mass and the degree of accuracy of the approximation polynomials of the digging resistance was conducted in the paper. Spatial reduced dynamic models of the bucket wheel excavator SchRs 1600 were used as a basis for the presented investigations. Based on the comparative analysis of the calculation results, the following conclusions were drawn: (a) mass of the counterweight has a significantly higher influence on the maximum intensities of accelerations of the referent points than on the spectrum of natural frequencies, (b) the accuracy of approximations of the digging resistance and the maximum values of accelerations differ by an order of magnitude, for the approximation trigonometric polynomial of the same number of harmonics.
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Mining activity influence on the environment belongs to the most negative industrial influences. Land subsidence can be a consequence of many geotectonic processes as well as due to anthropogenic interference with rock massif in part or whole landscape. Mine subsidence on the surface can be a result of many deep underground mining activities. The presented study offers the theory to the specific case of the deformation vectors solution in a case of disruption of the data homogeneity of the geodetic network structure in the monitoring station during periodical measurements in mine subsidence. The theory of the specific solution of the deformation vector was developed for the mine subsidence at the Košice-Bankov abandoned magnesite mine near the city of Košice in east Slovakia. The outputs from the deformation survey were implemented into Geographic Information System (GIS) applications to a process of gradual reclamation of whole mining landscape around the magnesite mine. After completion of the mining operations and liquidation of the mine company it was necessary to determine the exact edges of the Košice-Bankov mine subsidence with the zones of residual ground motion in order to implement a comprehensive reclamation of the devastated mining landscape. Requirement of knowledge about stability of the former mine subsidence was necessary for starting the reclamation works. Outputs from the presented specific solutions of the deformation vectors confirmed the multi-year stability of the mine subsidence in the area of interest. Some numerical and graphical results from the deformation vectors survey in the Košice-Bankov abandoned magnesite mine are presented. The obtained results were transformed into GIS for the needs of the self-government of the city of Košice to the implementation of the reclamation works in the Košice-Bankov mining area.
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Redakcja

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Jakub Siemek, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland


Associate Editor
Professor Stanisław Knothe, Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland


Secretary
Dr Jerzy Krawczyk, Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland
Dr Stanisław Nagy, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland


Editorial Board Members
Professor Stanisław Cierpisz, The Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Professor Józef Dubiński, Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
Professor Wacław Dziurzyński, Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland
Dr Marek Kwaśniewski, The Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Professor Janusz Roszkowski, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Professor Wacław Trutwin, Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland
Professor Andrew K. Wojtanowicz, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA


International Advisory Board

Chairman
Professor Antoni Kidybiński, Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland

Members Professor K.S. Baśniev, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia Professor Liu Baoshen, Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan, China Professor Jakub Bodziony, Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland Professor M. Dolipski, The Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland Dr Abraham Tativ Faga, C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, Canada Dr Stewart Gillies, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, USA Professor A. Kaltayev, al-Frabi Kazakh State University, Almaty Kazachstan Professor P. Konečny, (Institute of Geonics, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic Professor E.I. Križanivskij, (National Oil and Gas University of Ukraine, Ivanofrankovsk, Ukraine Dr Ian Lowndes, Professor Stanisław Miska, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, USA Professor D.C. Panigrahi, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India ProfessorJ. Pinka TechnicalUniversity of Kosice, Kosice, Slovakia ProfessorG.G. Pivnyak NationalMining University of Ukraine, Dniepropetrovsk, Ukraine Professor L.A. Puchkov, MoscowState Mining University, Moscow, Russia Professor G. Pusch, TU Clausthal, Gemany Professor T. Rozgonyi, Colorado School of Mines, Mining Engineering Department, USA Professor P. Särkkä, Helsinki University of Technology Helsinki, Finland Professor R.N. Singh, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia Professor Anton Sroka,TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany Professor S. Stryczek, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland Professor Antoni Tajduś, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland Professor D.D. Tannant, University of Alberta, Canada Professor V. Ulmanu, University Petroleum-Gas of Ploiesti, Romania Professor Kot F. Unrug, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA Professor Xingshen Wang, China University of Mining and Technology Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China Professor Andrew Wala, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA Professor J. Vasyuchkov, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia Professor K. Yost, GeoRef Information System American Geological Institute

Kontakt

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Reymonta Str. 30-059 Kraków, Poland,
phone/fax +48 12 6372884,
Email: archives@mining.archives.pl
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Instrukcje dla autorów

General information. Original papers in the fields of rock mechanics, drilling, mechanical preparation and associated with mining domains of: ventilation, geology, chemistry, economics and construction, which have not been published in other journals are accepted to the quarterly „Archives of Mining Sciences” (Archiwum Górnictwa) published by Polish Academy of Sciences. By submission of the paper Author cedes to the editors the rights to publish the paper both in printed and electronic form. There is no honorarium for articles appearing in „Archives of Mining Sciences”. Authors are entitled to 1 free issues. Authors are requested to send the following detailed information: name (first and last), degree, academic title, name and address of work place and home address. Telephone and fax numbers are also requested along with an e-mail address.


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References. A bibliography without numbering, arranged alphabetically according to the author’s last name, should include all positions to which the author refers in the text. In case of more than one article from the same year, the articles should be differentiated as follows: 1985a, 1985b, etc. The following order is required: last name and initials of all co-authors, year, title, type of publications, (journal, conference material, collection of monograph articles, unpublished texts) with the page numbers used.


Quoting references. If name(s) of the author(s) is not contained within the text itself, it should be provided in parentheses. e.g.: (Brandt, 1993), (Crosdale & Beamish, 1994). (Dziurzynski et al., 1990) in the case of one, two or more than two authors, respectiv, ely. If the name(s) of the author(s) is included in the text, then the reference should be cited as follows e.g.: „According to Brandt (1993)...”


Example of bibliography.


Brandt J., 1993. Neuere Erkentnisse auf dem Gebiet der Gasausbruchprognose. Glückauf Forschungshefte 54, 5, 228-233.


Crosdale P.J., Beamish B.B., 1994. Methane sorption studies at South Bulli (NSW) & Central (QLD) collieries using a high-pressure microbalance. 28 Newcastle Symposium on „Advances in the study of Sydney Basin”, Newcastle, NSW, Australia, 15-17 April, 118-125.


Dziurzynski W., Trutwin W., Tracz J., 1990. Symulacja komputerowa przepływu powietrza i gazów powyrzutowych w sieci wentylacyjnej kopalni. J. Litwiniszyn (Ed.), Górotwór jako ośrodek wielofazowy; Wyrzuty skalno-gazowe. Wydawnictwo AGH, Kraków, Vol. II, 743-758.


Lama R.D., Bodziony J., 1996. Outbursts of gas, coal and rock in underground mines. Publisher Lama & Associates, 130 Brokers Road, Mt. Pleasant, NSW 2519, Australia.


Nekrasovski Ya.E., 1951. Razrabotka plastov podverzhennykh vnezapnym vybrosam ugla i gaza. Ugletekhizdat, Moskva.

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