Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica

Zawartość

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2016 | No 2 |

Abstrakt

Abstract Biscutella laevigata L. is known as a Tl hyperaccumulator. In Poland Biscutella laevigata occurs in the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians) and on the calamine waste heap in Bolesław near Olkusz (Silesian Upland). The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether plants of both populations were able to accumulate an elevated amount of thallium in their tissues. The plants were cultivated in calamine soil in a glasshouse for a season and studied at different ages – from 2-week-old seedlings to 10-month-old adults. Additionally, the plants were grown for ten weeks in calamine soil with EDTA to enhance Tl bioavailability. The total content of Tl in plant tissues after digestion was determined by ICP-MS, whereas its distribution in leaves was studied by LA-ICP-MS. Of the total content of Tl in the soil in the range of (15.2–66.7) mg∙kg−1d.m., only (1.1–2.1) mg∙kg−1d.m. was present in a bioavailable form. The mean content in all the plants grown on the soil without EDTA was 98.5 mg∙kg−1d.m. The largest content was found in leaves – 164.9 mg∙kg−1d.m. (max. 588.2 mg∙kg−1d.m.). In the case of plants grown on the soil enriched with EDTA, the mean content in plants increased to 108.9 mg∙kg−1d.m., max. in leaves – 138.4 mg∙kg−1d.m. (max. 1100 mg∙kg−1d.m.). The translocation factor was 6.1 in the soil and 2.2 in the soil with EDTA; the bioconcentration factor amounted to 10.9 and 5.8, respectively. The plants from both populations did not contain a Tl amount clearly indicating hyperaccumulation (100–500 mg∙kg−1d.m.), however, high (>1) translocation and bioconcentration factors suggest such an ability. It is a characteristic species-wide trait; B. laevigata L. is a facultative Tl hyperaccumulator. The largest Tl amount was located at the leaf base, the smallest at its top. Thallium also occurred in trichomes, which was presented for the first time; in this way plants detoxify Tl in the above-ground parts. Leaves were much more hairy in the Bolesław plants. This is an adaptation for growth in the extreme conditions of the zinc-lead waste heap with elevated Tl quantity.
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Abstrakt

Abstract The male-specific DNA markers are very useful in molecular sexing of non-flowering plants and seeds of dioecious species. In this paper we identified ten Y chromosome-specific RAPD primers suitable for identification of male plants in three Cannabaceae species with sex chromosomes (Humulus lupulus, XX/XY; H. japonicus, XX/XY1Y2; Cannabis sativa, XX/XY). Basing on the nucleotide sequence of the OPJ-09 RAPD product we developed the HJY09 SCAR marker, which is very efficient in sexing of Japanese hop.
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Abstrakt

Abstract Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja (formerly Ledum palustre L.) is a medicinal peat bog plant native to northern Europe, Asia and North America. This plant has a distinctive aroma thanks to the presence of essential oil, to which it also owes its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. However, in Europe R. tomentosum is classified as an endangered species, mainly due to degradation of peatlands. In the present work, the micropropagation protocol for R. tomentosum was established for the first time, providing both an ex situ conservation tool and a means of continuous production of in vivo and in vitro plant material for further studies. R. tomentosum microshoots were initiated from leaf explants and further multiplied using Schenk-Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with 9.84 μM 2iP and 1.00 μM TDZ. The shoots were elongated on the SH medium supplemented with 24.6 μM 2iP and subsequently rooted using the perlite substrate saturated with half-strength Woody Plant medium supplemented with 1.0% sucrose and 4.92 μM IBA. The regenerated plants were hardened on the phytohormone-free SH medium and acclimatized using 3:1:1 deacidified peat:perlite:gravel substrate. The identity of the mother plant was confirmed at morphological and molecular levels and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was implemented to assess the genetic fidelity of the regenerants. The essential oil content of the maternal plant, in vitro shoots and the regenerants was determined by steam-distillation, and the obtained volatile fractions were analyzed by GC/MS.
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Abstrakt

Abstract Plants belonging to the family Oleaceae have been traditionally used in treatment of various inflammatory skin disorders. One of the most well-known species is Olea europaea L. (olive), cultivated in the Mediterranean countries. Another species is Ligustrum vulgare L. (common privet), occurring particularly in Northern Europe and Asia. The aim of the study was a comparison of the composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from leaves of O. europaea and L. vulgare (HPLC-DAD-MS), and determination of the total content of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the content of the major compound, oleuropein. Secondly, we aimed to study the protective effect of extracts on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by human fibroblast cells (NHDF), cell viability (MTT assay), and apoptosis rate (Annexin V/propidium iodide staining) after UVA-irradiation. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to identify compounds belonging to the groups of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and secoiridoids in the extracts. The compounds from the group of lignans (olivil) were identified as being unique to O. europaea extracts. Echinacoside, ligustroflavone and ligustaloside A were identified in L. vulgare extracts in contrast to olive preparations. It was established that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from leaves of both species, except the privet aqueous extract at a concentration of 5 μg/ml, did not show any significant inhibition of ROS production after UVA-irradiation in the model of NHDF cell line. The aqueous extracts of both species at concentrations of 5 and 25 μg/ml had a protective effect on the viability of UVA-treated cells in contrast to the ethanolic extract. In conclusion, no significant difference in the activity of olive and privet leaf extracts has been observed, which suggests that both plant materials’ extracts, particularly aqueous ones, are effective herbal medicines and photoprotectors, which – to some extent – confirms the use of their preparations in skin disorders.
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Abstrakt

Abstract Floral epidermal cells of most species of Bulbophyllum Thouars studied to date produce both lipid-rich food-rewards and fragrance. Since fragrances largely consist of terpenoids and have an affinity for lipophilic stains, the simultaneous presence of lipid-rich food-rewards frustrates identification of fragrance-secreting cells by conventional histochemistry. Furthermore, since both lipid-rich food-rewards and fragrances are probably synthesized by a similar complement of organelles, interpretation of TEM images can prove difficult. All members of section Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f. investigated to date, however, are unusual in their secretion of a predominantly proteinaceous food-reward, and lipids are seemingly absent. This might enable their use as models for the identification and characterization of fragrance-secreting tissues and organelles. Three members of sect. Racemosae were chosen, namely Bulbophyllum dissitiflorum Seidenf., B. lilacinum Ridl. and B. tricorne Seidenf. & Smitinand. All produced food-rewards. Of these, one (B. dissitiflorum) lacked fragrance and was used as a control, whereas the remaining two species produced fragrance. Having established that the food-reward was mainly proteinaceous in each case, and did not test positively for lipid, we undertook further histochemical investigations, as well as light microscopy, SEM and TEM. Specialized palisade-like epidermal cells of all species contained protein bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum consistent with the production and secretion of a protein-rich food-reward. Cuticular pores were also present. In fragrant species, these cells also contained abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, oil droplets and many, well-developed, spherical plastids with numerous plastoglobuli, similar to those found in the osmophores (fragrance-producing structures) of other orchids. Indeterminate, osmiophilic cytoplasmic inclusions were also present. By contrast, the non-fragrant species lacked oil droplets and other osmiophilic inclusions and the plastids were scant, poorly developed, often elongate or irregular in shape and contained few plastoglobuli. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum was also less frequent. Since food-rewards tested negatively for lipid, it is probable that any oil droplets present were involved in fragrance production, especially since they were absent from the non-fragrant species. Thus, the unusual absence of lipids from the food-rewards of sect. Racemosae provided a rare opportunity, permitting, for the first time, the unraveling of these two secretory processes (food-reward and fragrance) in Bulbophyllum and clearly demonstrating the plasticity of these cells and their dual role in secretion.
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Abstrakt

Abstract Viola uliginosa (bog violet) is a declining species throughout its range due to – mostly anthropogenic – drying out of the wet habitats it occupies. Using AFLP markers, we aimed to estimate the genetic diversity in Polish populations, that may give an insight into the situation of plant populations facing rapid loss of natural habitats. Bog violet from several dispersed Polish populations is generally characterized by very low genetic diversity (HT = 0.048), even lower than several other endangered violets; therefore, we suggest that it should preserve at least EN rank in the red lists/red data books. The mean gene diversity within all populations (HS) was much lower than gene diversity (GST) between populations (0.020 versus 0.583, respectively) which supports the prevalence of clonal propagation of the species (mainly by stolons) but may also point to some significance of autogamy in cleisto- and chasmogamous flowers. A high FST value and the Mantel test for all populations revealed significant isolation by distance. Geographically neighboring pairs of populations formed genetic clusters supported by all (in the case of two closest populations) or most statistical analyses applied. Special attention should be paid to the locus classicus of the species in Rząska, consisting of a small number of individuals, forming a genetically distinct group, revealing very low gene diversity (Hj = 0.009) and the longest genetic distance to the remaining populations. Our results can contribute to planning future protection measures for the species at this and other locations. Genetic structure of the studied populations suggests local affinities of populations but does not generally support hypothesized recent continuity of V. uliginosa range along the river valleys of southern Poland; this view may, however, be altered with widening of the scope of studied populations and chosen molecular markers.
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Abstrakt

Abstract This study deals with populations of the European-South-Siberian geoelement Adenophora liliifolia (L.) A. DC. in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland, where this species has its European periphery distribution. We studied the population size, genetic variability, site conditions, and vegetation units in which A. liliifolia grows. Recent and historical localities of A. liliifolia were ranked into six vegetation units of both forest and non-forest character. A phytosociological survey showed differences in the species composition among localities. Only a weak pattern of population structure was observed (only 22% of total genetic variation present at the interpopulation level, AMOVA analysis), with moderate values for gene diversity (Hj = 0.141) and polymorphism (P = 27.6%). Neighbor-joining and Bayesian clusterings suggest a similar genetic background for most of the populations from Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Poland, contrary to the populations from Hungary, Romania, as well as two populations from Central and South Slovakia. This might be explained by a relatively recent fragmentation of the A. liliifolia populations in Central Europe. Nevertheless, it seems that several populations in Romania, South Hungary, and Slovakia were isolated for a longer period of time and their genetic differentiation is more evident.
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Abstrakt

Abstract This is the first study to report an efficient anther culture (AC) method for spelt wheat, which has an increasing importance not only in applied research but also in organic farming and changing nutritional standards. In this study, an efficient AC protocol has been described for ‘GK Fehér’ spelt wheat. The number of AC-derived embryo-like structures (ELS) was 62.2/100 anthers, from which we were able to regenerate 30.6 green plantlets per 100 anthers. The percentage of green plantlets production was 89.0% among the regenerated plantlets, while the phenomenon of albinism was restricted (3.8/100 anthers). Altogether, from AC of ‘GK Fehér’ 306 green plantlets were produced in vitro and 241 plants were acclimatized to the greenhouse conditions. Based on ploidy level analyses, 83 spontaneous doubled haploid (DH) plants were produced (8.3 DH plants/100 anthers), so the percentage of spontaneous rediploidization was 34.4%. The spontaneous DH plants produced fertile spikes, while a few seeds were harvested from seven partially fertile plants.
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Redakcja

Editor
ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl


Managing Editor
MONIKA TULEJA
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl



Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA; ballardh@ohio.edu
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland; ancyt@biotop.umcs.lublin.pl
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; borut.bohanec@bf.uni-lj.si
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy; cresti@unisi.it
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland; marlig@biol.uw.edu.pl
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland; dubert@ifr-pan.krakow.pl
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria; johann.greilhuber@univie.ac.at
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia; anna.koltunow@csiro.au
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland; jolanta.maluszynska@us.edu.pl
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic; karol.marhold@savba.sk
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France; ematthysr69@gmail.com
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland; m.pajak@iphils.uj.edu.pl
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland; jryb@obpan.pl
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom; twe@leicester.ac.uk
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria; hanna.schneeweiss@univie.ac.at
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey; pharmacogalev@gmail.com
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants


Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
e-mail: jurboh@biotech.univ.gda.pl

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
e-mail: robert.hasterok@us.edu.pl

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: robert.konieczny@uj.edu.pl

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland
e-mail: pharmaceutical.biology@wp.eu

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland
e-mail: m.ronikier@botany.pl

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland
e-mail: elwira@utp.edu.pl

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: i.slesak@ifr-pan.krakow.pl

Kontakt

 

Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594
e-mail:
a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl

 

Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl

 

Instrukcje dla autorów

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study. Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.
2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager:
https://www.editorialsystem.com/abcsb
Editor: Prof. Dr. ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
e-mail: a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl
Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.
3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.
4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).
5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.
6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.
7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.
8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.
9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.
10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.
11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.
12. Proof will be sent directly to the authors in electronic form as a pdf file. Authors’ corrections have to be inserted in the printout of the PDF proof. The corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor within six days via Editorial Manager or by e-mail. Proofs not returned promptly by authors will be corrected by the Editor.
13. Copyright. Exclusive copyright in all papers accepted for publication must be assigned to the Polish Academy of Sciences, but the Academy will not restrict the authors’ freedom to use material contained in the paper in other works by the authors (with reference where they were first published).
14. Offprints. A pdf of each paper is supplied to the authors free of charge.

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