Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Electrical Engineering

Zawartość

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2020 | vol. 69 | No 3 |

Abstrakt

The article proposes the method of synthesis of active elements with time-varying parameters R(t), C(t) and L(t). In order to construct the elements, it is necessary to use operational amplifiers, multipliers and classic RLC components. The variability in time of the elements results from applying voltage to control terminals. Assuming that the parameters of elements R(t), L(t), C(t) are exponentially varying, dependencies describing the control voltage waveforms which enable such a parameter variability were determined. The obtained results were illustrated with examples and PSpice simulations.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anna Piwowar
Janusz Walczak

Abstrakt

In order to control joints of manipulators with high precision, a position tracking control strategy combining fractional calculus with iterative learning control and sliding mode control is proposed for the control of a single joint of manipulators. Considering the coupling between joints of manipulators, a fractional-order iterative sliding mode cross-coupling control strategy is proposed and the theoretical proof of its progressive stability is given. The paper takes a two-joint manipulator as the research object to verify the control strategy of a single-joint manipulator. The results show that the control strategy proposed in this paper makes the two-joint mechanical arm chatter less and the tracking more accurate. The synchronous control of the manipulator is verified by a three-joint manipulator. The results show that the angular displacement adjustment times of the three-joint manipulator are 0.11 s, 0.31 s and 0.24 s, respectively. 3.25 s > 5 s, 3.15 s of a PD cross-coupling control strategy; 2.85 s, 2.32 s, 4.22 s of a PD iterative cross-coupling control strategy; 0.14 s, 0.33 s, 0.28 s of a fractional-order sliding mode cross-coupling control strategy. The root mean square error of the position error of the designed control strategy is 6.47 × 10-6 rad, 3.69 × 10-4 rad, 6.91 × 10-3 rad, respectively. The root mean square error of the synchronization error is 3.96 × 10-4 rad, 1.36 × 10-3 rad, 7.81 × 10-3 rad, superior to the other three control strategies. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Xin Zhang
Wen-Ru Lu
Liang Zhang
Wen-Bo Xu

Abstrakt

One of the most critical systems of any satellite is the Electrical Power System (EPS) and without any available energy, the satellite would simply stop to function. Therefore, the presented research within this paper investigates the areas relating to the satellite EPS with the main focus towards the CubeSat platform. In this paper, an appropriate EPS architecture with the suitable control policy for CubeSat missions is proposed. The suggested control strategy combines two methods, the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and the Battery Charge Regulation (BCR), in one power converter circuit, in order to extract the maximum power of the Photovoltaic (PV) system and regulate the battery voltage from overcharging. This proposed combined control technique is using a Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) strategy serving two main purposes, the MPPT and BCR. Without an additional battery charger circuit and without switching technique between the two controllers, there are no switching losses and the efficiency of the charging characteristic can be increased by selecting this proposed combined FLC. By testing a space-based PV model with the proposed EPS architecture, some simulation results are compared to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed control strategy over the conventional strategies such as Perturb and Observe (P&O) and FLC with a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Abderrahmane Seddjar
Kamel Djamel Eddine Kerrouche
Lina Wang

Abstrakt

Afeeder automation (FA) system is usually used by electricity utilities to improve power supply reliability. The FA system was realized by the coordinated control of feeder terminal units (FTUs) in the electrical power distribution network. Existing FA testing technologies can only test basic functions of FTUs, while the coordinated control function among several FTUs during the self-healing process cannot be tested and evaluated. In this paper, a novel cloud-based digital-physical testing method is proposed and discussed for coordinated control capacity test of the FTUs in the distribution network. The coordinated control principle of the FTUs in the local-reclosing FA system is introduced firstly and then, the scheme of the proposed cloud-based digital-physical FA testing method is proposed and discussed. The theoretical action sequences of the FTUs consisting of the FTU under test and the FTUs installed in the same feeder are analyzed and illustrated. The theoretical action sequences are compared with the test results obtained by the realized cloud-based simulation platform and the digital-physical hybrid communication interaction. The coordinated control capacity of the FTUs can be evaluated by the comparative result. Experimental verification shows that the FA function can be tested efficiently and accurately based on our proposed method in the power distribution system inspection.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Guoyan Chen
Wenxiong Mo
Hongbin Wang
Jinrui Tang
Xinhao Bian

Abstrakt

One of the least expensive and safest diagnostic modalities routinely used is ultrasound imaging. An attractive development in this field is a two-dimensional (2D) matrix probe with three-dimensional (3D) imaging. The main problems to implement this probe come from a large number of elements they need to use. When the number of elements is reduced the side lobes arising from the transducer change along with the grating lobes that are linked to the periodic disposition of the elements. The grating lobes are reduced by placing the elements without any consideration of the grid. In this study, the Binary Bat Algorithm (BBA) is used to optimize the number of active elements in order to lower the side lobe level. The results are compared to other optimization methods to validate the proposed algorithm.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Dina Mohamed Tantawy
Mohamed Eladawy
Mohamed Alimaher Hassan
Roaa Mubarak

Abstrakt

In recent years, power systems have been pushed to operate above their limits due to the increase in the demand for energy supply and its usage. This increase is accompanied by various kinds of obstructions in power transmission systems. A power system is said to be secured when it is free from danger or risk. Power systems security deals with the ability of the system to withstand any contingencies without any consequences. Contingencies are potentially harmful disturbances which occur during the steady state operation of a power system. Load flow constitutes the most important study in a power system for planning, operation, and expansion. Contingency selection is performed by calculating two kinds of performance indices; an active performance index (PIP) and reactive power performance index (PIV) for a single transmission line outage. In this paper, with the help of the Newton Raphson method, the PIP and PIV were calculated with DIgSILENT Power Factory simulation software and contingency ranking was performed. Based on the load flow results and performance indexes, the Ethiopian Electric Power (EEP) North-West region network is recommended for an upgrade or the reactive power or series compensators should be constructed on the riskiest lines and substations.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Dessalegn Bitew Aeggegn
Ayodeji Olalekan Salau
Yalew Gebru

Abstrakt

Current networks are designed for peak loads leading to low utilization of power resources. In order to solve this problem, a heuristic energy-saving virtual network embedding algorithm based on the Katz centrality (Katz-VNE) is proposed. For solving an energy-saving virtual network embedding problem, we introduce the Katz centrality to represent the node influence. In order to minimize the energy consumption of the substrate network, the energy-saving virtual network embedding problem is formulated as an integer linear program, and the Katz-VNE is used to solve this problem. The Katz-VNE tries to embed the virtual nodes onto the substrate nodes with high Katz centrality, which is effective, and uses the shortest paths offering the best factor of bandwidths to avoid the hot nodes. The simulation results demonstrate that the long-term average energy consumption of the substrate network is reduced significantly, and the long-term revenue/cost ratio, the acceptance rate of virtual network requests, and the hibernation rate of substrate nodes as well as links are improved significantly.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Qiang Zhu
Qing-Jun Wang
Mu-Jun Zang
Zhen-Dong Wang
Chang Xiao

Abstrakt

The purpose of this paper is to show possibility and advantages of initial control plane reproduction for an adaptive fuzzy controller. Usually the fuzzy control is used when the object is not very well known. Yet the truth is, however, that some, at least general information about the object, is available. Usually, in such a case, optimization algorithms are used to tune the control structure. The purpose of this article is to show how to find a starting point that is closer to optimum than a statistically random point, and this way to obtain better results in a shorter time.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Derugo
Mateusz Żychlewicz

Abstrakt

In this paper, a rotor current fault monitoring method is proposed based on a sliding mode observer. Firstly, the state-space model of the Double-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is constructed by vector transformation. Meanwhile, the stator voltage orientation vector control method is applied to decouple a stator and rotor currents, so as to obtain the correlation between the stator and rotor current. Furthermore, the mathematical model of stator voltage orientation is obtained. Then a state sliding mode observer (SMO) is established for the output current of the rotor of the DFIG. The stability and reachability of the system in a limited time is proved. Finally, the system state is determined by the residuals of the measured and estimated rotor currents. The simulation results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively monitor the status: a normal state, voltage drop faults, short-circuit faults between windings, and rotor current sensor faults which have the advantages of fast response, high stability.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wenxin Yu
Shao Dao Huang
Dan Jiang

Abstrakt

In this paper, a study of the lightning phenomenon and its harmful effect on Aqaba Thermal Power Station (ATPS), located in the south-western border of Jordan, is presented using the Electromagnetic Transients Program – Alternative Transients Program (EMTP- ATP). This study has been arisen due to an installation need of appropriate lightning arresters (LAs) for the 15/410 kV step-up transformers of the ATPS to eliminate the destructive effect of lightning. The simulation is carried out for two cases, once without using LAs and once more with using them. Two scenarios are applied for each of these cases, once when lightning strikes the primary side of the transformer and once more when it strikes the secondary side. The results obtained by the simulation indicate the necessity of LAs installation. This study, with using the EMTP-ATP program, is done for the first time with additional details that help researchers, designers, and engineers to get a broad overview of the ATPS in order to protect it against lightning.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wael Fawzi Abu Shehab
Shehab Abdulwadood Ali
Mohammad Ibrahim Alsharari

Abstrakt

With the availability of UHV engineering technology, the scale of the power network is expanding, and the level of the short-circuit current is getting higher, which brings hidden trouble to the safe and stable operation of the power network. Further this article issued a method that optimized the configuration of a current limiter based on the reliability of the power network. According to the reliability analysis under the influence of a short circuit, the quantitative evaluation of reliability of the power network is realized by the calculation of the short-circuit current.Aquantitative model is established among reliability evaluation and the short-circuit current as well as load loss, the candidate installation site of a current limiter can be determined according to reliability quantification results. This method uses the particle swarm optimization algorithm to optimize the distribution of the limiter, aiming at the reliability level and the minimum number of current limiters in the short circuit of a power grid. Finally, taking the actual power grid of a province as an example, the result shows that this method can reduce the search space of the optimal solution, optimize the configuration of the current limiter, and effectively limit the short-circuit current and improve the reliability of the power network.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jianjun Zeng
Yonggao Zhang

Abstrakt

The article presents studies on the electromechanical system of a metallurgical horizontal looper in the steelmaking industry. During the operation of this unit, parameters in the system changes due to variations of length and mass of the steel strip, these variations significantly change elastic properties and reduce moments of inertia. Various methods of combating elastic vibrations in electromechanical systems are analyzed in this article. The article presents a description of experiments with a horizontal looper. A mathematical model for two extreme positions of the unit was developed based on experimental results. Simulation experiments were made and their results are presented. A new control system structure is proposed to reduce vibrations in the electromechanical system of a horizontal looper. A power-up sensor, adjuster and velocity derivative feedback were added into the model structure. The proposed feedback link structure takes into account the change of steel strip length. From the experimental data it follows that the proposed system provides effective damping of mechanical vibrations in the steel strip if its length during operation is changed.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Iosif Breido
Yelena Kuntush

Abstrakt

When a single line-to-ground fault occurs in the ungrounded distribution system, the steady-state fault current is relatively small for fault analysis and the transient fault current is observable, which can be used for faulted feeder identification and location. The principal frequency component retains most of the characteristics of the transient current. The principal frequency is related to the distance from the fault point to the substation and can be used for fault location. This paper analyzes the sequence network model of a single line-to-ground fault in the distribution network, and gives a method for principal frequency calculation. Depending on the characteristics of the maximum amplitude of the principal frequency component of the faulted feeder, the method of faulted feeder identification is given. Based on the complementary characteristics of the phase angle of the principal frequency component of the fault current and the phase angle at the substation bus, the faulted section location is carried out. MATLAB simulation is used to verify the effectiveness of the faulted feeder identification and location method.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ling Liu

Abstrakt

The grid integration of large-scale wind and solar energy affects the power flow of wind-PV-thermal-bundled power transmission systems and may introduce an unpredicted threat to the power system’s small signal stability. Meanwhile, a power system stabilizer (PSS) and static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) play an important role in improving the static and dynamic stability of the system. Based on this scenario and in view of the actual engineering requirements, the framework of wind-PV-thermal-bundled power transmitted by an AC/DC system with the PSS and SSSC is established considering the fluctuation of wind and photovoltaic power output and the characteristics of the PSS and SSSC. Afterwards, the situation model is constructed in the IEEE 2-area 4-unit system, and the influence of the PSS and SSSC on the system stability under different operating conditions is analyzed in detail through eigenvalue analysis and time-domain simulation. Finally, an index named the gain rate is defined to describe the improvement of the stability limitations of various wind-PV-thermal operating conditions with the PSS and SSSC. The results indicate (K) that the damping characteristics, dynamic stability and stability limitations for various wind-PV-thermal operating conditions of the wind-PV-thermal-bundled power transmission system can be significantly improved by the interaction of the PSS and SSSC.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ping He
Xinxin Wu
Congshan Li
Mingming Zheng
Zhao Li

Abstrakt

A lightning protection system (LPS) of an urban 110 kV substation is designed and analysed according to NFPA 780 and IEC 62305-3 standards. The analysis of the LPS is established on the value of risk assessment. The total area of the plant is described by one soil layer with uniform resistivity. This study aims to improve the understanding of an unexpected manner of the grounding system beneath lightning currents by clarifying the basic concepts of the lightning protection level and the new design procedure in this paper was clarified according to NFPA-780 level 1 for a lightning protection system. The program is integrated with the CDEGS software, which provides effective geometrical modeling with object and result visualization. Furthermore, module and automated fast Fourier transform (FFT) is implemented in this study to simulate electromagnetic fields in the time and frequency domains. These current values are compared to the desired protection levels within the standards. The study results show that for the improved protection of the system against lightning, the total power grid must be considered as a source of improvement for studying shielding influence and the protection levels provided inside this substation.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mohammed Ibrahim Taha
Lin Li
Ping Wang

Abstrakt

Large-signal input characteristics of three DC–DC converter types: buck, boost and flyback working in the continuous conduction mode (CCM), obtained by simulations and measurements are investigated. The results of investigations are presented in the form of the analytical formulas and the exemplary results of the measurements and two forms of simulations: based on the full description of the converter components and on the averaged models. The parasitic resistances of the converter components are included in the simulations and their influence on the simulation results is discussed.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Włodzimierz Janke
Maciej Bączek
Jarosław Kraśniewski
Marcin Walczak

Redakcja

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Andrzej Demenko, Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Deputy/ Managing Editor
Mariusz Barański, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Łukasz Knypiński, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman: Marian P. Kaźmierkowski, Warsaw, Poland
Secretary: Mariusz Jagieła, Opole, Poland

Members professors:
Anouar Belahcen, Espoo, Finland

Frede Blaabjerg,Aalborg, Denmark

Ion Boldea,Timisoara, Romania

Herbert De Gersem,Darmstadt, Germany

Jacek Gieras, Rockford, USA

Kay Hameyer, Aachen, Germany

Marian K. Kazimierczuk, Dayton, USA

Stefan Kulig, Dortmund, Germany

David A. Lowther, Montreal, Canada

Jacek Marecki, Gdańsk, Poland

Zhuoxiang Ren, Paris, France

José Rodríguez Pérez, Santiago, Chile

Ryszard Sikora, Szczecin, Poland

Zbigniew Styczyński, Magdeburg, Germany

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK

Sławomir Wiak, Łódź, Poland

 

Language Editor

Krystyna Guzek

Statistical Editor

Mariusz Barański, Poznan, Poland
Poznan University of Technology

Theme Editors

Jerzy Barglik, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Zbigniew Lubosny, Gdansk, Poland
Professor at Gdańnk University of Technology

Marian Łukaniszyn, Opole, Poland
Professor at Opole University of Technology

Marian Pasko, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Stanisław Piróg, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

Henryka Danuta Stryczewska, Lublin, Poland
Professor at Lublin University of Technology

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK
Professor at University of Southampton

Adam Szelag, Warsaw, Poland
Professor at Warsaw University of Technology

Romulad Włodek, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

Technical Editor :

Typesetting in LATEX: Drukarnia Braci Grodzickich Sp.j., 05-500 Piaseczno, ul. Geodetów 47a, Poland

Kontakt

All contributions should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or the Editorial Office:

Address of the Editorial Office:

Archives of Electrical Engineering
Piotrowo 3A (Room 612X)
60-965 Poznan, Poland
tel: (48-61) 665-26-36
fax: (48-61) 665-23-81
e-mail: aee@put.poznan.pl

Website: www.aee.put.poznan.pl

Instrukcje dla autorów

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.,

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.,

Template:

Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.

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The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:
a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE
b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place
c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected
d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.
The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.

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Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscripts submitted for publication should not exceed 21 000 characters (ca. 12 pages of a manuscript written on an A4 sheet in Times New Roman, 10pt font size, single line spacing and 3.8 cm margins). The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.

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Text:

The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.,

Math:

Please use the Microsoft Equation 3.0 editor (comes with Microsoft Office 2007 and later versions) or the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.
To insert an equation in Word, choose Insert, then Object. This will bring up a dropdown menu, where the Object option should be chosen again. Pressing it opens a popup window, where the Create New option has to be clicked. Scrolling down the window allows to find Microsoft Equation 3.0.

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Equations:

Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.
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Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.,

Unit Symbols, Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.
Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".
Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."
Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard,

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.
All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.
Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.
Authors are requested to send figures (diagrams, line drawings and photographic images) in separate computer files. JPG, PNG or TIF are the recommended file formats. Photographs, colour and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400dpi. Linear, including tables should be at a minimum of 600dpi.
All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.
When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.
Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).
AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.,

Conclusions:

A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.,

References:

References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.
Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.
You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard b>

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript
[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
example
[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).
[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.
[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript
[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
example
[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual
[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).
example
[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

Patent
[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).
example
[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

Thesis
[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).
example
[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms
[8] Author A., Title of article, in [Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].
example
[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

Website
[9] http://www.aee.put.poznan.pl, accessed April 2010.

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Proofs:

Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.,

Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.
The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

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Abstracting & Indexing:

Archives of Electrical Engineering is covered by the following services:

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Polityka Open Access

Archives of Electrical Engineering jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Archives of Electrical Engineering is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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