Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Acoustics

Zawartość

Archives of Acoustics | 2016 | vol. 41 | No 4 |

Abstrakt

The main goal of this research study is focused on creating a method for loudness scaling based on categorical perception. Its main features, such as: way of testing, calibration procedure for securing reliable results, employing natural test stimuli, etc., are described in the paper and assessed against a procedure that uses 1/2-octave bands of noise (LGOB) for the loudness growth estimation. The Mann-Whitney U-test is employed to check whether the proposed method is statistically equivalent to LGOB. It is shown that loudness functions obtained in both methods are similar in the statistical context. Moreover, the band-filtered musical instrument signals are experienced as more pleasant than the narrow-band noise stimuli and the proposed test is performed in a shorter time. The method proposed may be incorporated into fitting hearing strategies or used for checking individual loudness growth functions and adapting them to the comfort level settings while listening to music.

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Before disassemble and demolition of five granulation towers the authors planned and carried out measurements of the intensity of vibrations induced during the fall of the dismantled components of towers on the ground. The main aim of the study was to determine the maximum permissible weight of falling elements of the towers during the demolition, in terms of ensuring the protection of buildings and equipment located in the vicinity of the works. It was unacceptable to increase the vibration amplitude displacement in each section of measurement on each of the three perpendicular axes by more than 2 μm peak-to-peak value and the absolute velocity of RMS of vibration amplitude couldn’t be increased by more than 1 mm/sec value than the background vibration during the demolition of the towers. Preliminary experimental studies were conducted on a test stand and the measurements were made on the real object. The amplitudes of vibration waves displacement and velocity were recorded on the measurement section in the direction of the protected building. The results of measurements were used to identify the propagation of the shock wave and the effectiveness of the proposed insulation layers.

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Infrasounds are very common in the natural environment. There are various opinions about their harmfulness or lack of harmfulness. One of the reasons of increasing interest in this issue is that there are more and more wind farms appearing close to building estates which are undoubtedly a source of infrasound. It is reasonable to present the results of research of infrasound noise connected not only with wind farms. In this study own results of research of infrasound noise related to daily human activity are presented. The measurements were carried out during housework, travel to the office or shop, and during shopping. The results are shown in the form of values of equivalent levels and 1/3-octave analyses. Taking into consideration the natural sources of infrasound in the environment, the measurements were conducted during both windy and windless weather. On the basis of the results of the measurements it was possible to define the daily exposure to infrasound noise. Those results were also compared with the available in the literature threshold values sensed by people. Estimated level of exposure to noise beyond workplace together with the level of exposure to noise at work enables to define daily exposure level, which means a better assessment of risk of health loss. Increasing social awareness of acoustic threat in everyday life allows us to identify the problem and at the same time improve the quality of rest and efficiency at work.

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Laughter is one of the most important paralinguistic events, and it has specific roles in human conversation. The automatic detection of laughter occurrences in human speech can aid automatic speech recognition systems as well as some paralinguistic tasks such as emotion detection. In this study we apply Deep Neural Networks (DNN) for laughter detection, as this technology is nowadays considered state-of-the-art in similar tasks like phoneme identification. We carry out our experiments using two corpora containing spontaneous speech in two languages (Hungarian and English). Also, as we find it reasonable that not all frequency regions are required for efficient laughter detection, we will perform feature selection to find the sufficient feature subset.

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Abstrakt

Blank handgun shots, party balloon bursts, and a pneumatic compressor with a small-diameter nozzle were used as sources of sound in the assessments of reverberation time, T. The two first sources were of impulse type, while the third one resembled a noise signal source. In this work, 532 values of T were experimentally obtained in four rooms of different volumes and compared. The T values for 1/3 octave frequency bands were found to be independent of the sound source. Reverberation times for the A-frequency-weighting filtered signals were close to one another for the shots and balloon bursts, while those obtained using the compressor nozzle were significantly shorter. The latter effect can be attributed to the relatively high share of high frequency waves in the sound generated by the nozzle. The results show that balloon bursts can be used as handgun shot substitutes in the assessments of reverberation times. While the nozzle noise is rather unsuitable for this purpose, it can be applied in the assessments of T for high frequency waves, up to the ultrasound range. Such acoustic climate information may be useful in designing spaces for high frequency sound-sensitive individuals, e.g. animal shelters.

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Nonlinear phenomena of the planar and quasi-planar magnetoacoustic waves are considered. We focus on deriving of equations which govern nonlinear excitation of the non-wave motions by the intense sound in initially static gaseous plasma. The plasma is treated as an ideal gas with finite electrical conductivity permeated by a magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectories of gas particles. This introduces dispersion of a flow. Magnetoacoustic heating and streaming in the field of periodic and aperiodic magnetoacoustic perturbations are discussed, as well as generation of the magnetic perturbations by sound. Two cases, corresponding to magnetosound perturbations of low and high frequencies, are considered in detail.

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The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, some basic notions on acoustic field intensity and its measurement are shortly recalled. Then, the equipment and the measurement procedure used in the sound intensity in the performed research study are described. The second goal is to present details of the design of the engineered 3D intensity probe, as well as the algorithms developed and applied for that purpose. Results of the intensity probe measurements along with the calibration procedure are then contained and discussed. Comparison between the engineered and the reference commercial probe confirms that the designed construction is applicable to the sound field intensity measurements with a sufficient effectiveness.

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Abstrakt

The paper analyses a possibility of utilising the information which is contained in DIPPR database for a calculation of the speed of sound, which is absent there. As an example, liquid hydrocarbons are considered: n-hexane, 1-hexene, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, and 1-hexanols, as well as representatives of n-alkanes with various hydrocarbon chain lengths. It is shown that the Brelvi-O’Connell correlation for the reduced bulk modulus, supplied with the correlations for the internal pressure at the normal boiling temperature, results in the values having accuracy comparable with other DIPPR data for the region below the boiling point bounded by the values of the reduced density around ρr ≈ 3.5. The source of errors originated from the Brelvi-O’Connell correlation for larger reduced densities is discussed.

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The article presents methods that help in the elimination of mutual clutter as well as the consequences of two FM sounding signal sonars operating in the same body of water and frequency band. An in-depth analysis of mutual clutter was carried out. The effects of sounding signal differentiation were determined, as was the Doppler effect on mutual clutter suppression. One of the methods analysed is of particular interest in a situation in which collaborating sonars are operating in opposite frequency modulation directions. This method is effective for both linear and hyperbolic frequency modulations. A formula was derived, identifying exactly how much quantities of clutter may be lessened. The work included comprehensive computer simulations and measurements as well as tests in real-life conditions.

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Abstrakt

The Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm and its variants are currently the most frequently used adaptation algorithms; therefore, it is desirable to understand them thoroughly from both theoretical and practical points of view. One of the main aspects studied in the literature is the influence of the step size on stability or convergence of LMS-based algorithms. Different publications provide different stability upper bounds, but a lower bound is always set to zero. However, they are mostly based on statistical analysis. In this paper we show, by means of control theoretic analysis confirmed by simulations, that for the leaky LMS algorithm, a small negative step size is allowed. Moreover, the control theoretic approach alows to minimize the number of assumptions necessary to prove the new condition. Thus, although a positive step size is fully justified for practical applications since it reduces the mean-square error, knowledge about an allowed small negative step size is important from a cognitive point of view.

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In this paper a possibility of determining a local velocity of the surface acoustic Rayleigh waves using a transducer, with the rigidly connected emitting and receiving parts, is considered. A problem on spatial resolution of such a transducer for investigation of inhomogeneous specimens is also examined. A high spatial resolution can be obtained due to the transducer displacement by a value less than the distance between the emitting and receiving parts. It is shown that in this case it is not necessary to measure the transducer displacement with a high accuracy for precise determination of the velocity. Such an effect is obtained through measuring the velocity of surface waves in one local region of the specimen with respect to the other. The criterion for optimal spatial resolution selection during spatially inhomogeneous specimens study is also proposed. The proposed criterion use is illustrated on the example of the determination of spatial distribution of the surface acoustic velocity in a steel specimen subjected to inhomogeneous plastic deformation.

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The paper presents the results of numerical analysis of the SAW gas sensor in the steady and non-steady states. The effect of SAW velocity changes vs surface electrical conductivity of the sensing layer is predicted. The conductivity of the porous sensing layer above the piezoelectric waveguide depends on the profile of the diffused gas molecule concentration inside the layer. The Knudsen’s model of gas diffusion was used.

Numerical results for the effect of gas CH4 on layers: WO3, TiO2, NiO, SnO2 in the steady state and CH4 in the non-steady state in recovery step in the WO3 sensing layer have been shown. The main aim of the investigation was to study thin film interaction with target gases in the SAW sensor configuration based on simple reaction-diffusion equation.

The results of the numerical analysis allow to select the sensor design conditions, including the morphology of the sensor layer, its thickness, operating temperature, and layer type. The numerical results basing on the code elaborated numerical system (written in Python language), were analysed. The theoretical results were verified and confirmed experimentally.

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The article presents the results of research aimed at increase of the efficiency of gas cleaning equipment based on the Venturi tube using high-intensity ultrasound. The model based on known laws of hydrodynamics of multiphase mediums of dust-extraction in Venturi scrubbers was proposed. Modification of this model taking into account ultrasonic field allows evaluating optimum modes (sound pressure level) and conditions (direction of ultrasonic field, square and number of ultrasonic sources) of ultrasonic influence. It is evaluated that optimum for efficient gas cleaning is the mode of ultrasonic action at the frequency of 22 kHz with sound pressure level of 145. . . 155 dB at the installation of two radiators with area of 0.14 m2, four radiators with area of 0.11 m2 or six radiators with area of 0.08 m2 at the angle of 45 degrees to the axis of Venturi tube. Numerical calculations showed that realization of ultrasonic action is the most efficient for the reduction (up to 15 times) of the content of fine-dispersed fraction (2 μm and less), which is impossible to extract without ultrasonic action. The received theoretical results were confirmed by industrial testing by typical dust-extraction plant and used as foundations of development of apparatuses with the radiators of various sizes.

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A new ultrasound digital transcranial Doppler system (digiTDS) is introduced. The digiTDS enables diagnosis of intracranial vessels which are rather difficult to penetrate for standard systems. The device can display a color map of flow velocities (in time-depth domain) and a spectrogram of a Doppler signal obtained at particular depth. The system offers a multigate processing which allows to display a number of spectrograms simultaneously and to reconstruct a flow velocity profile.

The digital signal processing in digiTDS is partitioned between hardware and software parts. The hardware part (based on FPGA) executes a signal demodulation and reduces data stream. The software part (PC) performs the Doppler processing and display tasks. The hardware-software partitioning allowed to build a flexible Doppler platform at a relatively low cost.

The digiTDS design fulfills all necessary medical standards being a new useful tool in the transcranial field as well as in heart velocimetry research.

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Abstrakt

The article is a continuation of the authors’ elaboration (Dąbrowski, Dziurdź, 2016). The aim of this continuation is to prove that a proposed way of modelling and using the coherent analysis to filter nonlinear disturbances is a useful technique in vibroacoustic diagnostics. The thesis was proved by solving the task of diagnosing the damage of the gear of the car gearbox on the basis of the measurement of mechanical vibrations and the noise in the engine chamber.

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Texture of ultrasound images contain information about the properties of examined tissues. The analysis of statistical properties of backscattered ultrasonic echoes has been recently successfully applied to differentiate healthy breast tissue from the benign and malignant lesions. We propose a novel procedure of tissue characterization based on acquiring backscattered echoes from the heated breast. We have proved that the temperature increase inside the breast modifies the intensity, spectrum of the backscattered signals and the probability density function of envelope samples. We discuss the differences in probability density functions in two types of tissue regions, e.g. cysts and the surrounding glandular tissue regions. Independently, Pennes bioheat equation in heterogeneous breast tissue was used to describe the heating process. We applied the finite element method to solve this equation. Results have been compared with the ultrasonic predictions of the temperature distribution. The results confirm the possibility of distinguishing the differences in thermal and acoustical properties of breast cyst and surrounding glandular tissues.

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In this paper, the properties of AE signals originating from phenomena occurring during magnetization of ferromagnetic materials which are used to construct power transformer cores are presented. The AE signals in a selected power oil transformer were recorded and analyzed. The analysis included, i.e., time, frequency, and time-frequency analyses, calculations of amplitude distributions of the signals and defined AE descriptors, determination of the descriptor map on the side walls of transformers, as well as a detailed analysis of selected part of the signals.

The maps of descriptors were analyzed in the frequency bands of 20–70 kHz, 70–100 kHz, and 100–200 kHz. The analysis of the properties of the signals was performed in time and frequency domains. Based on the analysis, there were identified the AE signals originating from the phenomena occurring during the core magnetization of a power oil transformer. To identify those phenomena, the maps of the ADC descriptor calculated in the band of 20–70 kHz when selecting the measurement points in which there were no AE sources from partial discharges were used.

An analysis of magnetoacoustic emission signals in the bands of 70–100 kHz and 100–200 kHz was also performed. The analysis of the signal properties in such an extended frequency range allowed determining the properties of the magnetoacoustic signals coming from core sheets of power oil transformers.

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Redakcja

Editorial Board
Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej Nowicki (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Barbara Gambin (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Associate Editors
Genaral linear acoustics and physical acoustics
• Wojciech P. Rdzanek (University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów)
• Anna Snakowska (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Architectural acoustics
• Tadeusz Kamisiński (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Musical acoustics and psychological acoustics
• Andrzej Miśkiewicz (The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music, Warszawa)
• Anna Preis (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)
Underwater acoustics and nonlinear acoustics
• Grażyna Grelowska (Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk)
Speech, Computational acoustics and signal processing
• Ryszard Gubrynowicz (Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Warszawa)
Ultrasonics, transducers and instrumentation
• Krzysztof Opieliński (Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław)
Electroacoustics
• Jan Żera (Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa)
Noise control and environmental acoustics
• Jan Adamczyk (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
• Mirosław Meissner (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
• Janusz Kompała (Central Mining Institute, Katowice)
Secretary
• Izabela Ewa Mika

Kontakt

Archives of Acoustics
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Author Guidelines
• Manuscripts intended for publication in Archives of Acoustics should be submitted in pdf format by an on-line procedure.
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