# Archives of Civil Engineering

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### Abstrakt

The process of railway track adjustment is a task which includes bringing, in geometrical terms, the actual track axis to the position ensuring safe and efficient traffic of rail vehicles. The initial calculation stage of this process is to determine approximately the limits of sections of different geometry, i.e. straight lines, arcs and transition curves. This allows to draw up a draft alignment design, which is subject to control the position relative to the current state. In practice, this type of a project rarely meets the requirements associated with the values of corrective alignments. Therefore, it becomes necessary to apply iterated correction of a solution in order to determine the final project, allowing to introduce minor corrections while maintaining the assumed parameters of the route. The degree of complexity of this process is defined by the quality of determining a preliminary draft alignment design. Delimitation of the sections for creation of creating such a design, is usually done by using the curvature diagram (InRail v8.7 Reference Guide [1], Jamka et al [2], Strach [3]), which is, however, sensitive to the misalignment of the track and measurement errors. In their paper Lenda and Strach [4] proposed a new method for creating curvature diagram, based on approximating spline function, theoretically allowing, inter alia, to reduce vulnerability to interference factors. In this study, the method to determine a preliminary draft alignment design for the track with severe overexploitation was used, and thus in the conditions adversely affecting the accuracy of the conducted readings. The results were compared to the ones obtained using classical curvature diagram. The obtained results indicate that the method allows to increase the readability of a curvature graph, which at considerable deregulation of a track takes an irregular shape, difficult to interpret. The method also favourably affects the accuracy of determining the initial parameters of the project, reducing the entire process of calculation.

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In the paper, the method of a numerical simulation concerning diagonal crack propagation in con-crete beams was presented. Two beams reinforced longitudinally but without shear reinforcement were considered during the Finite Element Method analysis. In particular, a nonlinear method was used to simulate the crack evaluation in the beams. The analysis was performed using the commercial program ANSYS. In the numerical simulation, the limit surface for concrete described by Willam and Warnke was applied to model the failure of concrete. To solve the FEM-system of equations, the Newton-Raphson method was used. As the results of FEM calculations, the trajectories of total stains and numerical images of smeared cracks were obtained for two analyzed beams: the slender beam S5 of leff = 1.8 m and the short beam S3k of leff = 1.1 m. The applied method allowed to generate both flexural vertical cracks and diagonal cracks in the shear regions. Some differences in the evaluation of crack patterns in the beams were observed. The greater number of flexural vertical cracks which penetrated deeper in the beam S5 caused the lower stiffness and the greater deformation in the beam S5 compared to the short beam S3k. Numerical results were compared with the experimental data from the early tests performed by Słowik [3]. The numerical simulation yielded very similar results as the experiments and it confirmed that the character of failure process altered according to the effective length of the member. The proposed numerical procedure was successfully verified and it can be suitable for numerical analyses of diagonal crack propagation in concrete beams.

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The paper presents a numerical study of an aircraft wheel impacting on a flexible landing surface. The proposed 3D model simulates the behaviour of flexible runway pavement during the landing phase. This model was implemented in a finite element code in order to investigate the impact of repeated cycles of loads on pavement response.

In the model, a multi-layer pavement structure was considered. In addition, the asphalt layer (HMA) was assumed to follow a viscoelastoplastic behaviour.

The results demonstrate the capability of the model in predicting the permanent deformation distribution in the asphalt layer.

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The energy saving tendencies, in reference to residential buildings, can be recently seen in Europe and in the world. Therefore, there are a lot of studies being conducted aiming to find technical solutions in order to improve the energy efficiency of existing, modernized, and also new buildings. However, there are obligatory solutions and requirements, which must be implemented during designing stage of the building envelope and its heating/cooling system. They are gathered in the national regulations.

The paper describes the process of raising the energy standard of buildings between 1974–2021 in Poland. Therefore, the objective of this study is to show energy savings, which can be generated by modernization of thermal insulation of partitions of existing buildings and by the use of different ways of heat supply. The calculations are made on the selected multi-family buildings located in Poland, with the assumption of a 15 years payback time.

It is shown that it is not possible to cover the costs of the modernization works by the projected savings with the compliance to the assumption of 15 years payback time.

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The present paper is dedicated to presentation and energy verification of the methods of stabilization the strain energy by penalty coefficients. Verification of the methods is based on the consistency and ellipticity conditions to be satisfied by the finite elements. Three methods of stabilization are discussed. The first does not satisfy the above requirements. The second is consistent but cannot eliminate parasitic energy terms. The third method, proposed by the author, is based on the decomposition of the element stiffness matrix. The method can help to eliminate locking of the finite elements. For two-noded beam element with linear shape functions and exact integration a stabilized free of locking (and elliptical) element is received (equivalent to reduced integration element). Two plate finite elements are analyzed: four-noded rectangular element and DSG triangle. A new method of stabilization with the use of four independent parameters is proposed. The finite elements with this kind of stabilization satisfy the consistency condition. In the rectangular element it was not possible to eliminate one parasitic term of energy which appears during the procedure. For DSG triangle all parasitic terms of energy are eliminated. The penalty coefficients depends on the geometry of the triangle.

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### Redakcja

Editor-in-Chief
Henryk Zobel

Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Mariola Książek

:
Andrzej M. Brandt
Werner Brilon (Germany)
Jacek Chróścielewski
Luc Courard (Belgium)
Andrzej Garbacz
Andrzej Garstecki
Wojciech Gilewski
Marian Giżejowski
Oleg Kapliński
Piotr Konderla
Aleksander Kozłowski
Marian Kwietniewski
Zbigniew Młynarek
Andrzej S. Nowak (USA)
Anna Siemińska-Lewandowska
Jan Szwabowski
Waldemar Świdziński
Andrew P. Tarko (USA)
Marian Tracz
Edmundas K. Zavadskas (Lithuania)
Jerzy Ziółko

Secretary
Katarzyna Orzeł

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Wydział Inżynierii Lądowej

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e-mail: ace@il.pw.edu.pl;

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### Instrukcje dla autorów

GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS

1. Preparation of the paper

General: Author is responsible for the Paper contents including copyrights and text formatting. The manuscript should be written in English. It should be typed using 12 p TNR font with 1.5 line spacing, on single-sided A4 sheets with 2 cm margins. The paper should not exceed 10 pages including tables and figures plus 2 pages of an extended summary (TNR 10 pt. justify align), started from new page at the end of the manuscript. Summary in Polish for Polish natives only, others - summary in English.

The first page and the main text: The first page of the article should contain: (1) the title of the article, (2) the name, academic merits, affiliation and e-mail of each author, (3) the name and the address of the author to whom correspondence, proofs and reprints should be sent, (4) a summary of 50-150 words, (5) a list of key words (not to exceed 8). The main text should be divided into numbered (1, 2, etc.) and titled sections and, if needed, into subsections (1.1, 1.2, ... in Section 1, 2.1, 2.2, ... in Section 2, etc.). The abstract of 50-150 words is required on a separate sheet. Polish natives authors only are requested to enclose Polish translation of the abstract, others - abstract in English.

Tables and figures: Tables and figures should be inserted into the text (black-and-white figures and glossy photographs),numbered consecutively and titled. They should be referred to in the text as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, ..., Table 1, Table 2. A list of figures and tables captions (TNR 11 pt. left align, in Polish - for Polish natives only and in English) should be provided on separate sheet(s) at the end of the manuscript beforean extended summary. Colour figures will be accepted only if the colour is essential for the explanation.

Units and mathematical formulae: SI units and abbreviations are obligatory. Mathematical formulae should be typewritten and centred. The formulae referred to in the text are to be numbered consecutively in each Section, i.e. (1.1), (1.2), ... in Section 1, (2.1), (2.2), ... in Section 2, etc. The numbers should be placed in parentheses ( ) at the left margin. The formulae are to be referred to in the text as Eq. (1.1),, Eq. (1.2), ..., Eq. (2.1), Eq. (2.2), ..., etc. The formulae not referred to in the text should not be numbered.

Bibliography: References are to be listed at the end of the paper in the alphabetical order and consecutively numbered. A reference to a published paper should be referred to in the text by the last name(s) of author(s) and the reference's number in brackets [ ]. Each item should contain full bibliographical data in the format illustrated by the following examples:

[1] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds. Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC: NBS, 1964, pp. 32-33.

[2] M. Gorkii, “Optimal design”, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961.

(Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York: INTERSCIENCE, 1962, Ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127-135).

[3] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

[4] E. F. Moore, “Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines”, in Automata Studies

(Ann. of Mathematical Studies, no. 1), C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy, Eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1965, pp. 129-153.

[5] R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials”, in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47-160.

[6] L. Stein, “Random patterns”, in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.

[7] Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Staff of Technology and Science, Aerospace Div.), Integrated Electronic Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

[8] G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics”, in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.

In special cases, other formats related to codes, reports, dissertations, etc. will be accepted.

Layout of the text can be downloaded from ace website: http://ace.il.pw.edu.pl

2. Submission of the paper

Two electronic versions of the manuscript (DOC and PDF file) and License to publish should be submitted and sent directly to the Editor-in-chief by e-mail to: ace@il.pw.edu.pl

Signing license agreement is required.

3. Proof read: Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author to correct any typesetting errors. Alterations to the original manuscript at this stage will not be accepted. Corrected proofs page must be mailed to the Editorial Office as soon as possible.

4. Copyright: Submission of a paper to Archives of Civil Engineering implies that the material is an original and unpublished work, not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If permission for publication of any material is required, it should be obtained from appropriate sources by the author. The corresponding author is responsible for the other authors' approval of the paper publication.

5. Reprints: The corresponding author will receive ten reprints and PDF file of the published paper free of charge.

6. Other information: Apart from research papers, other articles such as review papers, brief notes, discussions and reports may be published in the journal. Monographic papers and state-of-the-art papers are accepted after prior approval of the Editor. Reports on important conferences held in Poland may also be published. Editor decides whether the paper fulfil all requirements i.e. formal and scientific. Editor nominates two reviewers, who shall forward reviews of the accepted publication.

The paper will be published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. If reviewers have some comments authors have to correct the paper. Papers are subject to open discussion. All letters should be addressed to the Editorial Office and will be published together with the authors' response.

7. Fees: Submission of the paper is free of charge. Submitted papers are accepted for publication after a positive opinion of two independent reviewers. When publication accepted Author will be informed by email about article processing charge incl. amount and payment deadline. ACE is non for profit and all fees are calculated to cover operational costs only. Payment is required to the following bank account:

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