Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Foundry Engineering

Zawartość

Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2016 | No 2 |

Abstrakt

The paper presents data concerning the total production of castings over the 2000-2014 period, both on a global scale, and in Poland. The

basic types of casting alloys were taken into account. Changes in the production volume and structure over the period of the analysed 15

years were pointed out with respect to countries leading in foundry production. The topmost position in the world foundry industry is held

by China for several years (with almost 45% share in the foundry market), the second place is taken by India (with almost 9% share). A

distinct reduction in the shares of the once significant producers of castings, such as USA, Japan, Germany, Russia, Italy, or France, was

observed over the 2000-2014 period. Poland had a share of 1.16% in 2000, and of 1.02% in 2014. Comparing the detailed data concerning

the years 2000 and 2014, one can see that the fractions of castings made of ductile iron, cast steel, aluminium alloys, or magnesium alloys

increase on a global scale, while such alloys as grey cast iron or malleable are in decline.

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Abstrakt

One way to ensure the required technical characteristics of castings is the strict control of production parameters affecting the quality of

the finished products. If the production process is improperly configured, the resulting defects in castings lead to huge losses. Therefore,

from the point of view of economics, it is advisable to use the methods of computational intelligence in the field of quality assurance and

adjustment of parameters of future production. At the same time, the development of knowledge in the field of metallurgy, aimed to raise

the technical level and efficiency of the manufacture of foundry products, should be followed by the development of information systems

to support production processes in order to improve their effectiveness and compliance with the increasingly more stringent requirements

of ergonomics, occupational safety, environmental protection and quality. This article is a presentation of artificial intelligence methods

used in practical applications related to quality assurance. The problem of control of the production process involves the use of tools such

as the induction of decision trees, fuzzy logic, rough set theory, artificial neural networks or case-based reasoning.

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Abstrakt

The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention

was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level

of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization

in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM). An analysis of work intensity was carried out and the costs

were divided in order to identify operations with no value added, particularly at individual manufacturing departments. Also an analysis

of ergonomics at work stations was carried out to eliminate activities that are uncomfortable and dangerous to the workers' health. Several

solutions were proposed in terms of rationalization of work organization at iron cast after-machining work stations. The proposed solutions

were assessed with the use of multi-criteria assessment tools and then the best variant was selected based on the assumed optimization

criteria. The summary of the obtained results reflects benefits from implementation of the proposed solutions.

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Abstrakt

The results of investigations of spent moulding sands taken from the mould in which the metal core cooling system - to increase the

cooling rate of the ladle casting - was applied, are presented in the hereby paper. The changes of the spent moulding sand at the casting

external side being the result of degradation and destruction processes of organic binder, were analysed in this publication. Since the

reclaimed material, obtained as a result of the mechanical reclamation of spent sands of the same type, is used as a grain matrix of the

moulding sand, the amount of a binder left from the previous technological cycle is essential for the sound castings production. On the

bases of investigations of the thermal analysis, ignition losses, dusts contents and pH values of the samples taken from the spent sand the

conditions under which the process of gases displacing in the casting mould was realised as well as factors limiting the efficient mould

degassing - were considered in this study. The possible reason of a periodical occurrence of an increased number of casting defects due to

changing gas volume emission, being the reason of the realised technological process, was indicated.

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Abstrakt

In order to predict the distribution of shrinkage porosity in steel ingot efficiently and accurately, a criterion R√L and a method to obtain its

threshold value were proposed. The criterion R√L was derived based on the solidification characteristics of steel ingot and pressure

gradient in the mushy zone, in which the physical properties, the thermal parameters, the structure of the mushy zone and the secondary

dendrite arm spacing were all taken into consideration. The threshold value of the criterion R√L was obtained with combination of

numerical simulation of ingot solidification and total solidification shrinkage rate. Prediction of the shrinkage porosity in a 5.5 ton ingot of

2Cr13 steel with criterion R√L>0.21 m・℃1/2・s

-3/2 agreed well with the results of experimental sectioning. Based on this criterion,

optimization of the ingot was carried out by decreasing the height-to-diameter ratio and increasing the taper, which successfully eliminated

the centreline porosity and further proved the applicability of this criterion.

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Abstrakt

The main work of this paper focuses on the simulation of binary alloy solidification using the phase field model and adaptive octree grids.

Ni-Cu binary alloy is used as an example in this paper to do research on the numerical simulation of isothermal solidification of binary

alloy. Firstly, the WBM model, numerical issues and adaptive octree grids have been explained. Secondary, the numerical simulation

results of three dimensional morphology of the equiaxed grain and concentration variations are given, taking the efficiency advantage of

the adaptive octree grids. The microsegregation of binary alloy has been analysed emphatically. Then, numerical simulation results of the

influence of thermo-physical parameters on the growth of the equiaxed grain are also given. At last, a simulation experiment of large scale

and long-time has been carried out. It is found that increases of initial temperature and initial concentration will make grain grow along

certain directions and adaptive octree grids can effectively be used in simulations of microstructure.

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Abstrakt

Dispersion hardening, as the main heat treatment of silumins having additions of copper and magnesium, results in considerable increase

of tensile strength and hardness, with simultaneous decrease of ductility of the alloy. In the paper is presented an attempt of introduction of

heat treatment operation consisting in homogenizing treatment prior operation of the dispersion hardening, to minimize negative effects of

the T6 heat treatment on plastic properties of hypereutectoidal AlSi17CuNiMg alloy. Tests of the mechanical properties were performed

on a test pieces poured in standardized metal moulds. Parameters of different variants of the heat treatment, i.e. temperature and time of

soaking for individual operations were selected basing on the ATD (Thermal Derivation Analysis) diagram and analysis of literature. The

homogenizing treatment significantly improves ductility of the alloy, resulting in a threefold increase of the elongation and more than

fourfold increase of the impact strength in comparison with initial state of the alloy. Moreover, the hardness and the tensile strength (Rm)

of the alloy decrease considerably. On the other hand, combination of the homogenizing and dispersion hardening enables increase of

elongation with about 40%, and increase of the impact strength with about 25%, comparing with these values after the T6 treatment,

maintaining high hardness and slight increase of the tensile strength, comparing with the alloy after the dispersion hardening

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Abstrakt

Recent research in the process of aluminum alloy die castings production, which is nowadays deeply implemented into the rapidly growing

automobile, shipping and aircraft industries, is aimed at increasing the useful qualitative properties of the die casting in order to obtain its

high mechanical properties at acceptable economic cost. Problem of technological factors of high pressure die casting has been a subject of

worldwide research (EU, US, Japan, etc.). The final performance properties of die castings are subjected to a large number of

technological factors. The main technological factors of high pressure die casting are as follows: plunger pressing speed, specific

(increase) pressure, mold temperature as well as alloy temperature. The contribution discusses the impact of the plunger pressing speed

and specific (increase) pressure on the mechanical properties of the casting aluminum alloy.

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Abstrakt

The main aim of this study was to examine the compression-induced state of stress arising in castings of the guide grates during operation

in pusher-type furnaces for heat treatment. The effect of grate compression is caused by its forced movement in the furnace. The

introduction of flexible segments to the grate structure changes in a significant way the stress distribution, mainly by decreasing its value,

and consequently considerably extends the lifetime of the grates. The stress distribution was examined in the grates with flexible segments

arranged crosswise (normal to the direction of the grate compression) and lengthwise (following the direction of force). A regression

equation was derived to describe the relationship between the stress level in a row of ribs in the grate and the number of flexible segments

of a lengthwise orientation placed in this row. It was found that, regardless of the distribution of the flexible segments in a row, the stress

values were similar in all the ribs included in this row, and in a given row of the ribs/flexible segments a similar state of stress prevailed,

irrespective of the position of this row in the whole structure of the grate and of the number of the ribs/flexible segments introduced

therein. Parts of the grate responsible for the stress transfer were indicated and also parts which play the role of an element bonding the

structure.

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Abstrakt

The paper presents results of an analysis of material density distribution in stampings press-moulded in metal dies from raw refractory

materials based on alumina-magnesia-carbon aggregate. The stampings, fabricated on LAEIS HPF 1250 pressing machine, are blanks from

which refractory precast shapes are manufactured by means of drying and firing. Samples for material density evaluation were cut out

from test stampings with the use of diamond-reinforced disc. Density of the material was determined in thirteen layers of stampings

denoted with letters A through M.

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Redakcja

CHIEF EDITORS
Editor
J. Szajnar
Deputy Editor
J. Jezierski

SUBJECT EDITORS
Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes
K. Eigenfeld – Freiberg, Germany
E. Guzik – Kraków, Poland
T. G. Mathia - Lyon, France
W. Wołczyński – Kraków, Poland
Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials
T. Elbel – Ostrava, Czech Republic
Z. Ignaszak – Poznań, Poland
O. P. Pandey – Punjab, India
A. Pereira - Vigo, Spain
Foundry Processes Computer Aiding
B. Mochnacki – Częstochowa, Poland
J. Roučka – Brno, Czech Republic
J.S. Suchy – Kraków, Poland
Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry
J. Bast – Freiberg, Germany
R. Wrona – Kraków, Poland
Transport Systems in Foundry
J. Dańko – Kraków, Poland
Z. Li – Shijiazhuang, China
Castings Quality Management
D. Bolibruchova– Żilina, Slovak Republic
J. D. B. de Mello - Santa Monica, Brazil
M. Perzyk – Warszawa, Poland
Environment Protection
M. Holtzer – Kraków, Poland
H. Polzin – Freiberg, Germany
J. Sobczak – Kraków, Poland
I. Volchok – Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
J. Braszczyński – Częstochowa, Poland
B. K. Dhindaw – Rupnagar, India
L. A. Dobrzański – Gliwice, Poland
W. A. Hufenbach – Dresden, Germany
P. Jelínek – Ostrava, Czech Republic
L. Jeziorski – Częstochowa, Poland
J. Lacaze – Toulouse, France
V. L. Naydek – Kiev, Ukraine
A. Passerone – Genova, Italy
I. Riposan – Bucharest, Romania
F. Romankiewicz – Zielona Góra, Poland
A. Sládek – Żilina, Slovak Republic

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE
S. A. Argyropoulos – Toronto, Canada
M. Azadi – Tehran, Iran
Y. Babaskin – Kiev, Ukraine
K. Bako – Miskolc, Hungary
E. Bayraktar – Paris, France
L. Bechný – Zilina, Slovak Republic
V. Bednarova - Ostrava, Czech Republic
F. Bińczyk – Katowice, Poland
A. Bokota – Częstochowa, Poland
G.P. Borisov – Kiev, Ukraine
A. Bydałek – Kraków, Poland
C. H. Cáceres – Brisbane, Australia
J. Čech – Brno, Czech Republic
L. Q. Chen – Shenyang, China
A. Chojecki – Kraków, Poland
M. Cholewa – Gliwice, Poland
I. A. Dibrov – Moscow, Russia
D. Dispinar – Istanbul, Turkey
S. M. Dobosz – Kraków, Poland
V. I. Dubodelov – Kiev, Ukraine
A. Fedoryszyn – Krakow, Poland
J. Głownia – Kraków, Poland
K. Granat – Wrocław, Poland
J. Hampl – Ostrava, Czech Republic
J. Helber – Düsseldorf, Germany
M. Hetmańczyk – Katowice, Poland
M. Horáček – Brno, Czech Republic
M. Kaczorowski – Warszawa, Poland
W. Kapturkiewicz – Kraków, Poland
R. Kawalla – Freiberg, Germany
Z. Konopka – Czestochowa, Poland
D. Kopyciński – Kraków, Poland
W. K. Krajewski – Kraków, Poland
Z. Libo – Beijing, China
P. Lichy – Ostrava, Czech Republic
Y. P. Lim – Setapak, Malaysia
T. Lipiński – Olsztyn, Poland
E. Majchrzak – Gliwice, Poland
A. Mityayev - Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine
M. Murgaš – Trnava, Slovak Republic
I. Nová – Liberec, Czech Republic
W. Orłowicz – Rzeszów, Poland
T. Pacyniak – Łódź, Poland
B. Piekarski – Szczecin, Poland
A. Rimmer – West Bromwich, United Kingdom
S. Samavedam – Hyderabad, India
P. Schumacher – Leoben, Austria
N. Sczygiol – Częstochowa, Poland
P. Skočovský – Żilina, Slovak Republic
M.S. Soiński – Częstochowa, Poland
J. Sokolowski – Ottawa, Kanada
K. V. Sudhakar – Butte, USA
B. G. Thomas - Champaign, USA
M. Trbižan – Ljubljana, Slovenia
J. Vuorinen – Tampere, Finland
E. Ziółkowski – Kraków, Poland
J. Zych – Kraków, Poland

ASSOCIATE EDITORS
D. Bartocha – Gliwice, Poland, - editorial secretary
J. Suchoń – Gliwice, Poland - editorial secretary
J. Szymszal – Katowice, Poland, Statistic Editor
A. Dulska – Gliwice, Poland
M. Kondracki – Gliwice, Poland
C. Borek –Chicago, USA, Language Editor

 

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