Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica


Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2014 | No 2 |


Abstract Worldwide chromosome number information has been compiled from the literature for monocotyledonous genera whose members have been cytologically studied in the last three years from Kangra District (Himachal Pradesh) and Kashmir (Jammu & Kashmir) in the Western Himalayas, comprising 143 species of 86 genera in 12 families, many in the family Poaceae. Chromosome number information from the literature is supplemented with new and varied reports for 54 species/56 taxa from the present study. Overall, the chromosome numbers range from 2n=10 to 2n=120. Some species in all genera show a large number of cytotypes, clearly highlighting the role of inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity as well as polyploidy and dysploidy. The basic chromosome numbers in all 86 genera are reconsidered. Monobasic genera are more common in Poaceae, and polyba-sic genera are more common in the other 11 families. Polyploidy in the different genera ranges from 3x to 40x, and is quite high in certain genera (18x in Avena, Bothriochloa, Isachne, Helictotrichon and Panicum; 19x in Saccharum; 24x in Tradescantia; 28x in Eleocharis; 32x in Cyperus; 36x in Andropogon; 38x in Poa; 40x in Dioscorea). An updated checklist of chromosome number variability in these genera is given for India and world-wide.
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Abstract The influence of sodium alginate sterilization on the viability and mitotic activity of embedded protoplasts was studied in protoplasts of Brassica oleracea subsp. alba and rubra isolated from hypocotyl tissue and leaves of seedlings or plants grown in vitro. Both leaf and hypocotyl-derived protoplasts were more viable and divided more frequently when embedded in filtrated alginate. Division frequency was highest in cv. Reball F1 and the mitotic activity of its protoplasts was three times higher when embedded in filtrated alginate (36.1 ± 6.8%) than when cultured in autoclaved alginate (10.9 ± 5.0%). Protoplast-derived calli colonies were transferred to solid regeneration media and plants of all tested accessions were obtained.
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Abstract During greening, excised etiolated barley leaves and cucumber cotyledons that were depleted of exogenous Ca2+ by a chelating agent (ethylene glycol-bis (beta aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N`N`-tetraacetic acid, EGTA) showed ∼50% reduced chlorophyll (Chl) accumulation and ∼30% accumulation of apoprotein of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein complex of photosystem II (LHCPII). The Ca2+ channel blocker lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) applied to cucumber cotyledons reduced LHCPII accumulation more than EGTA did. In both plant mate-rials, cytokinins enhanced chlorophyll accumulation by 50-60% and this effect was completely canceled by EGTA application. Hormones significantly increased LHCPII accumulation but EGTA application reduced that effect in barley leaves by ∼30% and in cucumber cotyledons by ∼80%. A similar effect was observed in LaCl3-treated cotyledons. CaCl2 application boosted chlorophyll accumulation in both plant materials. CaCl2 applied together with cytokinin reduced the hormonal effect on chlorophyll accumulation by ∼38% in barley leaves and 23% in cucumber cotyledons, but almost totally inhibited cytokinin-stimulated LHCPII accumulation. Our results indicate that calcium variously mediates the effect of cytokinin on chlorophyll and LHCPII accumulation. Cytokinin-induced enhancement of chlorophyll accumulation seems totally dependent on the exogenous pool of Ca2+, while Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent pathways are involved in the hormonal effect on LHCPII accumulation. The effect of cytokinin on the increase of light-induced LHCPII accumulation appears to be sensitive to exogenously applied Ca2+, which almost totally blocked the hormonal effect. Our results give indirect evidence that the responses to cytokinin and light act on different events leading to Chl and LHCPII accumulation.
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Abstract Fruit quality is closely related to the structure of the fruit peel, especially the epidermis and cuticle which form a barrier between its internal and external environments. This study used light, scanning and transmission elec-tron microscopy to examine changes in the epidermal structures of fruits of the Polish apple cultivar Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Ligol at three maturity stages. The single-layered epidermis was covered with cuticle and crystalline wax platelets. In the fruit set stage the fruit surface exhibited numerous nonglandular trichomes, stomata, microcracks and crystalline wax platelets. The surface of fruits at harvest and after 6-month controlled-atmosphere storage exhibited lenticels and horizontally or vertically oriented wax platelets. During fruit devel-opment there was an increase in epidermal cuticle thickness and a reduction in epidermal cell convexity and number of lenticels. After the storage period fruit weight declined, microcracks deepened and widened, and cuticular waxes accumulated. The cuticle was made up of two layers, lamellar and reticulate. In successive fruit development stages the width of the lamellar layer increased considerably. In the fruit set and harvest maturity stages the epidermal cells contained numerous mitochondria and plastids with starch grains. After the storage period there were fewer amyloplasts and the cell vacuoles contained flocculent residue and dark deposits.
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Abstract Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) JIM13, JIM15 and MAC207, we investigated the temporal and spatial dis-tribution of some arabinogalactan protein (AGP) epitopes in cells of the Bellis perennis L. anther at different developmental stages. AGP epitopes recognized by JIM13 were detected in the protoplasts of tapetal cells, dividing microsporocytes, and microspores; AGP epitopes recognized by JIM15 were present in the cytoplasm of tapetal cells only at the stage with tetrads of microspores in the anther loculus. AGP epitopes recognized by MAC207 were present in the cells of different somatic tissues of the flower bud, but after asymmetric mitosis in the microspore they appeared abundantly in the protoplasts of immature pollen and were still present in mature pollen grains. Callose, revealed by mAb, appeared at the same stage of microsporocyte division as AGPs labelled with JIM13 and JIM15. We discuss the differences in callose and AGP localization and the possible role of the latter during anther development.
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Abstract Gene flow among individual trees of Pinus sylvestris and P. mugo putative hybrid swarms in Slovakia was fol-lowed at four localities using the species-diagnostic cpDNA trnV-trnH/Hinf I restriction profile. Variable proportions of P. sylvestris and P. mugo haplotypes were revealed among the sampled localities. Low between-habitus consistency of the trees and their cpDNA haplotypes indicates the hybrid nature of the swarms. Molecular analy-sis based on mutual comparison of the haplotypes of a given tree and its embryos suggests direct and recipro-cal hybridization between trees of the P. sylvestris and P. mugo haplotypes. Besides conspecific embryos resulting from hybridization of trees with the same haplotype (P. sylvestris × P. sylvestris and P. mugo × P. mugo), hybrid embryos of P. sylvestris × P. mugo (8.03%) and P. mugo × P. sylvestris (11.50%) were also detected in open-pollinated offspring. The results are discussed from the standpoint of primary and introgressive hybridization between the parental species.
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Abstract The effect of two in planta factors (growth conditions, genotype) and two in vitro factors (time of embryo rescue, embryo rescue medium) on doubled haploid (DH) plant production in bread wheat via maize technique was investigated in nine F1 hybrids produced after crossing four bread wheat cultivars. During the first year one group of F1 plants was grown in a field and at the proper stage pollinated with maize pollen (sweet corn popu-lation). In parallel, a second group of F1 plants was grown in a growth chamber and pollinated as in the former group. In the second growing season the experiment was repeated but only field-grown plants were used. All the produced haploid embryos were cultured in three different media and the resulting 146 haploid plants were sub-sequently treated with aqueous solution of colchicine. Finally, 86 doubled haploid plants were obtained. We noted that the growing conditions of the parental plants and the intervening time between day of pollination and day of embryo rescue influenced the percentage of haploid embryo production. Culture medium also influenced haploid and doubled haploid plant production. The two media (MS/2, B5) were found equally effective. Most of the haploid embryos originated from the Penios × Acheloos cross, whereas most of the doubled haploid plants were produced from the KVZ × Penios cross. Doubled haploid plants were produced from all crosses.
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Abstract Hydrolyzable tannins and products of their hydrolysis, ellagic acid (EA) and gallic acid (GA), are important con-stituents of many medicinal plants and exhibit various biological activities. Geum rivale and G. urbanum are traditional herbal remedies rich in tannin compounds. The aim of the study was to quantitate free and total EA and GA in aerial and underground parts of G. rivale and G. urbanum. After optimization of extraction, both compounds were quantitated by reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). EA was more abundant than GA in the inves-tigated material, and underground parts of G. rivale were the richest source of total EA and GA.
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Abstract The study used fluorescence microscopy to examine changes in cytoskeleton configuration during development of the embryo suspensor in Gagea lutea and to describe them in tandem with the development of the embryo proper. During the early phase of embryo suspensor development, tubulin and actin filaments were observed in the cytoplasm of the basal cell from the micropylar to the chalazal ends of the cell. Around the nucleus of the basal cell were clusters of numerous microtubules. These accumulations of tubulin arrays congregated near the nucleus surface; numerous bundles of microtubules radiated from the nucleus envelope. At this time, microfil-aments formed a delicate network in the cytoplasm of the basal cell. In the fully differentiated embryo suspensor, microtubules were observed at the chalazal end of the basal cell. Numerous bundles of microtubules were visualized in the cytoplasm adjacent to the wall separating the basal cell from the embryo proper. Microfilaments formed a dense network which uniformly filled the basal cell cytoplasm. There were some foci of F-actin material in the vicinity of the nucleus surface and at the chalazal end of the basal cell. In all studied phases of embryo suspensor development a prominent cortical network of actin and tubulin skeleton was observed in embryo proper cells.
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Abstract Many Asteraceae species have been introduced into horticulture as ornamental or interesting exotic plants. Some of them, including Solidago and Galinsoga, are now aggressive weeds; others such as Ratibida are not. Special modifications of the ovule tissue and the occurrence of nutritive tissue have been described in several Asteraceae species, including invasive Taraxacum species. This study examined whether such modifications might also occur in other genera. We found that the three genera examined - Galinsoga (G. quadriradiata), Solidago (S. canadensis, S. rigida, S. gigantea) and Ratibida (R. pinnata) - differed in their nutritive tissue structure. According to changes in the integument, we identified three types of ovules in Asteraceae: “Taraxacum” type (recorded in Taraxacum, Bellis, Solidago, Chondrilla), with well-developed nutritive tissue having very swollen cell walls of spongy structure; “Galinsoga” type (in Galinsoga), in which the nutritive tissue cells have more cyto-plasm and thicker cell walls than the other integument parenchyma cells, and in which the most prominent character of the nutritive tissue cells is well-developed rough ER; and “Ratibida” type (in Ratibida), in which the nutritive tissue is only slightly developed and consists of large highly vacuolated cells. Our study and future investigations of ovule structure may be useful in phylogenetic analyses.
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Abstract Conditioned medium (CM) is a general term describing media in which cells have already been cultivated for some time. Such media, usually clarified by filtration, have been used by plant biotechnologists as additives sup-porting the growth of cell suspensions, organs and whole plants. This study examined the effect of CM obtained from green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus on the growth and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana in culture in vitro. Plants where cultured on CM diluted 1.25-, 2-and 5-fold with MS medium. The increase in fresh and dry weight was highest in tobacco and Arabidopsis cultured on CM/2 and CM/1.25 media. Those two concentrations also increased the amount of chlorophylls in both plants tested. CM improved parameter PI (reflecting the photosynthetic “vitality” of the organism) and electron transport efficiency, and increased the fraction of active reaction centers. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo suggests that the improvement of these plants grown in the presence of algal CM may result from stimulation of photosynthesis. Algal CM offers a convenient, cheap, universal supplement for stimulating the growth of higher plants in vitro.
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Abstract Nutrition is one of the most important factors influencing quantitative and qualitative plant yield. This study examined the effect of manganese (Mn) in nutrient solution on photosynthetic activity parameters, and the relations between photosynthetic activity parameters, yield and plant nutrient status in tomato (Solanum lycoper-sicum L.). Mn supplementation significantly modified the nutrient content of leaves. Macronutrient content var-ied less than micronutrient content. The optimal Mn concentration differed between the studied cultivars. Both Mn deficit and Mn excess caused a decrease of tomato yield. Gas exchange parameters, relative water content (RWC) and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in fully expanded tomato leaves. Certain levels of Mn were found to be needed for proper plant function and future yield, and toxic effects of excess Mn were noted. Changes in PN (net photosynthetic rate) were found to be the first signal of plant response to higher Mn supply, while yield was as for optimal Mn concentrations. Under Mn treatment, uptake of some nutrients increased. A higher level of absorbed Mg led to a higher photosynthesis rate and increased stomatal opening. PN and gs (stomatal con-ductance) also increased, while Ci (intercellular CO2 concentration) decreased, indicating proper CO2 consumption during the assimilation process.
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Abstract To achieve a better understanding of accumulation of paclitaxel and related taxanes in Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana Zucc.) callus mass, induction and growth of calli from needles and petioles under light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and production of paclitaxel and baccatin were investigated. Calli were induced from needles and petioles on Gamborg's B5 medium supplemented with 1 mg·l-1 kinetin and 4 mg·l-1 2,4-D under different com-binations of blue and red LEDs. Calli were further cultured in that medium under the same lighting conditions. Callus induction from needles and petioles and growth was better under blue LEDs than under red LEDs and fluorescent light. The combinations of blue and red LEDs produced variable results. The paclitaxel content of these calli was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The paclitaxel content of calli derived from needles was 0.00628% and the 10-DAB (10-Deacetylbaccatin III) content was 0.00366%. The paclitaxel content of calli derived from petioles was 0.00412%, and no 10-DAB was detected.
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Abstract Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the role of brassinosteroids (BRs), an important class of phy-tohormone in plant growth, development, and photomorphogenesis. Different wavelengths of light recognized by photoreceptors play a crucial role in plant development. The role of different photoreceptors in BR signaling has not been analyzed. Here we used photoreceptor single mutants, double mutants and even a quadruple mutant to analyze BR-dependent hypocotyl growth and gene regulation. All the photoreceptor mutants differed from the controls in their response to BR, and hypocotyl elongation as well as BR marker gene regulation were inhibited by application of propiconazole (PCZ), a BR biosynthesis inhibitor. In addition, altered Phytochrome and Cryptochrome expression in brassinosteroid insensitive 1 mutant bri1-5 and brassinazole-resistant 1 dominant mutant bzr1-D indicated that BR negatively regulates photoreceptors in transcriptional levels. This is the first study to investigate the connections between BR and photoreceptors in Arabidopsis.
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Abstract Water level fluctuation and inorganic nitrogen enrichment are two serious problems caused by anthropogenic disturbances in aquatic ecosystems. They cause resource fluctuation and thus might influence the invasive-ness of alien plants. Alternanthera philoxeroides is an amphibious and widespread clonal plant which exhibits significant invasiveness. This experimental study examined the plant's morphological traits under different nitrogen concentrations and water levels. The responses of A. philoxeroides to water levels and nitrogen concentrations were similar for both land-like and riverbank-like initial conditions. A. philoxeroides showed an escape strategy of shoot elongation when its growth was suppressed by shallow submergence. No toxic symptoms but increased clonal spread was observed at high nitrogen concentrations, suggesting that A. philoxeroides not only tolerated but benefitted from nitrogen-polluted water. High nitrogen level mitigated the negative effects of submergence on its leaf survival, thereby enhancing its adaptation to water level fluctuation. Such strong adaptability and clonal spread helps A. philoxeroides to grow and invade successfully in shallow eutrophic water.
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Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Managing Editor
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA;
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland;
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia;
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy;
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland;
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland;
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria;
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia;
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland;
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic;
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France;
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland;
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland;
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom;
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria;
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey;
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants

Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland



Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594


Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891


Instrukcje dla autorów

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study. Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.
2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager:
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.
3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.
4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).
5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.
6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.
7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.
8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.
9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.
10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.
11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.
12. Proof will be sent directly to the authors in electronic form as a pdf file. Authors’ corrections have to be inserted in the printout of the PDF proof. The corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor within six days via Editorial Manager or by e-mail. Proofs not returned promptly by authors will be corrected by the Editor.
13. Copyright. Exclusive copyright in all papers accepted for publication must be assigned to the Polish Academy of Sciences, but the Academy will not restrict the authors’ freedom to use material contained in the paper in other works by the authors (with reference where they were first published).
14. Offprints. A pdf of each paper is supplied to the authors free of charge.

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