Applied sciences

Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki

Content

Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki | 2015 | No 4 |

Abstract

W artykule został opisany most przez Wisłę o dwóch przęsłach rozpiętości 180 stóp angielskich (54,86 metra), zbudowany w połowie XVII wieku w Toruniu na terytorium Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów. Przedstawiono wyniki badań źródeł numizmatycznych i ikonograficznych, a także planów miasta i źródeł pisanych. Badania wykazały, że konstrukcja toruńskiego mostu była wykonana z drewna w oparciu o koncepcję belki kratownicowej wspornikowej (tzw. belki Gerbera), niestosowanej wcześniej w Europie. Dwa takie przęsła o dużych rozpiętościach były użytkowane w moście pomiędzy 1632 a 1657 r. Analiza porównawcza znanych konstrukcji mostów europejskich z połowy XVII wieku wykazała, że najprawdopodobniej przęsła toruńskie były wówczas najdłuższe.
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Abstract

The paper describes a bridge over the Vistula River with two spans of 180 English feet (54.86 metres) in length, constructed in the middle of the 17th century in the city of Torun on the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. A study on numismatic and iconographic sources as well as city plans and written sources is carried out in the article. The study shows that the Torun Bridge superstructure was made of wood and was based on a cantilever truss (Gerber carrier) solution which had never been applied in Europe before. The two large spans of Torun Bridge were in service between 1632 and 1657. Accord- ing to the author’s research on well-known bridge structures from Europe from the middle of the 17th century, the span of the Torun bridge appears to have been the larger than the other.
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Abstract

The Parish Church of St Nicolaus at Byczyna in Silesia (German Pitschen) presents a most interesting, yet till now unknown example of a hall church from around 1300. It proves that the Silesian founders, as well as builders themselves, sought at the end of the 13th century for an suitable, attractive form of a representative town church. All up-to-date researchers treated the Byczyna church as an integral structure dating back to the end of the 14th century. It is most surprising, as it is more than evi- dent that we deal here with a much older building, which was only much rebuilt to the present shape at the end of the 14 th century. With no doubt, the church in question forms one of the most interesting architectural creations of around 1300 in Silesia. Its builder proved their knowledge of many important buildings in Austria and Moravia, especially of the Cathedral al Olomouc/Olmütz, which was near completion at that time. The short hall nave of the Byczyna church counts to the main trend of the parish churches in Silesia from the 2nd half of the 13th century. In turn, the single west tower was erected prob- ably according to the wish of its alleged founder, Henry the Third, duke of Głogów/Glogau. It reminded of the west tower of the Collegiate Church at Głogów, while the unique mason decoration in the Byczyna choir, which encompassed sculpted baldachins and vaulting shafts, was an allusion to the chancel of the aforementioned church at Głogów. The size and opulent articulation of the eastern part of the analysed building stressed the function of the church as a seat of an archpriest. Unfortu- nately the Byczyna choir, which was a unique structure in the Silesian architecture of around 1300, was later strongly rebuilt and lost its previous shape.
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Editorial office

Redakcja
Redaktor Naczelna / Editor–in–Chief
Prof. dr hab. inż. arch. Danuta KŁOSEK-KOZŁOWSKA
Sekretarz / Secretary
dr inż. arch. Liliana GRABISZEWSKA

Rada Naukowa / Scientific Committee
Profesorowie:
Maurizio BORIANI (Mediolan)
João CAMPOS (Porto)
Jan Maciej CHMIELEWSKI (Warszawa)
Nina JUZWA (Gliwice)
Danuta KŁOSEK-KOZŁOWSKA (Warszawa)
Wanda KONONOWICZ (Wrocław)
Lucyna NYKA (Gdańsk)
Petro RYCHKOV (Równe)
Elżbieta TROCKA–LESZCZYŃSKA (Wrocław)
Julian WÉKEL (Darmstadt)
Elia ZENGHELIS (Ateny / Rotterdam)

 

Contact

Redakcja „Kwartalnika Architektury i Urbanistyki”
Wydział Architektury Politechniki Warszawskiej
ul. Koszykowa 55
00-659 Warszawa

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