Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2011 | vol. 60 | No 3 September |


The aim of this paper is presentation and comparison of calculation methods of the inductance matrix of a 3-column multi-winding autotransformer. Main and leakage autotransformer inductance was obtained using finite elements method. Static calculations were made at the current supply for 2D and 3D models, and mono-harmonic calculations were made at the voltage supply. In the mono-harmonic calculations the eddy current losses were taken into account, this made it possible to study relationship between the autotransformer parameters and the frequency. Calculations were made using Ansys and the authors' own programs in Matlab.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marek Gołębiowski
Damian Mazur


The 15-winding and 3-column autotransformer supplying an 18-pulse rectifier circuit was developed. Presented methods can be used also for the autotransformers of other topologies supplying different kinds of converters. Presented methods make it possible to exactly calculate main and leakage inductances of the multi-winding autotransformer. The presented analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the inductance matrix makes it possible to identify the influence nature of individual modes on the inductance matrix, and to compare the calculation results obtained using the presented methods. Frequency dependence of autotransformer parameters was shown. Also modes of the impedance matrix of the multi-winding autotransformer was investigated, this made it possible to identify the influence nature of individual modes on the inductance matrix. Using presented methods one can exactly calculate main and leakage inductances of the autotransformer. Thanks to this, one can design in optimal way autotransformers for supplying, for example, rectifier circuits, THD coefficients. The results of the measurements and simulations were also shortly presented at the end of the article.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marek Gołębiowski
Damian Mazur


This paper presents a method of selection of regulator parameters in a control system using evolutionary algorithm. The control system has one PI controller and one hysteresis controller. The value of the proportional band and the value of the Integral time were defined by evolutionary algorithms. The object of control was a Brown Boveri GS10A motor. The task functions were the step change of rotational speed and step change of the motor's torque. The control system with the parameters selected by means of the evolutionary method was verified by using MATLAB/Simulink environment.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wiktor Hudy
Kazimierz Jaracz


Currently commercialization of electric vehicle (EV) is based to minimize the time of starting and acceleration. To undergo this problem multi-input multi-output fuzzy logic controller (MIMO-FLC) affect on propelled traction system forming MMS process was proposed. This paper introduces a MIMO-FLC applied on speeds of electric vehicle, the electric drive consists of two directing wheels and two rear propulsion wheels equipped with two light weight induction motors. The EV is powered by two motors of 37 kilowatts each one, delivering a 476 Nm total torque. Its high torque (476Nm) is instantly available to ensure responsive acceleration performance in built-up areas. Acceleration and steering are ensured by an electronic differential system which maintains robust control for all cases of vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. Direct torque control based on space vector modulation (DTC-SVM) is proposed to achieve the tow rear driving wheel control. The MIMO-FLC control technique is simulated in MATLAB SIMULINK environment. The simulation results have proved that the MIMO-FLC method decreases the transient oscillations and assure efficiency comportment in all type of road constraints, straight, slope, descent and curved road compared to the single input single output fuzzy controller (SISO-FLC).

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Brahim Gasbaoui
Chaker Abdelkader
Laoufi Adellah


Conventional field-orientated Induction motor drives operate at rated flux even at low load. To improve the efficiency of the existing motor it is important to regulate the flux of the motor in the desired operating range. In this paper a loss model controller (LMC) based on the real coded genetic algorithm is proposed, it has the straightforward goal of maximizing the efficiency for each given load torque. In order to give more accuracy to the motor model and the LMC a series model of the motor which consider the iron losses as a resistance connected in series with the mutual inductance is considered. Digital computer simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and also simulation results have confirmed that this algorithm yields the optimal efficiency.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Z. Rouabah
B. Abdelhadi
F. Anayi
F. Zidani


The transfer function (TF) method is presently a well-known method used to detect various types of winding damage in power transformers. Although abundant research has been done on this subject using laboratory windings as test objects, it is hard to find one, whose test objects are actual large-power transformer windings. Hence, a 400 kV disc winding consisting of 86 discs is used in this paper to study turn-to-turn short circuit with the help of the TF method. To evaluate the effects of this type of fault on TF curves, some mathematical comparison algorithms are used in this research.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ebrahim Rahimpour
Stefan Tenbohlen


Conditions for the positivity of linear electrical circuits composed of resistances, coils, capacitors and voltage (current) sources are established. It is shown that: 1) the electrical circuit composed of resistors, coils and voltage source is positive for any values of their resistances, inductances and source voltages if and only if the number of coils is less or equal to the number of its linearly independent meshes, 2) the electrical circuit is not positive for any values of its resistances, capacitances and source voltages if each its branch contains resistor, capacitor and voltage source, 3) the positive n-meshes electrical circuit with only one inductance in each linearly independent mesh is reachable if all resistances of branches belonging to two linearly independent meshes are zero.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tadeusz Kaczorek


The article presents a shock safety model of an indirect contact with a low-voltage electric device. This model was used for computations and analyses concerning the following: the probabilities of appearance of the particular shock protection unreliability states, electric shock states (ventricular fibrillation), contributions of the unreliability of different shock protection elements to the probability of occurrence of these states, as well as the risk of electric shock (and the shock safety), and contributions of the intensity of occurrence of damages to different shock protection elements to this risk. An example of a possibility to reduce the risk of an electric shock through changing the intensity of occurrence of damages to the selected protection elements was provided.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Włodzimierz Korniluk
Dariusz Sajewicz


In the paper a novel mathematical model of electromechanical actuator is presented. It is based on application of Hamiltonian equations in the description of electromechanical energy conversion. It results in employment of flux linkages as state variables in the state space equations. For simplicity only a 3-phase wye connected stator winding without a neutral wire is considered in detail. The procedure can be generalised to any number of phases. Topology-based approach is used in the model implementation. Procedures for evaluation of all quantities (currents, energy/coenergy, electromagnetic torque) present in model equations are described. Eddy currents and hysteresis phenolmenon are neglected in formulation of the model to enable application of state-space description.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wojciech Burlikowski


In the paper a novel mathematical model of electromechanical actuator is presented. It is based on application of Hamiltonian equations in the description of electro-mechanical energy conversion. It results in employment of flux linkages as state variables in the state space equations. For simplicity only a 3-phase wye connected stator winding without a neutral wire is considered in detail. The procedure can be generalised to any number of phases. Topology-based approach is used in the model implementation. Procedures for evaluation of all quantities (currents, energy/coenergy, electro-magnetic torque) present in model equations are described. Eddy currents and hysteresis phenolmenon are neglected in formulation of the model to enable application of state-space description.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wojciech Burlikowski


A technology that utilizes penetrating rays is one of the oldest nondestructive testing methods. Nowadays, the process of radiogram analysis is performed by qualified human operators and automatic systems are still under development. In this work we present advanced algorithms for automatic segmentation of radiographic images of welded joints. The goal of segmentation of a radiogram is to change and simplify representation of the image into a form that is more meaningful and easier to analyse automatically. The radiogram is divided into parts containing the weld line, image quality indicators, lead characters, and possible defects. Then, each part is analysed separately by specialized algorithms within the framework of the Intelligent System for Radiogram Analysis.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Baniukiewicz


The paper presents a model for calculations of the temperature field in electric mine motors with a water cooled frame. That model was worked out with use of modified and improved thermal networks developed by the author for determining the temperature distributions in different types of ac machines. Thermal calculations for a selected type of 400 kW mining motor were performed with use of an original computer program. Their results were compared with those obtained from measurements. On the basis of the verified simulation results there was determined the influence of value changes of parameters characterising the work environment condition (ambient temperature, inlet temperature and cooling water discharge, degree of covering the casing with coal dust) on the mining motor thermal state.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Roman Krok


In industrialized countries cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death. The last clinical therapy option for some patients, suffering from terminal heart diseases, is donor heart transplantation. As the available number of donor organs is decreasing, many patients die while waiting for a transplant. For this reason Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs), which can mechanically support the human heart to achieve a sufficient perfusion of the body, are under development. For an implantable VAD, design constraints have to be deduced from the physiological conditions in the human body. In case of a VAD drive, these constraints are for example dimensions, electric losses, which might result in an overheating of blood, and a long durability. Therefore a hybrid permanent magnet hydrodynamic bearing is designed in this paper, which works passively and contactless. Based on Finite Element simulations of magnetic fields, various permanent magnet topologies are studied in terms of axial forces and stiffness.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

André Pohlmann
Kay Hameyer


Professor Andrzej Demenko, Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Deputy/ Managing Editor
Mariusz Barański, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Łukasz Knypiński, Ph.D., Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman: Marian P. Kaźmierkowski, Warsaw, Poland
Secretary: Mariusz Jagieła, Opole, Poland

Members professors:
Anouar Belahcen, Espoo, Finland

Frede Blaabjerg,Aalborg, Denmark

Ion Boldea,Timisoara, Romania

Herbert De Gersem,Darmstadt, Germany

Jacek Gieras, Rockford, USA

Kay Hameyer, Aachen, Germany

Marian K. Kazimierczuk, Dayton, USA

Stefan Kulig, Dortmund, Germany

David A. Lowther, Montreal, Canada

Jacek Marecki, Gdańsk, Poland

Fausto Pedro García Márquez, Ciudad Real, Spain

Zhuoxiang Ren, Paris, France

José Rodríguez Pérez, Santiago, Chile

Ryszard Sikora, Szczecin, Poland

Zbigniew Styczyński, Magdeburg, Germany

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK

Sławomir Wiak, Łódź, Poland


Language Editor

Krystyna Guzek

Statistical Editor

Mariusz Barański, Poznan, Poland
Poznan University of Technology

Theme Editors

Jerzy Barglik, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Zbigniew Lubosny, Gdansk, Poland
Professor at Gdańnk University of Technology

Marian Łukaniszyn, Opole, Poland
Professor at Opole University of Technology

Marian Pasko, Gliwice, Poland
Professor at Silesian University of Technology

Stanisław Piróg, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

Henryka Danuta Stryczewska, Lublin, Poland
Professor at Lublin University of Technology

Jan Sykulski, Southampton, UK
Professor at University of Southampton

Adam Szelag, Warsaw, Poland
Professor at Warsaw University of Technology

Romulad Włodek, Krakow, Poland
Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology

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All contributions should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief or the Editorial Office:

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tel: (48-61) 665-26-36
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Instrukcje dla autorów

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.,

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.,


Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.


The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:
a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE
b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place
c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected
d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.
The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.


Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscripts submitted for publication should not exceed 21 000 characters (ca. 12 pages of a manuscript written on an A4 sheet in Times New Roman, 10pt font size, single line spacing and 3.8 cm margins). The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.



The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.,


Please use the Microsoft Equation 3.0 editor (comes with Microsoft Office 2007 and later versions) or the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.
To insert an equation in Word, choose Insert, then Object. This will bring up a dropdown menu, where the Object option should be chosen again. Pressing it opens a popup window, where the Create New option has to be clicked. Scrolling down the window allows to find Microsoft Equation 3.0.



Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.
If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use italic fonts. Symbols of vectors and matrices should be written in bold fonts. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.
Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.,

Unit Symbols, Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.
Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".
Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."
Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard,

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.
All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.
Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.
Authors are requested to send figures (diagrams, line drawings and photographic images) in separate computer files. JPG, PNG or TIF are the recommended file formats. Photographs, colour and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400dpi. Linear, including tables should be at a minimum of 600dpi.
All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.
When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.
Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).
AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.,


A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.,


References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.
Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.
You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard b>

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript
[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).
[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.
[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript
[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).
[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual
[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).
[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).
[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).
[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms
[8] Author A., Title of article, in [Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].
[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

[9], accessed April 2010.



Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.,

Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.
The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.


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Archives of Electrical Engineering jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Archives of Electrical Engineering is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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