Nauki Ścisłe i Nauki o Ziemi

Acta Archaeologica Carpathica

Zawartość

Acta Archaeologica Carpathica | 2017 | vol. LII |

Abstrakt

This paper discusses chronological position of Late Upper Paleolithic shouldered points in the eastern Adriatic and its hinterland. Shouldered points in this area are considered to be fossil directeur of Early Epigravettian. Using old and new data, and pointing to shortcomings in the literature, we aim to prove that shouldered points are not a reliable chronological indicator of Early Epigravettian in the eastern Adriatic because they can be found in a timespan of approximately 10 000 years.

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Abstrakt

The Corded Ware culture societies inhabiting the Carpathian zone used various outcrops of flints to processing axes: Volhynian, Turonian (the Świeciechów and the Gościeradów types), Jurassic A and G-type, cretaceous K-type as well as siliceous marl and radiolarite. From the analysed area 81 axes associated with the Corded Ware culture are known. Most of them come from funeral sites — from grave pits or burial mounds. The predominance of the Volhynian flint is observable in the whole area to the east of Wisłok River, basins of the San River, and in the upper basins of the Tisza and Dniester Rivers. Axes from niche graves on the Rzeszów Foothills, where the Świeciechów flint prevails, are specific in this scope or raw materials distribution. Dispersion of flints can be used indirectly as basis for reconstructing movements of human groups using these raw materials, as well as determining directions of their interactions. It can be noticed that communities of the Corded Ware culture from the Dniester Basin resembled in this respect their counterparts from the Roztocze and the Sokal Ridge, while those from the Rzeszów Foothills shows connections both with the“Volhynian zone” and the Lesser Polish Małopolska Upland.

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The focus of the article is the Vatin culture settlement at the site of Vinča-Belo Brdo in Northern Serbia. The general idea is that this settlement, whose existence was relatively short in time, benefited from being established by the Danube — a great connective factor in the world of the Middle Bronze Age. It shares many characteristics with the contemporary settlements in the southernmost part of the Carpathian basin, starting from the position in the vicinity of the Danube, at the places which had already been settled in prehistory, prior to the Middle Bronze Age. Not only do they have pottery style in common, but the wider repertoire of finds illustrating the material culture. What’s more, comparison of the material remains from Vinča with the neighbouring sites from the left Danube bank enlightens how the Vatin culture was integrated into a wider space of the Bronze Age cultures of the Carpathian basin, influencing the Balkans hinterland, too.

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Abstrakt

The article presents results of the author’s bachelor thesis, which deals with detailed cataloguing and analysing of findings of so-called Scythian character in the Moravia in the late Early Iron Age period. The author based this article on catalogue from his thesis. Relevant analogies and typological assignments were studied for concerning every subject in the catalogue and on their basis there was made general chronological classification of each piece. The aim of this article is to present observations that resulted from a detailed evaluation, on its basis occurrence of the subjects of so-called Scythian origin in the Moravia were divided into three time horizons.

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Abstrakt

The present contribution considers the Pannonian ‘inner fortifications’ in the context of the development of the infrastructure and urban fabric of selected sites on the Lower Danube. Using Sándor Sopronis’ thesis, which postulates that a multiple defensive system gradually expanded in Pannonia after the time of the Tetrarchy, as a starting point, this study concentrates on the inner fortifications founded in the middle third of the 4th century AD in the hinterland of the Limes (Környe, Tác / Gorsium, Keszthely-Fenékpuszta and Alsóheténypuszta) which, together with towns such as Sopianae, Mursa, Cibalae, Sirmium und Bassianae, constituted an inner line of defence. Whether they functioned in a civil or purely military context is a subject that has been, and still is, much debated. However, they appear to have played a significant role in the storage, distribution, and perhaps production, of the annona. A similar situation can be observed on the Lower Danube, in the provinces of Dacia Ripensis, Moesia Prima and Scythia. Here too a series of castra and towns, which took on similar functions in the course of the 4th century AD, are found some 30 to 50 km from the frontier. This area however saw a further development well into the late 6th century AD: several sites continued to play a central role as the sees of bishoprics in the Early Byzantine Period. The examples of Abritus and Tropaeum Traiani, which both possess elements that are strikingly similar to the Pannonian establishments, are used here to gain insights into the processes at work and to discuss the structural parallels comparatively.

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Abstrakt

The purpose of the piece The Strategikon as a source — Slavs and Avars in the eyes of Pseudo- Maurice, current state of research and future research perspectives is to demonstrate what the author of Strategikon knew about the Slavs and Avars and review the state of research on the chapter of the treatise that deals with these two barbarian ethnicities. As a side note to the description of contemporary studies of Strategikon, the piece also lists promising areas of research, which have not yet received proper attention from scholars.

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Abstrakt

On the Transylvanian territory 19 axes have been recorded that date to different times during the 7th and 8th c. AD, and which create a chronological sequence that will be shown in the text below. These 19 artefacts were retrieved from: 6 cemeteries — 10 finds; 1 military guard post / observation post for the surveillance of the area — 1 find; a settlement / house — 1 find; and discovered as stray finds: at 3 specified sites — 4 finds, within the territory of the county — 3 finds. The shape of the artefacts is the main criterion used to develop the typological groups of axes found in the Transylvanian plateau. Accordingly, five main types have been defined: 1st type — Axe with a poll, hammer type; 2nd type — Axe with a long poll in the shape of a rectangular bar; 3rd type — Axe with a fan-shaped blade and a long poll in the shape of a rectangular bar; 4th type — Axe with a round poll; 5th type — pole-axe. Taking into consideration the contexts of the discoveries and known analogies, these axes can be dated to different points in time creating a chronological sequence spanning over the 7th and 8th centuries. Most of the axes dated from the 7th and 8th centuries in Transylvania were found in warrior graves or funerary contexts, or together with other weapons, thus providing grounds for their inclusion within the category of weapons. This fact, combined with the series of typological features, allows to include these artifacts in the category of battle axes.

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Abstrakt

An Arpadian age (10th–11th c.) burial ground was unearthed on the plateau of Oberleiserberg along with features and findings from several other periods. It was first discovered during the excavation led by Herbert Mitscha-Märheim and Ernst Nischer-Falkenhof in the 1920s and 30s. In the 1970s and 80s the site was archaeologically investigated by Herwig Friesinger and his team. During these archaeological campaigns 71 additional graves were found. The multidisciplinary analyses of the medieval findings and features as well as the human remains unearthed on Oberleiserberg are part of the international project Frontier, Contact Zone or No Man’s Land — The Morava- Thaya Region from the Early to the High Medieval Ages (I 1911 G21, led by Stefan Eichert and Jiří Macháček funded by FWF (Austrian Science Fund) and GAČR (Czech Science Foundation). The early and high medieval findings indicate contact of the entombed population with nonnative peoples, possibly reaching as far as the Baltic Sea. Anthropological analysis of the excavated skeletons shows us more about the everyday life of the people buried here and together with isotopic analysis of the human remains, conclusions about their living conditions are possible.

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Abstrakt

In 2015 and 2016, a reconnaissance study have been performed on a fortified hillfort in Lipnik, located between Sandomierz and Opatów, which had been discovered in 2015. Neither remnants of the buildings nor the presence of a cultural layer that could indicate permanent, or at least longer residence, have been found on the hillfort. Apart from the ceramics, a series of metal objects were found on the hillfort: silver beads, fragment of silver earring with ‘grape’ pendant, bronze rings, silver and bronze applications of leather straps, strap-ends, pendants and buckles from harness or saddlebags, iron and lead weights, iron arrowheads. Some of the metal artefacts have distinct analogies in Hungarian materials from 10th–11th century. Similar to the materials from a nearby settlement in Kaczyce, they indicate the possibility that groups or units of Hungarian origin that followed nomadic traditions had been staying in the vicinity of Sandomierz between the second half of 10th and the first half of 11th century. They might had been warriors serving in one of the Piast princes, captives brought by Bolesław I the Brave or merchants participating in international trade.

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The Mongol invasion of Europe in the early 1240’s were devastating for more countries in Central Europe, and triggered a great interest in the research of history and archaeology. The present study gives an overview of the course of events, the archaeological and historical research trends and ideas, and a detailed discussion on the archaeological source types connected to the Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1241–1242.

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Tribal fragments of the Cumans, a people of the Eurasian steppe region, appeared in the medieval kingdom of Hungary in the early 13th century, on the eve of the Mongol Invasion. Many of them permanently settled in the Great Hungarian Plain, and their community had to undergo profound transformations both in terms of social and economic strategies. Mobile pastoralism, often associated with the Cuman communities of the steppe, was definitely impossible in their new homeland. However, animal husbandry remained the most important economic activity in this part of the Carpathian Basin in the centuries after the Cumans’ arrival. This paper provides a case study on the region called Greater Cumania in the Great Hungarian Plain, and especially on one Cuman village, Orgondaszentmiklós, where 14th–16th-century habitation layers were brought to light. Archaeological and written evidence for animal husbandry is analyzed in order to establish patterns of integration or specialization in terms of animal herding. The results show that although some preferences that may have been rooted in steppe tradition were retained, the main factor in economic orientation was the position in the settlement network and the connection to markets. Swine keeping, a tradition virtually non-existent in the steppe area, was adapted relatively quickly as a response to available natural resources (marshlands) in the area. It seems, on the other hand, that horses preserved their high social value and their flesh was also consumed.

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A deeply patinated artifact, interpreted as a side-scraper, has been revealed during an evaluation of lithic chipped materials from the Eneolithic hillfort Starý Zámek near Jevišovice (Znojmo district). The artifact is made of raw material from Cracow-Częstochowa Jurassic area and its provenience should be sought within the Middle Paleolithic milieu in Poland rather than in Moravia. As the artifact is looking strange within the local Middle Paleolithic, it was very probable imported later. Presence of the Jurassic silicites from the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland within the Funnel Beaker context, i.e. in the layer C2 of the hillfort Starý Zámek, document a possible contact during the Eneolithic.

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Obłazowa Cave was first excavated in 1985, and is best known for the discoveries of remains of settlement from the time of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. The traces of most recent settlement in the cave, found in the uppermost part of the stratigraphy can be attributed to Magdalenian settlement. Results of latest excavation brought more precise date this occupation face. In years 2016 and 2017 in layer III of the cave a series of artifacts, and a small sandstone female figurine were found.

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Abstrakt

The paper discusses the first find of a bullet core from the territory of Bulgaria. This core fills in a gap in the occurrence of this technology in between the Marmara Sea basin and the northwestern part of the Pontic region. Because the core from the vicinity of Varna is a surface find it is difficult to determine its chronological position.

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Abstrakt

In 2009, in the village of Wysoczany, Sanok district, Podkarpackie voivodeship, a silver coin was accidentally found. This coin is a tetradrachm. It has irregular oval shape and is plano-convex. It is not well preserved, i.e. it has poorly legible depictions on both sides, which significantly impedes its typological classification, and thus its precise dating. The dimensions of the coin are: 27.5 × 28.5 mm and its weight is: 11.83 g (after conservation works). In the case of the described here coin there are no clear analogies and, therefore, there is no certainty to what type it should be attributed. This paper attempts to analyse a few of the existing possibilities. One of the taken into consideration is the south-eastern direction, i.e. Geto-Dacian mintage or Celtic Geto-Dacian one. Some similarities can be found in the following types: Agriş A — Şilindia, Ramna, and also in the category referred to as “the other types” according to the typology by C. Preda. The other possible direction is the central Celtic mintage associated with Boii. However, none of the examples presented in this paper is a close analogy to the coin from Wysoczany. Therefore, its typological attribution as well as its dating remain to be an open question.

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The hillfort Bojná I–Valy is a part of an early medieval fortification system located in the Považský Inovec mountain range that separates two densely populated settlement areas of Slovakia — namely the valleys of the Nitra and Váh rivers. Judging by the abundance of finds, in the 9th century the 12 hectare hillfort was a prominent seat of social elites. A bronze bell, a collection of gilded figural plaques as well as further symbols substantiate Christian affiliation of the community. The core of the monumental ramparts consists of log chambers with inner grates filled with soil and stones. From the front side, it was protected by a stone shell. Pincer gates had inwardly extended arms and a tower entrance in the front part of the corridor. According to the dendrochronological data, the fortification was erected in the last decade of the 9th century and shortly afterwards destroyed by a fire. Excavations of the bottom part of the ramparts confirmed, however, the presence of remains of an older construction. In this area, there are also four further hillforts providing finds dated back to the Early Middle Ages. At least one of them (Bojná II) was also destroyed by a fire at the end of the 9th century or in the 10th century.

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Redakcja

Editor-in-Chief
Zenon Woźniak

 

Editors
Paweł Valde -Nowak,
Marcin Wołoszyn

 

Editorial Secretary
Paweł Jarosz

 

Editorial Committee
Jan Chochorowski, Sylwester Czopek, Marek Gedl (Chairman),
Nandor Kalicz, Jan Machnik, Karol Pieta , Petre Roman , Andrzej Żaki

 

Language Editors
Anna Kinecka (English),
Doris Wollenberg (German)

 

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Home page: www.archeo.pan.krakow.pl/AAC.htm

Instrukcje dla autorów

The aim of Editors of AAC is to publish papers on archaeology, history, linguistics and geology which are related to issues of prehistoric and Early Medieval settlement in the Carpathian region, and also, to trans-Carpathian contacts and to the special nature of settlement in mountainous areas. The latter consideration makes the Editors of AAC interested also in publication of papers which have as their focus other mountain regions in and outside Europe.

The AAC accepts for publication larger articles, brief reports on significant discoveries (announcements), polemics, and book reviews.

The precondition for publication in AAC is that the submitted paper 1). has not been published elsewhere; 2). has not been submitted for consideration to other editors; 3). the author’s (or authors’) home institution has given approval for publication in AAC (# 3 is valid as of January 2012).
The papers published in AAC express the views of their author (authors) and by no means were written to reflect the views of the Editors or the Publisher.

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