Life Sciences and Agriculture

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica

Content

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2019 | vol. 61 | No 1 |

Abstract

Rye is an important crop widely cultivated in Europe, but one of the hardest to improve due to its allogamy and self-incompatibility. The market for rye-based products is constantly growing thanks to the popularity of organic farming, feed production and diverse industry applications. To address these demands, new highly productive hybrid rye varieties are needed. Currently, full potential of heterosis in rye breeding is hard to reach due to the limited success in in vitro cultures. This review summarizes the progress in rye in vitro cultures and proposes novel approaches to overcome recalcitrance in this species.

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Abstract

Pedunculate and sessile oaks (Quercus robur L.; Q. petraea [Matt] Liebl.) often coexist in mixed forest stands.

However, species-specific investigations and forest management actions in such populations require reliable

methods of identification of the species status of individuals. We investigated genetic diversity and species differentiation

of adult and naturally established seedling cohorts in a mixed forest stand composed of Q. robur and

Q. petraea, located in the Jamy Nature Reserve in north-central Poland. Using nineteen nuclear microsatellite

loci and a model-based clustering approach as a tool for species delineation, we efficiently identified 105 and

60 adults, as well as 191 and 456 seedlings of pedunculate and sessile oaks, respectively. While the adult trees

of both species were randomly distributed throughout the sample plot, the seedlings demonstrated significant

spatial clustering, which was particularly evident for Q. petraea. The two oak species exhibited similar levels of

genetic diversity in adult and offspring cohorts. Inbreeding was found to be low and significant only at the stage of

seedlings. The estimates of effective population size were higher for Q. robur than Q. petraea, despite the overall

greater reproductive success of the later one. There was a significant level of differentiation between the studied

oak species, as measured by Fst coefficient (0.084 – adults; 0.099 – seedlings). The results on genetic diversity and

species differentiation obtained in the studied indigenous near-natural stand of Q. robur and Q. petraea could be

considered as a reference for other population genetic studies of oaks.

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Abstract

Nanotechnology has been widely applied in agriculture, and understanding of the mechanisms of plant interaction with nanoparticles (NPs) as environmental contaminants is important. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of foliar application of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) NPs on some morpho-physiological and biochemical changes of canola (Brassica napus L.) leaves. Seeds were sown in plastic pots and grown under controlled conditions. Fourteen-day-old seedlings were sprayed with different concentrations of Co3O4 NPs (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg L-1) at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. Growth parameters of the shoot (length, fresh and dry weights) were stimulated by low concentrations of Co3O4 NPs (50 and 100 mg L-1) and repressed by higher concentrations. Similar trends were observed in photosynthetic pigment contents. The results indicated that high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs increased lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) contents, but reduced the membrane stability index (MSI), ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH). Despite the increase of antioxidant capacity (DPPH) and the accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoids and flavonols) and osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine (GB) and soluble sugars) at high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs, the growth and photosynthesis were reduced. The defence system activity did not seem to be sufficient to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs showed a phytotoxic potential for canola as an oilseed crop.

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Abstract

Local adaptation is a key concept in biology: shift of genetic structures of populations due to differential survival of genotypes is expected to lead to phenotypes providing an advantage in the local environment. Variation of sequences of twelve candidate genes was investigated in 13 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) provenances originating from sites distributed along an altitudinal gradient from 550 to 1300 m a.s.l. Signals of selection were assessed in 103 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The Bayesian FST-outlier identification methods as implemented in the programs BayeScan and Arlequin did not identify any SNP with a clear evidence of selection. The approaches relying on SNP-climate associations (spatial analysis method based on logistic regression of allele frequencies with environmental variables, Bayesian method applied in BayEnv2) identified several relationships but none of them remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Gene flow, epigenetic inheritance and former management of the studied populations are discussed as potential reasons for this weak evidence of selection signals.

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Abstract

Rare and endemic plant species represent important components of plant biodiversity which require protection to ensure their sustainable conservation. Cerastium banaticum (Rochel) Heuff. is such an endemic and rare species from Romania, for which the genetic variability of two natural populations was studied by SSR markers. Shannon’s information index revealed low levels of genetic diversity in both populations (I = 0.296). As the first attempt in a conservation program a reproducible micropropagation protocol was established starting from seeds, followed by multiplication, rooting, and ex vitro acclimatization. Among the various plant growth regulators tested the highest multiplication coefficient was achieved on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 6-furfurylaminopurine (K) and 1 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). On this PGRs concentration a number of 26.6 shoots/individual explant with a mean length of 7.9 cm for new generated shoots was registered. The highest number of roots/individual initiated shoot was 2.6 and it was recorded on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 2-isopentyl-adenine (2iP) and 0.1 mg L-1 NAA. The outdoor acclimatization was successfully performed in a specially designed rocky area in the ‘Alexandru Borza’ Botanical Garden, Cluj-Napoca (Romania).

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Abstract

This work presents a comparative analysis of the phenolic composition (UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3, HPLC-PDAfingerprint, UV-spectrophotometric methods) and antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP) of leaf samples from two vegetation seasons of a medicinal and dietary plant Sorbus domestica growing in its natural habitat (Croatia, C) and cultivated in Poland (P). The samples from both sources were rich in structurally diverse polyphenols (44 analytes; P: 73.4–76.6 and C: 98.3–106.7 mg GAE/g dry leaves) including the dominating flavan-3-ols and flavonoids. The greatest qualitative and quantitative differences were observed for flavonoids (P: 14.3–20.3%; C: 27.5–34.1% of polyphenols) – in the Polish samples flavonoid diglycosides predominated, in the Croatian samples the contents of both monoglycosides and diglycosides were similar. In the case of dry methanolic extracts, despite the higher extraction efficiency obtained for the Croatian samples (32–36% vs 23–24%), the quality of the extracts was comparable, both in terms of the total phenolic content (P: 269.4–280.0; C: 297.6–304.4; mg GAE/g dry extract) and antioxidant activity parameters (DPPH, EC50, μg/mL. P: 10.5–10.9, C: 10.0–10.3; and FRAP, mmol Fe2+/g, P: 6.64–7.13, C: 7.06–7.11). As a result, the study confirmed the influence of environmental conditions on the phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of S. domestica leaves, as well as showed that despite some differences, plant materials from both Poland and Croatia might be suitable for production of natural health products.

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Abstract

Micropropagation of Plantago media L. and the presence of phenolic compounds in organs of multiplied plants were investigated for the first time. Multiplication of plant material was achieved in shoot-tip cultures and via direct organogenesis on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with four variants of plant growth regulators (M1–M4). The best multiplication coefficient – 9.2 was obtained in seedling shoot-tip cultures on MS medium M3 with BA 0.2 mg/L and IAA 1.0 mg/L. Methanol extracts prepared separately from shoots and roots of in vitroderived plantlets were found to contain typical of the genus Plantago L. phenylethanoid glycosides as the only phenolics. Acteoside and plantamajoside were the major compounds – both known to possess a wide range of promising biological activities applicable for medicinal (therapeutic) and cosmetic uses. Martynoside, as a trace constituent, was also found for the first time in the studied species. The quantitative screening of the extracts by TLC video densitometric method showed a higher content of acteoside in shoots (range 62.43–93.03 mg/g, dry weight) and plantamajoside in roots (range 22.45–44.08 mg/g); the highest recorded values – 93.03 mg/g and 44.08 mg/g, respectively, were found in the organs obtained on MS medium M4 with BA 2.0 mg/L.

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Abstract

The experiment on Zea mays L. cv. Landmark (F1) plants was performed in a greenhouse with UV-B (305–315 nm). The pots with plants were divided into four groups: the first and the second groups were grown, respectively, at low (1.0 kJ m-2 d-1) and high (3.0 kJ m-2 d-1) biological effective dose of UV-B radiation. Half of the pots of each group were sprayed with 0.1% solution of Asahi SL (the third and fourth groups). The intensity of photosynthesis and transpiration, chlorophyll fluorescence, the content of UV-absorbing compounds and radical scavenging activity were measured using DPPH after four and six weeks of UV-B radiation. After six weeks of irradiation with a higher UV-B dose both flavonoid content and antioxidant activity increased by 112% and by 44%, respectively, compared to the plants grown at the lower dose. The plants treated with Asahi SL and exposed to the high dose of UV-B had the content of flavonoids 80% higher than the control ones. Asahi SL decreased scavenging activity in both groups of plants by 17% and 32%, respectively, in comparison with the untreated plants. The intensity of net photosynthesis, the transpiration rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fo, ETR, Rfd) did not differ in most of variants.

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Abstract

The pollen morphology of many collections of taxa of the tribe Nigelleae from the family Ranunculaceae which occur worldwide is presented in this study. A total of 88 specimens from 21 taxa, some of which were recently proposed, belonging to the genera Komaroffia, Garidella, and Nigella of Nigelleae were examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the tribe, the pollen type is mostly trizonocolpate, but in many taxa and specimens, both trizonocolpate and non-trizonocolpate types occur together. The pollen grains are small to medium (25–53.75 μm × 20–55 μm) in size and oblate to prolate in shape. The exine pattern at the mesocolpium in all the taxa investigated is similar: micro-echinate in LM and micro-echinate-punctate in SEM. The colpus membrane in Komaroffia and Nigella is micro-echinate in both LM and SEM. In Garidella, it is micro-echinate in LM but echinate (spinulose) in SEM. In this study, multivariate analyses, principal component analysis (PCA), and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), were used to evaluate relationships between the genera and species within the tribe with respect to pollen morphology. PCA results show three main groups in the tribe: Garidella, Komaroffia, and Nigella. Moreover, the UPGMA tree also chiefly supports generic segregation into the smaller genera. An overall synthesis of the pollen characteristics of the three genera is provided and discussed.

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Abstract

In this study a tetraploid sexual cytotype (2n = 160) of Athyrium christensenianum and tetraploid apogamous cytotypes (2n = 164) of Dryopteris erythrosora, D. kinokuniensis, and D. nipponensis have been reported for the first time from Japan.

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Editorial office

Editor
ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl


Managing Editor
MONIKA TULEJA
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl



Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA; ballardh@ohio.edu
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland; ancyt@biotop.umcs.lublin.pl
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; borut.bohanec@bf.uni-lj.si
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy; cresti@unisi.it
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland; marlig@biol.uw.edu.pl
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland; dubert@ifr-pan.krakow.pl
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria; johann.greilhuber@univie.ac.at
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia; anna.koltunow@csiro.au
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland; jolanta.maluszynska@us.edu.pl
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic; karol.marhold@savba.sk
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France; ematthysr69@gmail.com
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland; m.pajak@iphils.uj.edu.pl
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland; jryb@obpan.pl
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom; twe@leicester.ac.uk
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria; hanna.schneeweiss@univie.ac.at
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey; pharmacogalev@gmail.com
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants


Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
e-mail: jurboh@biotech.univ.gda.pl

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
e-mail: robert.hasterok@us.edu.pl

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: robert.konieczny@uj.edu.pl

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland
e-mail: pharmaceutical.biology@wp.eu

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland
e-mail: m.ronikier@botany.pl

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland
e-mail: elwira@utp.edu.pl

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: i.slesak@ifr-pan.krakow.pl

Contact

 

Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594
e-mail:
a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl

 

Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl

 

Instructions for authors

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study.
Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.

2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager: https://www.editorialsystem.com/abcsb

Editor: Prof. Dr. ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
e-mail:a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl

Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.

3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.

4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).

5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.

6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.

7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.

8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.

9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.

10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.

11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.

12. Proof will be sent directly to the authors in electronic form as a pdf file. Authors’ corrections have to be inserted in the printout of the PDF proof. The corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor within six days via Editorial Manager or by e-mail. Proofs not returned promptly by authors will be corrected by the Editor.

13. Copyright. Exclusive copyright in all papers accepted for publication must be assigned to the Polish Academy of Sciences, but the Academy will not restrict the authors’ freedom to use material contained in the paper in other works by the authors (with reference where they were first published).

14. Offprints. A pdf of each paper is supplied to the authors free of charge.

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