Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering

Content

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2020 | vol. 69 | No 1 |

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Abstract

Based on the respective characteristics of line-commutated converter high-voltage direct current (LCC-HVDC) and voltage-source converter high voltage direct cur- rent (VSC-HVDC), two additional emergency DC power support (EDCPS) controllers are designed, respectively. In addition a coordinated control strategy based on a hybrid multi-infeed HVDC system for EDCPS is proposed. Considering the difference in system recovery between LCC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC in EDCPS, according to the magnitude of the amount of potential power loss, the LCC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC priority issues of boosting power for EDCPS are discussed in detail. Finally, a hybrid three-infeed HVDC that consists of two parallel LCC-HVDCs and one VSC-HVDC that is built in PSCAD/EMTDC are simulated. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified based on this hybrid three-infeed HVDC system.

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Authors and Affiliations

Congshan Li
Yikai Li
Jian Guo
Ping He
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Abstract

The smart grid concept is predicated upon the pervasive use of advanced digital communication, information techniques, and artificial intelligence for the current power system, to be more characteristics of the real-time monitoring and controlling of the supply/demand. Microgrids are modern types of power systems used for distributed energy resource (DER) integration. However, the microgrid energy management, the control, and protection of microgrid components (energy sources, loads, and local storage units) is an important challenge. In this paper, the distributed energy management algorithm and control strategy of a smart microgrid is proposed using an intelligent multi-agent system (MAS) approach to achieve multiple objectives in real-time. The MAS proposed is developed with co-simulation tools, which the microgrid model, simulated using MATLAB/Simulink, and the MAS algorithm implemented in JADE through a middleware MACSimJX. The main study is to develop a new approach, able to communicate a multi-task environment such as MAS inside the S-function block of Simulink, to achieve the optimal energy management objectives.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed Azeroual
Tijani Lamhamdi
Hassan El Moussaoui
Hassane El Markhi
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Abstract

Room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber is widely used to prevent pollution flashover with its excellent hydrophobicity and hydrophobicity transfer. However, RTV coatings are at the risk of deterioration and failure in heavily polluted operating environment. In this paper, RTV coated insulators with different suspension heights operating in coal ash polluted areaswere sampled. Pollution degree, pollution composition and aging degree of coatings were tested. The result shows that the insoluble pollution contains Al(OH)3 filler precipitated from RTV coating, which indicates the aging of the RTV coating. The top surface coating is more affected by ultraviolet and rainwater than the bottom surface resulting in more serious degradation. As the pollution degree of the lower phase insulator is heavier than that of the upper phase insulator, the erosion effect of pollution on the RTV coating is more intense. The fillers and rubber molecules of RTV continuously precipitate into the pollution layer, leading to further aging. Therefore, the overall aging degree of the lower insulator coating is more serious than that of the upper insulator coating.

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Authors and Affiliations

Lei Lan
Lin Mu
Yu Wang
Xiaoqing Yuan
Wei Wang
Zhenghui Li
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Abstract

A probable risk for different diseases has been reported due to exposure of peoples living in the vicinity of electrical substations and electrical workers. The aim of this paper is to examine and reduce the induced current density due to the power system field acting on human beings in the working environment, by using the spheroidal calculation model. The results obtained by means of computer programs developed by the author in the MATLAB environment are compared with the limit values given by the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for demonstrating the degree of danger due to the induced current and have a certain guidance function for worker’s health to ensure their safety.

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Authors and Affiliations

Manel Bidi
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Abstract

When the traditional multi-motor speed synchronous control strategy is applied to the vacuum pump system, it is prone to the drawbacks of large synchronization error. In this paper, a simplified mathematical model of the motor for a vacuum pump is established and the transfer function is introduced, which weakens the multivariable, strong coupling and nonlinear characteristics of the motor system. According to the basic principle of the relative coupling control strategy, the neural network Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID) is introduced as a speed compensator in this system. It effectively improves the synchronization and anti-interference ability of the multi motor.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yonglong Zhang
Yuejun An
Guangyu Wang
Xiangling Kong
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Abstract

The smart household connected to the energy dispatch arises to overcome the environmental crisis, encourages the penetration of renewable energies and promotes consumer respond to intraday market prices. Aquaponic production results from the combination of fish farming and hydroponics (cultivating plants using fish waste as nutrients). The prototype was built based on the rule of the 3 Rs: reduce, reuse and recycle. The crop reduces the consumption of water and energy, reuses water in a recirculation process, which is filtered by: 1) gravity, 2) biofilters and 3) porosity. Recycling is expanded to plastic containers and food containers of polystyrene. The aquaponic production system is decorative, completely organic (without chemicals), promotes the growth of green areas for comfortable homes and allows the consumption of healthy food, as well as energy planning to save energy. The system is done with a digital level control connected to a water pump and an oxygen pump. A novel method allows the aggregator to optimize the recirculation programming of the aquaponic system for periods of 24 hours. The method maximizes the economic benefits with the help of an energy balance between hours.

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Authors and Affiliations

Julian Garcia-Guarino
Mayerly Duran-Pinzóno
Jorge Paez-Arango
Sergio Rivera
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Abstract

In this paper, we propose sensorless backstepping control of a double-star induction machine (DSIM). First, the backstepping approach is designed to steer the flux and speed variables to their references and to compensate uncertainties. Lyapunov”s theory is used and it demonstrates that the dynamic tracking of trajectories tracking is asymptotically stable. Second, unfortunately, this law control called sophisticated is a major problem which leads to the necessity of using a mechanical sensor (speed, load torque). This imposes an additional cost and increases the complexity of the montage. In practice, this variable is unknown and its measurement is expensive. To restrain this problem we estimate speed and load torque by using a Luenberger observer (LO). Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach in high and low variable speeds and load torque disturbance.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hadji Chaabane
Khodja Djalal Eddine
Chakroune Salim
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Abstract

The smart grid concept is predicated upon the pervasive With the construction and development of distribution automation, distributed power supply needs to be comprehensively considered in reactive power optimization as a supplement to reactive power. The traditional reactive power optimization of a distribution network cannot meet the requirements of an active distribution network (ADN), so the Improved Grey Wolf Optimizer (IGWO) is proposed to solve the reactive power optimization problem of the ADN, which can improve the convergence speed of the conventional GWO by changing the level of exploration and development. In addition, a weighted distance strategy is employed in the proposed IGWO to overcome the shortcomings of the conventional GWO. Aiming at the problem that reactive power optimization of an ADN is non-linear and non-convex optimization, a convex model of reactive power optimization of the ADN is proposed, and tested on IEEE33 nodes and IEEE69 nodes, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed model. Finally, the experimental results verify that the proposed IGWO runs faster and converges more accurately than the GWO.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yuancheng Li
Rongyan Yang
Xiaoyu Zhao
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Abstract

An electric turnout heating (ETH) system is an essential technical and economic issue. Uninterrupted operation of the turnouts is crucial to maintaining railway transport safety. The classic heating system is characterized by high energy consumption. The usage of it is extremely expensive, so the need to optimize the current system becomes more and more critical. At the same time, the progress in the contactless heating method has become a promising alternative. The paper presents the results of tests performed for electric turnout heating systems for two types of heaters. In the first place, the analysis of heat distribution was performed using the ANSYS Fluent v.16. The temperature fields in the turnout models filled with a model of semi-melting snow were analyzed. Thanks to cooperation with the Railway Institute inWarsaw the second stage of the research was possible to be completed.

In this part, the models were implemented in the real world using the 49E1 railway turnout. The numerical solutions were validated by the experiments. The verification showed a high level of agreement among the results. The obtained results indicate the need for further tests of heating systems, to validate an optimal method of turnout heating. It was found that in the classic ETH, the working space area consumes a tremendous amount of energy. To ensure a higher efficiency of the heating process, the contactless heater is proposed as an alternative.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mateusz Flis
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Abstract

In order to meet the application requirements of high-power mobile inductively-coupled power transfer (ICPT) equipment, the structure of the dual transmitter and pickup can be used to improve the transmission power of the ICPT system. However, this structure cannot easily describe the change of the mutual inductance parameter in the moving state, making the mathematical model difficult to establish. The change of load parameters during the movement will affect the current and voltage at the transmitter and pickup coils. Aiming at these problems, this paper proposes a dual transmitter and pickup ICPT system based on inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) compensation network, and analyzes its power trans- mission efficiency. By setting the shape and size of the coil, the influence of the change of the mutual inductance parameters on the system efficiency during the movement is reduced. The changes of the mutual inductance parameters of the ICPT system under the moving state are simulated by changing the coupling coefficient in the PSpice software. The results show that the structure of the ICPT system used in this paper can improve the output power and reduce the influence of the system when the load changes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Xin Gao
Xin Li
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Abstract

In order to solve the problem of harmonic waves caused by battery energy storage (BES) and distributed generation (DG) inverters in an active distribution network, an intelligent optimal dispatching method based on a modified flower pollination algorithm (MFPA) is proposed. Firstly, the active distribution network dispatching model considering the power quality (PQ) problem caused by BES and DG is proposed. In this model, the objective function considers the additional network loss caused by a harmonic wave, as well as the constraints of the harmonic wave and voltage unbalance. Then, the MFPA is an improvement of a flower pollination algorithm (FPA). Because the MFPA has the characteristics of higher solution accuracy and better convergence than the FPA and it is not easy to fall into local optimal, the MFPA is used to solve the proposed model. Finally, simulation experiments are carried out on IEEE 37 bus and IEEE 123 bus systems, respectively. The experimental results show that this method can achieve satisfactory power quality while optimizing the total active power loss of the branch. The comparative experimental results show that the developed algorithm has better convergence than the FPA.

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Authors and Affiliations

Haiqing Liu
Jinmeng Qu
Shanshan Yang
Yuancheng Li
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Abstract

Analog circuits need more effective fault diagnosis methods. In this study, the fault diagnosis method of analog circuits was studied. The fault feature vectors were extracted by a wavelet transform and then classified by a generalized regression neural network (GRNN). In order to improve the classification performance, a wolf pack algorithm (WPA) was used to optimize the GRNN, and a WPA-GRNN diagnosis algorithm was obtained. Then a simulation experiment was carried out taking a Sallen–Key bandpass filter as an example. It was found from the experimental results that the WPA could achieve the preset accuracy in the eighth iteration and had a good optimization effect. In the comparison between the GRNN, genetic algorithm (GA)-GRNN and WPA-GRNN, the WPA-GRNN had the highest diagnostic accuracy, and moreover it had high accuracy in diagnosing a single fault than multiple faults, short training time, smaller error, and an average accuracy rate of 91%. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the WPA-GRNN in fault diagnosis of analog circuits, which can make some contributions to the further development of the fault diagnosis of analog circuits.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hui Wang
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Abstract

Variable speed and low voltage electrical drives are commonly operated by frequency converters. According to recent developments, there is a trend in the area of semi-conductors, that switching frequency and voltage slew rate will increase significantly. The aim of these semiconductors is to reduce the switching losses and to increase the switching frequency, which enables to reduce the size of passive components in the power- electric circuit. This results in less material effort and lower cost, for the power electronic component. However, electric motors operated by high slew rate inverters show problems in the winding insulation, which have to be analyzed. Such problems are well known for high voltage machines. Due to the increasing slew rate, this problematic occurs in low voltage machines nowadays as well. Here, the influence of fast switching semiconductors on the winding insulation system is studied, using accelerated ageing tests with fast switching high-voltage generators.

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Authors and Affiliations

Florian Pauli
Andreas Ruf
Kay Hameyer
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Abstract

Cells of a prototype powered wheelchair can be designed in various connections to provide different supply voltages which has impact on the efficiency of other wheelchair drive elements. The impact of cell configuration and resulting battery voltage on overall efficiency of power elements have been studied to determine the optimal configuration and voltage of the pack. A brief description of a battery energy storage system was given, and main requirements and variables were introduced to reveal the flexibility of the battery design. The efficiency versus supply voltage plots of a drive converter and battery charger were presented and discussed to find the optimal battery voltage. The motor design was analyzed from the fill factor perspective. The calculated efficiency parameters of all drive power elements were used to discuss and select an optimal battery cell configuration.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kristaps Vitols
Andrejs Podgornovs
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Abstract

The existence of inrush current poses a significant problem during the start-up process within three-phase voltage-source rectifiers. To address this problem, this study proposes a strategy to suppress the inrush current effectively based on the virtual-resistor- control method, while preventing the increase in cost of the system and complexity of the algorithm. First, a mathematical model is established based on the dq coordinate frame, and the primary cause of the inrush current is analyzed. Then, the design process of the virtual-resistor-control method is detailed. Finally, the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by simulations and experiments. The results show that the inrush current can be more than two times the rated current before the addition of the virtual resistor. The start-up process can be realized without the inrush current after the addition of the virtual resistor, it does not need to increase hardware costs, there is no secondary inrush current, and the sensitivity of the parameters and the complexity of control are low.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kaizhong He
Hongsheng Su
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Abstract

Disk motors are characterized by the axial direction of main magnetic flux and the variable length of the magnetic flux path along varying stator/rotor radii. This is why it is generally accepted that reliable electromagnetic calculations for such machines should be carried out using the FEM for 3D models. The 3D approach makes it possible to take into account an entire spectrum of different effects. Such computational analysis is very time-consuming, this is in particular true for machines with one magnetic axis only. An alternate computational method based on a 2D FEM model of a cylindrical motor is proposed in the paper. The obtained calculation results have been verified by means of lab test results for a physical model. The proposed method leads to a significant decrease of computational time, i.e. the decrease of iterative search for the most advantageous design.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Wolnik

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Andrzej Demenko, Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Deputy/ Managing Editor
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Łukasz Knypiński, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland

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Kay Hameyer, Aachen, Germany

Marian K. Kazimierczuk, Dayton, USA

Stefan Kulig, Dortmund, Germany

David A. Lowther, Montreal, Canada

Jacek Marecki, Gdańsk, Poland

Zhuoxiang Ren, Paris, France

José Rodríguez Pérez, Santiago, Chile

Ryszard Sikora, Szczecin, Poland

Zbigniew Styczyński, Magdeburg, Germany

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK

Sławomir Wiak, Łódź, Poland

 

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Statistical Editor

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Poznan University of Technology

Theme Editors

Jerzy Barglik, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Zbigniew Lubosny, Gdansk, Poland
Professor at Gdańnk University of Technology

Marian Łukaniszyn, Opole, Poland
Professor at Opole University of Technology

Marian Pasko, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Stanisław Piróg, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

Henryka Danuta Stryczewska, Lublin, Poland
Professor at Lublin University of Technology

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK
Professor at University of Southampton

Adam Szelag, Warsaw, Poland
Professor at Warsaw University of Technology

Romulad Włodek, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

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Typesetting in LATEX: Drukarnia Braci Grodzickich Sp.j., 05-500 Piaseczno, ul. Geodetów 47a, Poland

Contact

All contributions should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or the Editorial Office:

Address of the Editorial Office:

Archives of Electrical Engineering
Piotrowo 3A (Room 612X)
60-965 Poznan, Poland
tel: (48-61) 665-26-36
fax: (48-61) 665-23-81
e-mail: aee@put.poznan.pl

Website: www.aee.put.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.,

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.,

Template:

Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.

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The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:
a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE
b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place
c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected
d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.
The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.

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Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscripts submitted for publication should not exceed 21 000 characters (ca. 12 pages of a manuscript written on an A4 sheet in Times New Roman, 10pt font size, single line spacing and 3.8 cm margins). The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.

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Text:

The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.,

Math:

Please use the Microsoft Equation 3.0 editor (comes with Microsoft Office 2007 and later versions) or the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.
To insert an equation in Word, choose Insert, then Object. This will bring up a dropdown menu, where the Object option should be chosen again. Pressing it opens a popup window, where the Create New option has to be clicked. Scrolling down the window allows to find Microsoft Equation 3.0.

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Equations:

Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.
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Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.,

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Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.
Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".
Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."
Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard,

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The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.
All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.
Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.
Authors are requested to send figures (diagrams, line drawings and photographic images) in separate computer files. JPG, PNG or TIF are the recommended file formats. Photographs, colour and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400dpi. Linear, including tables should be at a minimum of 600dpi.
All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.
When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.
Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).
AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.,

Conclusions:

A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.,

References:

References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.
Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.
You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard b>

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript
[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
example
[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).
[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.
[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript
[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
example
[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual
[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).
example
[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

Patent
[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).
example
[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

Thesis
[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).
example
[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms
[8] Author A., Title of article, in [Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].
example
[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

Website
[9] http://www.aee.put.poznan.pl, accessed April 2010.

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Proofs:

Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.,

Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.
The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

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Open Access policy

Archives of Electrical Engineering jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Archives of Electrical Engineering is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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