Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering

Content

Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2018 | vol.18 | No 1 |

Abstract

This article discusses results of an analysis of mechanical properties of a sintered material obtained from a mixture of elemental iron, copper and nickel powders ball milled for 60 hours. The powder consolidation was performed by hot pressing in a graphite mould. The hot pressing was carried out for 3 minutes at 900 °C and under a pressure of 35 MPa. The sintered specimens were tested for density, porosity, hardness and tensile strength. Their microstructures and fracture surfaces were also examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The study was conducted in order to determine the suitability of the sintered material for the manufacture of metal-bonded diamond tools. It was important to assess the effects of chemical composition and microstructure of the sintered material on its mechanical properties, which were compared with those of conventional metal bond material produced from a hot-pressed SMS grade cobalt powder. Although the studied material shows slightly lower strength and ductility as compared with cobalt, its hardness and offset yield strength are sufficiently high to meet the criteria for less demanding applications.

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Abstract

This article discusses issues related to continuous casting of brass. The tested material was CuZn39Pb2 brass with the use of continuous casting and different parameters of the process. The position consists of a melting furnace with a graphite refining pot of about 4000 cm3 chuting capacity, a graphite crystallizer of 9,5 mm nominal diameter, a primary and secondary cooling system and an extracting system as well. The analysis was carried out in terms of technological parameters of the process and type of charge. Highlighted: feedrate ingot, number of stops, and technological temperatures. The surface quality of the obtained ingots and the structure were analyzed. The most favorable conditions were indicated and technological recommendations indicated. They have been distinguished for ingots for plasticity and other technologies. Favorable casting conditions are low feed and low temperature. Due to the presence of impurities coming from the charge it is disadvantageous to have Ni greater than 0.053% by mass, and Fe more than 0.075% by mass. It is recommended to maintain a high zinc content in the melt which is associated with non-overheating of the metal during casting and earlier melting.

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Abstract

Energy conservation is an important step to overcome the energy crisis and prevent environmental pollution. Casting industry is a major consumer of energy among all the industries. The distribution of electrical energy consumed in all the departments of the foundry is presented. Nearly 70% of the energy is consumed especially in the melting department alone. Production of casting involves number of process variables. Even though lot of efforts has been taken to prevent defects, it occurs in the casting due to variables present in the process. This paper focuses the energy saving by improving the casting yield and by reducing the rejections. Furthermore an analysis is made on power consumption for melting in the induction furnace to produce defective castings and improvement in the casting yield. The energy consumed to produce defective castings in all other departments is also presented. This analysis reveals that without any further investment in the foundry, it is possible to save 3248.15 kWh of energy by reducing the rejections as well as by improving the casting yield. The redesign of the feeding system and the reduced major rejection shrinkage in the body casting improved the casting yield from 56% to 72% and also the effective yield from 12.89% to 66.80%.

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Abstract

In the knock-out process, as well as in the preliminary phase of moulding sand reclamation, the issue of energy demand for the process of crushing used sand agglutinations, preferably to single grains, is particularly important. At present, numerical values of moulding sand impact resistance, which would allow energy-related aspects of this process to be forecast, are not known, as such research has not been carried out. It seems that impact resistance tested on very small cross-section samples, which allows us to very precisely reveal some unique features of a moulding sand with organic and inorganic binders, is an important parameter, which so far has not been taken into account for evaluation of mechanical properties of moulding sands. Preliminary attempts to determine impact resistance of moulding sands have been carried out as part of own research of the author. The conducted investigations aimed at determining the relationships between the obtained values of tensile strength and impact resistance of moulding sands. In addition, the effect of holding samples at temperatures of 100oC, 200oC, 300oC on the value of impact resistance was determined, both for sands made with fresh and with reclaimed sand grains.

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Abstract

The paper presents a detailed description of one of the newest methods of vacuum saturation of reinforcing preforms in gypsum molds. As an appropriate selection of the infiltration time is a crucial problem during realization of this process, aim of the analysis shown in the paper is to present methods of selection of subatmospheric pressure application time, a sequence of lowering and increasing pressure, as well as examining influence of structure of reinforcing preforms on efficiency of this process. To realize the aim, studies on infiltration of reinforcing preforms made of a corundum sinter of various granulation of sintered particles with a model alloy were conducted. The infiltration process analysis was carried out in two stages. The first stage consisted in investigation of influence of lengthening of sucking off air from the reinforcing preforms on efficiency of this process. In the second stage, an analysis of influence of a two-staged infiltration process on saturation of the studied materials was conducted. Because the studied preforms were of similar porosity, the obtained differences of the saturation level of particular preforms have shown, that the saturation process is influenced mostly by size of pores present in the reinforcement. Because of these differences, each reinforcement type requires individual selection of time and sequence of the saturation process. For reinforcements of higher pore diameter, it is sufficient to simply increase air sucking off time to improve the saturation, while for reinforcement of smaller pore diameter, it is a better solution to apply the two-staged process of sucking off air. Application of the proposed analysis method allows not only obtaining composite castings of higher quality, but also economical optimization of the whole process.

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Abstract

The determination of the form of a probability density function (PDF3) of diameters for nodular particles by using a probability density function (PDF2), which form is empirically estimated from cross-sections of these nodules in a metallographic specimen, can be regarded as a special case of Wicksell's corpuscle problem (WCP). The estimation of the PDF3 for the nodular particles provides information about the kinetics of these particles nucleation, and so about the kinetics of their growth. This information is essential for building more accurate mathematical models of the alloy crystallization. In the paper there are presented two derivations of the methods used for the estimation of the PDF3 form. The first method bases on diameters received from a planar cross-section. The second one uses also data from the planar cross-section but not the diameters only chords. Both methods provide practical rules for the analysis of the empirical diameters’ and chord’s size distribution and allow to estimate the mean value of the external surface area of the particles.

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Abstract

The article presents an example of analysis of the influence of selected parameters deriving from data acquisition in foundries on the occurrence of Gas porosity defects (detected by Visual testing) in castings of ductile cast iron. The possibilities as well as related effectiveness of prediction of this kind of defects were assessed. The need to rationally limit the number of possible parameters affecting this kind of porosity was indicated. Authors also benefited from expert group's expertise in evaluating possible causes associated with the creation of the aforementioned defect. A ranking of these parameters was created and their impact on the occurrence of the defect was determined. The classic statistical tools were used. The possibility of unexpected links between parameters in case of uncritical use of these typical statistical tools was indicated. It was emphasized also that the acquisition realized in production conditions must be subject to a specific procedure ordering chronology and frequency of data measurements as well improving the casting quality control. Failure to meet these conditions will significantly affect the difficulties in implementing and correcting analysis results, from which INput/OUTput data is expected to be the basis for modelling for quality control.

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Abstract

Measurements of the hardening process course of the selected self-hardening moulding sands with the reclaimed material additions to the matrix, are presented in the hereby paper. Moulding sands were produced on the „Szczakowa” sand (of the Sibelco Company) as the matrix of the main fraction FG 0,40/0,32/0,20, while the reclaim was added to it in amounts of 20, 50 and 70%. Regeneration was performed with a horizontal mechanical regenerator capacity of 10 t/h. In addition, two moulding sands, one on the fresh sand matrix another on the reclaimed matrix, were prepared for comparison. Highly-fluid urea-furfuryl resin was used as a binder, while paratoluensulphonic acid as a hardener. During investigations the hardening process course was determined, it means the wave velocity change in time: cL = f(t). The hardening process kinetics was also assessed (dClx/dt = f(t)). Investigations were carried out on the research stand for ultrasound tests. In addition strength tests were performed.

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Abstract

The problem of production flow in steel casting foundry is analysed in this paper. Because of increased demand and market competition, a reorganisation of the foundry process is required, including the elimination of manual labour and the implementation of automation and robotisation of certain processes. The problem is how to determine the real difference in work efficiency between human workers and robots. We show an analysis of the production efficiency of steel casting foundry operated by either human operators or industrial robots. This is a problem from the field of Operations Research for which the Discrete Event Simulation (DES) method is used. Three models are developed, including the foundry before and after automation when taking into consideration parameters of the availability of machines, operators and robots. We apply the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) indicator to present how the availability, performance and quality parameters influence the foundry’s productivity. In addition, stability of the simulation model was analysed. This approach allows for a better representation of real production processes and the obtained results can be used for further economic analysis.

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Abstract

High prices of tin and its limited resources, as well as several valuable properties characterising Cu-Sn alloys, cause searching for materials of similar or better properties at lower production costs. The influence of various nickel additions to CuSn10 casting bronze and to CuSn8 bronze of a decreased tin content was tested. Investigations comprised melting processes and casting of tin bronzes containing various nickel additions (up to 5%). The applied variable conditions of solidification and cooling of castings (metal and ceramic moulds) allowed to assess these alloys sensitivity in forming macro and microstructures. In order to determine the direction of changes in the analysed Cu-Sn-Ni alloys, the metallographic and strength tests were performed. In addition, the solidification character was analysed on the basis of the thermal analysis tests. The obtained results indicated the influence of nickel in the solidification and cooling ways of the analysed alloys (significantly increased temperatures of the solidification beginning along with increased nickel fractions in Cu-Sn alloys) as well as in the microstructure pattern (clearly visible grain size changes). The hardness and tensile strength values were also changed. It was found, that decreasing of the tin content in the analysed bronzes to which approximately 3% of nickel was added, was possible, while maintaining the same ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness (HB) and improved plasticity (A5).

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Abstract

The paper proposes a new electropulse apparatus for processing natural raw materials. The temperature of the crushing-and-reducing assembly of an electropulse plant is found. The results of ore crushing are presented and optimal engineering factors are offered. The elemental analysis of the test material is obtained. It is reported that the electropulse processing at the reduction stage made for significant increase in the content of non-ferrous and rare metals.

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Abstract

The thermal reclamation process as a utilisation method of spent moulding and core sands is more costly than other reclamation methods, but in the majority of cases it simultaneously provides the best cleaning of mineral matrices from organic binders. Thus, the application of the thermal analysis methods (TG-DSC), by determining the temperature range within which a degradation followed by a destruction of bounded organic binders in moulding sands, can contribute to the optimisation of the thermal reclamation process and to the limiting its realisation costs. The thermal analysis results of furan resin, one of the most often applied binder in foundry practice, are presented in the hereby paper. The influence of the heating rate of the sample - placed in the thermal analyser - on its degradation and destruction process under oxygen-free (argon) and oxygen (air) conditions, were compared. The recorded TG and DSC curves were used for analysing these processes as the temperature as well as the time function. The obtained results were analysed with regard to determining the required temperature of the thermal reclamation of the investigated organic binder. The usefulness of the developed methodology was found out, however under conditions of meeting several essential requirements concerning the repeatability of performed analyses.

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Abstract

Bimetallic AZ91/AlSi17 samples were produced by compound casting. The casting process involved pouring the AZ91 magnesium alloy heated to 650oC onto a solid AlSi17 aluminum alloy insert placed in a steel mould. Prior to casting, the mould with the insert inside was heated to about 370oC. The bonding zone formed between AZ91 and AlSi17 had a thickness of about 200 μm; it was characterized by a non-homogeneous microstructure. Two different areas were distinguished in this zone: the area adjacent to the AZ91 and the area close to the AlSi17. In the area closest to the AZ91 alloy, a eutectic composed of an Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase and a solid solution of Al in Mg was observed. In bonding zone at a certain distance from the AZ91 alloy an Mg2Si phase co-occurred with the eutectic. In the area adjacent to the AlSi17 alloy, the structure consisted of Al3Mg2, Mg17Al12 and Mg2Si. The fine Mg2Si phase particles were distributed over the entire Mg-Al intermetallic phase matrix. The microhardness of the bonding zone was much higher than those of the materials joined; the microhardness values were in the range 203-298 HV. The shear strength of the AZ91/AlSi17 joint varied from 32.5 to 36 MPa.

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Abstract

The present paper is a presentation of results of a study on morphology, chemical composition, material properties (HVIT, HIT, EIT), and nanoindentation elastic and plastic work for carbide precipitates in chromium cast iron containing 24% Cr. It has been found that the carbides differ in chemical composition, as well as in morphology and values characterizing their material properties. The carbides containing the most chromium which had the shape of thick and long needles were characterized with highest values of the analyzed material properties.

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Abstract

This paper presents initial findings from research into the possibility of using gypsum binders in quartz moulding sand that could be used in the production of casting moulds and cores. For the purposes of the research two commercial types of gypsum were used as binders: building gypsum and gypsum putty. Dry components of moulding sand i.e. medium quartz sand and gypsum were mixed in proportion of 89/11 parts by weight. In order to achieve bonding properties for the binders, 5 parts by weight of water was added to the mixture of dry components. After 24 hours of adding water and mixing all the components, the moulding sand, naturally hardened, was subjected to high temperature. The moulding sand thus produced, i.e. with cheap and environmentally-friendly gypsum binders, was eventually analysed after heating (at temperatures of 300oC, 650oC and 950oC) and cooling in order to determine changes in the following parameters: LOI – loss on ignition, chemical composition and pH. Moreover, investigated were bonding bridges, before and after the moulding sand was roasted. The research results revealed differences in the structure of bonding bridges and the occurrence of automatic adhesive destruction for both types of gypsum binders. For two types of moulding sands under the investigation of the LOI exceeded 2.59wt.% (with building gypsum) or 2.84wt.% (with putty gypsum) and pH increased to ca. 12 as a result of increasing roasting temperature from 300oC to 650oC. Next, roasting at 950oC decrease value of LOI in both types of moulding sands. Moulding sand with builoding gypsum roasted at 950oC revealed a return to the value of pH parameter measured prior to annealing.

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Abstract

The article presents the study results of Sn-Zn lead-free solders with the various Zn content. The results concern the hypoeutectic, eutectic and hypereutectic alloys containing respectively 4.5% Zn, 9% Zn and 13.5% Zn. Moreover, these alloys contain the constant Ag (1%) addition. The aim of the study was to determine the microstructural conditionings of their fatigue life. In particular it was focused on answer the question what meaning can be assigned to the Ag addition in the chemical composition of binary Sn-Zn alloys. The research includes a qualitative and quantitative assessments of the alloy microstructures, that have been carried out in the field of light microscopy (LM). In order to determine some geometrical parameters of the microstructure of alloys the combinatorial method based on the phase quanta theory was applied. Moreover, for the identification necessities the chemical analyses in the micro-areas by SEM/EDS technics were also performed. Based on the SEM/EDS results the phases and intermetallic compounds existing in the examined lead-free solders were identified. The mechanical characteristics were determined by means of the modified low cycle test (MLCF). Based on this method and on the results obtained every time from only one sample the dozen of essential mechanical parameters were evaluated. The research results were the basis of analyzes concerning the effects of microstructural geometrical parameters of lead-free alloys studied on their fatigue life at ambient temperature.

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Abstract

The article presents the investigation results of the crystallization (performed by means of the TDA method) and the microstructure of complex aluminium bronzes with the content of 6% Al, 4% Fe and 4% Ni, as well as Si additions in the scope of 1–2% and Cr additions in the scope of 0.1–0.3%, which have not been simultaneously applied before. For the examined bronze, the following tests were performed: hardness HB, impact strength (KU2). For bronze CuAl6Fe4Ni4Si2Cr0.3, characterizing in the highest hardness, wear tests were conducted with dry friction and the dry friction coefficient. The investigations carried out by means of the X-ray phase analysis demonstrated the following phases in the microstructure of this bronze: αCu, γ2 and complex intermetallic phases based on iron silicide type Fe3Si (M3Si M={Fe,Cr,…}). Compared to the normalized aluminium bronzes (μ=0.18–0.23), the examined bronze characterizes in relatively low wear and lower friction coefficient during dry friction (μ=0.147±0.016).

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Abstract

The paper presents an innovative method of creating the layered castings. The innovation relies on application the 3D printing insert obtaining in SLM (selective laser melting) method. This type of scaffold insert made from pure Ti powder, was placed into mould cavity directly before pouring by grey cast iron. In result of used method was obtained grey cast iron casting with surface layer reinforced by titanium carbides. In range of studies were carried out metallographic researches using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, microhardness measurements and abrasive wear resistance. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that there is a possibility of reinforcing surface layer of the grey cast iron casting by using 3D printing scaffold insert in the method of mould cavity preparation. Moreover there was a local increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance in spite of the precipitation of titanium carbides in surface layer of grey cast iron. While the usable properties of composite surface layer obtained in result of use of the method presented in the paper, strongly depend of dimensions of scaffold insert, mainly parameters Re and Ri.

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Abstract

Castability of thin-walled castings is sensitive to variation in casting parameters. The variation in casting parameters can lead to undesired casting conditions which result in defect formation. Variation in rejection rate due to casting defect from one batch to other is common problem in foundries and the cause of this variation usually remain unknown due to complexity of the process. In this work, variation in casting parameters resulting from human involvement in the process is investigated. Casting practices of different groups of casting operators were evaluated and resulting variations in casting parameters were discussed. The effect of these variations was evaluated by comparing the rejection statistics for each group. In order to minimize process variation, optimized casting practices were implemented by developing specific process instructions for the operators. The significance of variation in casting parameters in terms of their impact on foundry rejections was evaluated by comparing the number of rejected components before and after implementation of optimized casting practices. It was concluded that variation in casting parameters due to variation in casting practices of different groups has significant impact on casting quality. Variation in mould temperature, melt temperature and pouring rate due to variation in handling time and practice resulted in varying quality of component from one batch to other. By implementing the optimized casting instruction, both quality and process reliability were improved significantly.

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Abstract

The results of investigations of three commercial binders applied in the Alphaset technology marked as: Sample E , Sample T and Sample S are presented in the hereby paper. These samples were subjected to the pyrolysis process at a temperature of 900°C (inert atmosphere, He 99.9999). The gas chromatograph coupled with the mass spectrometer and pyrolizer (Py-GC/MS) were used in the study. The identification of gases emitted during the thermal decomposition was performed on the basis of the mass spectral library. The obtained results indicate a certain diversification of emitted gases. Among the pyrolysis products the following harmful substances were identified: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol and also substances from the BTEX (benzene, toluene and ethylobezneze and xylenes) PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and VOC groups (Volatile Organic Compounds). Therefore, from the environment protection point of view performing systematic investigations concerning the harmfulness of binders applied in the moulding and core sands technology, is essential.

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Abstract

In this paper, the mathematical model and numerical simulations of the molten steel flow by the submerged entry nozzle and the filling process of the continuous casting mould cavity are presented. In the mathematical model, the temperature fields were obtained by solving the energy equation, while the velocity fields were calculated by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation. These equations contain the turbulent viscosity which is found by solving two additional transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and its rate of dissipation. In the numerical simulations, coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena by changes in the thermophysical parameters of alloy depending on the temperature has been taken into consideration. This problem (2D) was solved by using the finite element method. Numerical simulations of filling the continuous casting mould cavity were performed for two variants of liquid metal pouring. The effect of the cases of pouring the continuous casting mould on the velocity fields and the solid phase growth kinetics in the process of filling the continuous casting mould was evaluated as these magnitudes have an influence on the high quality of the continuous cast steel slab.

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Abstract

Cast high-manganese Hadfield steel is commonly used for machine components operating under dynamic load conditions. Their high fracture toughness and abrasive wear resistance is the result of an austenitic structure, which - while being ductile - at the same time tends to surface harden under the effect of cold work. Absence of dynamic loads (e.g. in the case of sand abrasion) causes rapid and premature wear of parts. In order to improve the abrasive wear resistance of cast high-manganese steel for operation under the conditions free from dynamic loads, primary titanium carbides are produced in this cast steel during melting process to obtain in castings, after melt solidification, the microstructure consisting of an austenitic matrix and primary carbides uniformly distributed therein. After heat treatment, the microhardness of the austenitic matrix of such cast steel is up to 580 μHV20 and the resulting carbides may reach even 4000 μHV20. The impact strength of this cast steel varies from 57 to 129 and it decreases with titanium content. Compared to common cast Hadfield steel, the abrasive wear resistance determined in Miller test is at least twice as high for the 0.4% Ti alloy and continues growing with titanium content.

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Abstract

Fe - 4,25% C alloy was directionally solidified with a constant temperature gradient of G = 33,5 K/mm and growth rate of v = 83,3 μm/s (300 mm/h) using a vacuum Bridgman-type crystal growing facility with liquid metal cooling technique. To reveal more detailed microstructure, the deep etching was made. This was obtained in the process of electrolytic dissolution. The microstructure of the sample was examined on the longitudinal and transverse sections using an Optical Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope. Using the Electron Backscattered Diffraction technique, phase map and analysis of phase were made. In this paper the analysis of Fe-C alloy eutectic microstructure is presented. Regular eutectic structure was obtained. The fracture surfaces show lamellar structure. Microscopic observation after electrolytic extraction indicates that the grains of longitudinal shape of eutectic cementite have been obtained. These grains are characterized by layered construction with many rounded discontinuities.

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Abstract

In this paper, the authors investigated the size distribution of titanium oxide (TiO2), titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium carbide (TiC) inclusions in a titanium deoxidized 4130 steel and compared it with the 4130 base alloy composition inclusions. TiN and TiC inclusions are of particular interest due to their role as heterogeneous nuclei for various phase reactions in steels. Two types of samples were prepared, a polished sample and a filtered sample. Electrolytic dissolution was employed to make the filter paper samples. The size range of titanium inclusions was found to be more than that of the non-metallic inclusions from 4130 base alloy heat. Titanium inclusions from the filter and polished samples were round in shape. TiC and TiN inclusions were not found in the electrolytic extraction samples. Inclusions and their chemistries were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The inclusion size range was larger for the titanium deoxidized samples than the base alloy. However, in both steels the majority of inclusions had a size smaller than 10 μm.

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Abstract

Al-4.5Cu alloys are widely used in aerospace industries due to their low weight and high mechanical properties. This group of aluminium alloys is known as 2xx series and exhibits the highest mechanical properties however this alloy is known to suffer from feedability and high tendency for hot tearing. Al-Si alloys (3xx) have improved fluidity and better feedability particularly by several modifications such as Ti, B or Sr. Eutectic temperature is decreased and mechanical properties can be enhanced. Yet, the strength values of this alloy group cannot reach the values of 2xx series. Therefore, in this study, the effect of Ag addition on the fluidity of Al-4.5Cu alloy has been investigated. Standard size spiral mould was used. The casting temperature was selected to be 770oC. Five castings were made and Weibull statistical approach was used to evaluate the results. In addition, coating of the die with BN was also investigated. It was found that Ag addition and BN coating of the die revealed the most reproducible, reliable and high fluidity values.

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Abstract

The results of castability and structures researches of two nickel base alloys - Ceranium CN and Magnum AN applied on casting of the crowns and dental bridges are presented. Studies were carried out on the alloys cast under the centrifugal force to the moulds made by the lost wax method using production line of ROKO. Having regard to a specific technology of casting and possibility of ROKO production line, to the estimation of alloys castability a spiral test was adjusted with a 0,8 mm and a 2,5 mm diameter of test casting. Measuriements executed on a 20 test castings allowed to establish, that castability of Magnum AN alloy was 65 % greater than castability of Ceranium NC alloy. The results of thermodynamics calculations of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium crystallization (Scheil model) of the investigated alloys are presented too. The characteristic temperatures of phase transformation and forecast phase composition of alloys for both kind of crystallization were calculated. It is established after structural supervisions, that the investigated alloys crystallize in dendryte form and in centrifugal casting conditions have cooling rate sensivity and inclination to texture structure forming in outmost layer of casting. Phase composition of alloys corresponds to the results of thermodynamics calculations of the nonequilibrium crystallization conditions.

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Abstract

The article presents the results of selected energy parameters calculations, carried out for the recorded values of instantaneous voltages and currents in the three-phase power supply of the model vibratory unit. The parameters were the values of active and apparent power taken from the drive consisting of two electric motors supplied by the inverter for selected frequency settings and directly from the power grid. In addition, calculations of tgφ power factor values were made to evaluate the compensation of reactive power consumption in the tested power systems. Measurements and calculations lead to the conclusion that if the frequency of the inverter output voltage rises, the active and apparent power consumed by the model vibratory drive unit increases. The active and apparent power for setting the output frequency of the inverter from 50 Hz was less than the active and apparent power taken by the model vibratory unit that was powered directly from the power grid. The power factor tgφ in the power supply system was approximately 6, except one case (f = 30 Hz).

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Abstract

In many foundries, the requirements placed on castings production have risen mainly over the few years. Further trends in recent years have been the ever increasing level of automation and introduction of new alloys, especially composites. On the other hand, the foundry environment has become increasingly difficult because is used many organic binders. Environmental regulations will be further tightened up. These processes are pursued at national, European and global level. Conformity with emission limits is becoming increasingly difficult. The problem is emission of aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol, odours and other harmful compounds to environment. The main purpose of many companies is reduction of this toxins. The new cold-box systems (based on phenolic resins) try to reduce the emission by introducing into the resin structure silicate modifiers. Research presented of this article evaluate the effectiveness of these methods. The results show comparison of two resins ("without" and "with" silicate modifier) for assessment of emission of harmful aromatic hydrocarbons and phenol.

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Abstract

The constant growth of foundry modernization, mechanization and automation is followed with growing requirements for the quality and parameters of both moulding and core sands. Due to this changes it is necessary to widen the requirements for the parameters used for their quality evaluation by widening the testing of the moulding and core sands with the measurement of their resistance to mechanical deformation (further called elasticity). Following article covers measurements of this parameter in chosen moulding and core sands with different types of binders. It focuses on the differences in elasticity, bending strength and type of bond destruction (adhesive/cohesive) between different mixtures, and its connection to the applied bonding agent. Moulding and cores sands on which the most focus is placed on are primarily the self-hardening moulding sands with organic and inorganic binders, belonging to the group of universal applications (used as both moulding and core sands) and mixtures used in cold-box technology.

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Abstract

This paper shows how it is possible to obtain an ausferrite in compacted graphite iron (CGI) without heat treatment of castings. Vermicular graphite in cast iron was obtained using Inmold technology. Molybdenum was used as alloying additive at a concentration from 1.6 to 1.7% and copper at a concentration from 1 to 3%. It was shown that ausferrite could be obtained in CGI through the addition of molybdenum and copper in castings with a wall thickness of 3, 6, 12 and 24 mm. Thereby the expensive heat treatment of castings was eliminated. The investigation focuses on the influence of copper on the crystallization temperature of the graphite eutectic mixture in cast iron with the compacted graphite. It has been shown that copper increases the eutectic crystallization temperature in CGI. It presents how this element influences ausferrite microhardness as well as the hardness of the tested iron alloy. It has been shown that above-mentioned properties increases with increasing the copper concentration.

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Abstract

The impact of casting conditions on microstructure a and mechanical properties was described, especially for cast products from AlSi9Cu3 alloy. Particular attention was paid to the parameters of dendritic structure: DAS 1 and DAS 2. Selected mechanical properties (by static tension test) of test castings made using basic technologies of casting: GSC - gravity sand casting, GDC - gravity die-casting and HPDC - high-pressure die-casting, are presented for cast-on test bars and cast separately. Casts were made of the same alloy AlSi9Cu3. Fractures and the zone near the fracture (after static tension test) was subjected to VT - visual tests, PT - penetration tests and metallographic tests. The condition of porosity (fracture zone) was also assessed. The analysis of virtual results was performed using the NovaFlow & Solid system together with the database and they were compared to experimental tests. This way of validation was applied in order to assess the correlation between the local rate of cooling and the size of DAS for GSC, GDC and HPDC technologies. Finally, the correlation between the parameters of structure and mechanical properties with regard to the impact of porosity was signalized.

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Abstract

The paper presents the effect of pre-heat treatment on the mechanical properties of ductile cast iron with elevated content of Cu and Mo elements. Austempered Ductile Iron is a material with non-standard properties, combining high tensile strength and abrasion resistance with very good plasticity. In addition, it is prone to strain hardening and have good machining abilities. The study was conducted for five designed heat treatment cycles. The variables were the time and temperature of the pre-heat treatment, followed by one of two standard heat treatments for ADI cast iron. The aim of the authors was fragmentation of the grains of perlite during the initial heat treatment. It is presumed, that subsequent heat treatment will cause further refinement of the microstructure than would be the case without initial heat treatment. Diffusion is much faster than in case of ferritic matrix of cast iron. The results will be used to evaluate material for the production of parts of equipment that must operate under extreme load conditions.

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Abstract

As-cast Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y and Mg-6Li-1.2Zn-1.2Y (wt%) alloys were prepared and extruded at 260 oC with an extrusion ratio of 25. The microstructure and mechanical behavior of as-cast and extruded alloys are reported and discussed. The results show that Mg-6Li-1.2Zn- 1.2Y alloy is composed of α-Mg, β-Li, and W-Mg3Zn3Y2 phases while Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y alloy contains α-Mg, β-Li, W-Mg3Zn3Y2 phase and X-Mg12ZnY. After hot extrusion, the microstructure of specimens is refined and the average grains size of extruded alloys is 15 μm. Dynamic recrystallization occurs during the extrusion, leading to grain refinement of test alloys. Both the strength and elongation of test alloys are improved by extrusion. The extruded Mg-6Li-0.3Zn-0.6Y alloy possesses an ultimate strength of 225 MPa with an elongation of 18% while the strength and elongation of Mg-6Li-1.2Zn-1.2Y alloy are 206 MPa and 28%, respectively. The X-phase in Mg-6Li-0.3Zn- 0.6Y is beneficial to the improvement of strength, but will lead to the decrease of ductility.

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Abstract

Characteristics of the microstructure of corrosion-resistant cast 24Cr-5Ni-2.5Mo duplex steel after introduction of 0.98, 1.67 and 4.3% Si were described. Based on the test results it has been found that silicon addition introduced to the corrosion-resistant cast two-phase duplex steel significantly reduces austenite content in the alloy matrix. Increasing silicon content in the test alloy to 4.3% has resulted, in addition to the elimination of austenite, also in the precipitation of Si-containing intermetallic phases at the grain boundaries and inside the grains. The precipitates were characterized by varying content of Cr and Mo, indicating the presence in the structure of more than one type of the brittle phase characteristic for this group of materials. The simulation using Thermo-Calc software has confirmed the presence of ferrite in all tested alloys. In the material containing 4.3% Si, the Cr and Si enriched precipitates, such as G phase and Cr3Si were additionally observed to occur.

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Abstract

The effectiveness of cast iron spheroidization with FeSiMg master alloy by the traditional method and using a reaction chamber placed in the cavity of foundry mould was compared. The method of cast iron treatment in mould cavity using a reaction chamber is an innovative technology developed by the Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The effectiveness of the spheroidization process carried out by both methods was checked on a series of test castings. The article also presents the results of metallographic examinations and mechanical testing, including the discussion of magnesium yield and its assimilation rate.

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Abstract

The article presents results of research on the influence of variable parameters of horizontal continuous casting on the structure of AlCu4MgSi (EN AW-2017A) alloy ingots. The special character of the process allows for a continuous change of some of its parameters, namely, of the casting speed and of the rate of the cooling fluid flow thorough the crystallizer. These parameters have a significant impact on the crystallization process of the liquid metal. Depending on the cooling rate, intensity of the convection inside the solidifying alloy, and its chemical composition, there may arise some differences in the structure of the cast. In this study, ingots obtained at different casting speeds have been analyzed. The research methodology, based on light microscopy and electron microscopy (SEM), as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), allowed for a thorough examination of the structure of the studied materials. The results were shown that an increase in the ingot casting speed leads to an increase in the average grain surface area.

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Abstract

The paper presents the results of the application of a statistical analysis to evaluate the effect of the chemical composition of the die casting Al-Si alloys on its basic mechanical properties. The examinations were performed on the hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy type EN AC-46000 and, created on its basis, a multi-component Al-Si alloy containing high-melting additions Cr, Mo, W and V. The additions were introduced into the base Al-Si alloy in different combinations and amounts (from 0,05% to 0,50%). The tensile strength Rm; the proof stress Rp0,2; the unit elongation A and the hardness HB of the examined Al-Si alloys were determined. The data analysis and the selection of Al-Si alloy samples without the Cr, Mo, W and V additions were presented; a database containing the independent variables (Al-Si alloy's chemical composition) and dependent variables (Rm; Rp0,2; A and HB) for all the considered variants of Al-Si alloy composition was constructed. Additionally, an analysis was made of the effect of the Al-Si alloy's component elements on the obtained mechanical properties, with a special consideration of the high-melting additions Cr, Mo, V and W. For the optimization of the content of these additions in the Al-Si alloy, the dependent variables were standardized and treated jointly. The statistical tools were mainly the multivariate backward stepwise regression and linear correlation analysis and the analysis of variance ANOVA. The statistical analysis showed that the most advantageous effect on the jointly treated mechanical properties is obtained with the amount of the Cr, Mo, V and W additions of 0,05 to 0,10%.

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Abstract

Access to up-to-date information on technology, innovation, source publications, and the materials and services offered in a particular industry is very important for both industrial plants and departmental research centres. It should be noted that obtaining such information using publicly available search engines such as Google, Yahoo!, Bing, Bindu (mainly used in China) is only apparently easy because, due to their versatility, they deliver results with great redundancy. This leads to the need to analyze large data sets by linguistic methods or "manually", which is very tedious and time consuming. In this situation, it was considered reasonable to undertake studies aimed at acquiring relatively simple IT tools, i.e. crawlers, which allow their users to selectively search for information in a particular problem area, which in this particular case is casting. The intention of this work was to collect and analyze the experimental material that would allow describing the characteristics of the above solutions from the point of view of the range of their application, the quality of the results achieved, and possible limitations and preferences taking into account user needs [1, 2].

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Abstract

The research was concerned with the influence of chemical composition of austenitic steels on their mechanical properties. Resulting properties of castings from austenitic steels are significantly influenced by the solidification time that affects the size of the primary grain as well as the layout of elements within the dendrite and its parts with regard to the last solidification points in the interdendritic melt. During solidification an intensive segregation of all admixtures occurs in the melt, which causes a whole range of serious metallurgical defects and it has also a significant influence on subsequent precipitation of carbides and intermetallic phases. Chemical heterogeneity then affects the structure and mechanical properties of the casting. In a planned experiment, we cast melted steels containing 18 to 28 % Cr and 8 to 28 % Ni with variable carbon and nitrogen contents. Testing the tensile strength of the cast specimens we could determine the Rp0.2, Rm, and A5 values. The dependence of the mechanical properties on the chemical content was described by regression equations. The planned experiment results allow us to control the chemical content for the given austenitic steel quality to achieve the required values of the mechanical properties.

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Abstract

Gas emission from casting moulds, cores and coatings applied for sand and permanent moulds is one of the fundamental reasons of casting defects occurrence. In the previous studies, gas emission was measured in two ways: normalized, in which the evolving gas volume was measured during heating of the moulding sand sample in a sealed flask, or by measuring the amount of gas from sand core (sample) which is produced during the pouring of liquid metal. After the pouring process the sand mould is heated very unequally, the most heated areas are layers adjacent to the liquid metal. The emission of gas is significantly larger from the surface layer than from the remaining ones. New, original method of measuring kinetics of gas emission from very thin layers of sand moulds heated by liquid metal developed by the authors is presented in the hereby paper. Description of this new method and the investigation results of kinetics of gas emission from moulding sand with furan and alkyd resin are shown. Liquid grey cast iron and Al-Si alloy were used as a heat source in the sand moulds. Comparison of the kinetics of gas emission of these two kinds of moulding sands filled with two different alloys was made. The momentary metal temperature in sand mould was assigned to the kinetics of gas emission, what creates a full view of the possibility of formation of casting defects of the gaseous origin. Moulding sand with alkyd resin is characterized by larger gas emission; however gases are emitted slower than in the case of moulding sands with furan resin. This new investigation method has a high repeatability and is the only one which gives a full view of phenomenon’s in the surface layer which determines quality of the casings. The obtained results are presented on several graphs and analyzed in detail. They have a great application value and can be used in the production of iron as well as light metal alloy castings.

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Editorial office

CHIEF EDITORS
Editor
J. Szajnar
Deputy Editor
J. Jezierski

SUBJECT EDITORS
Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes
K. Eigenfeld – Freiberg, Germany
E. Guzik – Kraków, Poland
T. G. Mathia - Lyon, France
W. Wołczyński – Kraków, Poland
Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials
T. Elbel – Ostrava, Czech Republic
Z. Ignaszak – Poznań, Poland
O. P. Pandey – Punjab, India
A. Pereira - Vigo, Spain
Foundry Processes Computer Aiding
B. Mochnacki – Częstochowa, Poland
J. Roučka – Brno, Czech Republic
J.S. Suchy – Kraków, Poland
Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry
J. Bast – Freiberg, Germany
R. Wrona – Kraków, Poland
Transport Systems in Foundry
J. Dańko – Kraków, Poland
Z. Li – Shijiazhuang, China
Castings Quality Management
D. Bolibruchova– Żilina, Slovak Republic
J. D. B. de Mello - Santa Monica, Brazil
M. Perzyk – Warszawa, Poland
Environment Protection
M. Holtzer – Kraków, Poland
H. Polzin – Freiberg, Germany
J. Sobczak – Kraków, Poland
I. Volchok – Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
J. Braszczyński – Częstochowa, Poland
B. K. Dhindaw – Rupnagar, India
L. A. Dobrzański – Gliwice, Poland
W. A. Hufenbach – Dresden, Germany
P. Jelínek – Ostrava, Czech Republic
L. Jeziorski – Częstochowa, Poland
J. Lacaze – Toulouse, France
V. L. Naydek – Kiev, Ukraine
A. Passerone – Genova, Italy
I. Riposan – Bucharest, Romania
F. Romankiewicz – Zielona Góra, Poland
A. Sládek – Żilina, Slovak Republic

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE
S. A. Argyropoulos – Toronto, Canada
M. Azadi – Tehran, Iran
Y. Babaskin – Kiev, Ukraine
K. Bako – Miskolc, Hungary
E. Bayraktar – Paris, France
L. Bechný – Zilina, Slovak Republic
V. Bednarova - Ostrava, Czech Republic
F. Bińczyk – Katowice, Poland
A. Bokota – Częstochowa, Poland
G.P. Borisov – Kiev, Ukraine
A. Bydałek – Kraków, Poland
C. H. Cáceres – Brisbane, Australia
J. Čech – Brno, Czech Republic
L. Q. Chen – Shenyang, China
A. Chojecki – Kraków, Poland
M. Cholewa – Gliwice, Poland
I. A. Dibrov – Moscow, Russia
D. Dispinar – Istanbul, Turkey
S. M. Dobosz – Kraków, Poland
V. I. Dubodelov – Kiev, Ukraine
A. Fedoryszyn – Krakow, Poland
J. Głownia – Kraków, Poland
K. Granat – Wrocław, Poland
J. Hampl – Ostrava, Czech Republic
J. Helber – Düsseldorf, Germany
M. Hetmańczyk – Katowice, Poland
M. Horáček – Brno, Czech Republic
M. Kaczorowski – Warszawa, Poland
W. Kapturkiewicz – Kraków, Poland
R. Kawalla – Freiberg, Germany
Z. Konopka – Czestochowa, Poland
D. Kopyciński – Kraków, Poland
W. K. Krajewski – Kraków, Poland
Z. Libo – Beijing, China
P. Lichy – Ostrava, Czech Republic
Y. P. Lim – Setapak, Malaysia
T. Lipiński – Olsztyn, Poland
E. Majchrzak – Gliwice, Poland
A. Mityayev - Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine
M. Murgaš – Trnava, Slovak Republic
I. Nová – Liberec, Czech Republic
W. Orłowicz – Rzeszów, Poland
T. Pacyniak – Łódź, Poland
B. Piekarski – Szczecin, Poland
A. Rimmer – West Bromwich, United Kingdom
S. Samavedam – Hyderabad, India
P. Schumacher – Leoben, Austria
N. Sczygiol – Częstochowa, Poland
P. Skočovský – Żilina, Slovak Republic
M.S. Soiński – Częstochowa, Poland
J. Sokolowski – Ottawa, Kanada
K. V. Sudhakar – Butte, USA
B. G. Thomas - Champaign, USA
M. Trbižan – Ljubljana, Slovenia
J. Vuorinen – Tampere, Finland
E. Ziółkowski – Kraków, Poland
J. Zych – Kraków, Poland

ASSOCIATE EDITORS
D. Bartocha – Gliwice, Poland, - editorial secretary
J. Suchoń – Gliwice, Poland - editorial secretary
J. Szymszal – Katowice, Poland, Statistic Editor
A. Dulska – Gliwice, Poland
M. Kondracki – Gliwice, Poland
C. Borek –Chicago, USA, Language Editor

 

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