Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Acoustics

Zawartość

Archives of Acoustics | 2020 | vol. 45 | No 3 |

Abstrakt

The initial transient of an organ pipe is known to be of great influence to the perceived sound quality. At the same time, the unsteady process of the tone onset is essentially nonlinear and lacks exact repeatability, so the search for a robust descriptor is in place. Initial transients were recorded using an adjustable flue organ pipe. The blowing pressure and cut-up height were varied. Prony’s method was employed to analyze the results. Utilizing the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the standardized exponential model coefficients, it was shown that the transients are well described by just one scalar parameter. Its value is predominantly dependent on the number of important Prony’s components taking part in the transient process (i.e., the overall complexity of the transient signal). A strong correlation was found between the PCA component and the Strouhal number inverse.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Viktor Hruška
Pavel Dlask

Abstrakt

Wave motion in pipe bends is much more complicated than that in straight pipes, thereby changing considerably the propagation characteristics of guided waves in pipes with bends. Therefore, a better understanding of how guided waves propagate in pipe bends is essential for inspecting pipelines with bends. The interaction between a pipe bend and the most used non-dispersive torsional mode at low frequency in a small-bore pipe is studied in this paper. Experiments are conducted on a magnetostrictive system, and it is observed that T(0,1) bend reflections and mode conversions from T(0,1) to F(1,1) and F(2,1) occur in the pipe bend. The magnitude of the T(0,1) bend reflections increases with increasing propagation distance and excitation frequency. The amplitude of the mode-converted signals also increases with increasing propagation distance, but it decreases with increasing excitation frequency. Because of their longer bent path, the test signals for a pipe bend with a bending angle of 180X are much more complicated than those for one with a bending angle of 90X. Therefore, it is even more difficult to scan a bent pipe with a large bending angle. The present findings provide some insights into how guided waves behave in pipe bends, and they generalize the application of guided-wave inspection in pipelines.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wenjun Wu
Junhua Wang

Abstrakt

The main goal of the research was to obtain a set of data for ability of speech in noise recognition using Polish word test (New Articulation Lists – NAL-93) with two different masking signals. The attempt was also made to standardise the background noise for Polish speech tests by creating babble noise for NAL-93. Two types of background noise were used for Polish word test – the babble noise and the speech noise. The short method was chosen in the study as it provided similar results to constant stimuli method using less word material. The experiment using both maskers was presented to 10 listeners with normal hearing.

The mean SRT values for NAL-93 were −3.4 dB SNR for speech noise and 3.0 dB SNR for babble noise. In this regard, babble noise provided more efficient results. However, the SRT parameter for speech noise was more similar to values obtained for other Polish speech tests. The measurement of speech recognition using Polish word test is possible for both types of masking signals presented in the study. The decision as to which type of noise would be better in practice of hearing aid prosthetics remains an open-end question.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anna Schelenz
Ewa Skrodzka

Abstrakt

The paper presents the latest research results concerning the correlation between changes in the room acoustics of school spaces and noticeable changes in the communication and functioning of students and teachers at school.

The primary school covered by the research is the second largest school of this type in Poland. The large number of students and hard interior finishing made the acoustic conditions in the school building very unfavourable. The measurements showed that school rooms were very noisy and reverberant. The measured values of reverberation time T were in many rooms 3–4 times higher than the acceptable values specified in the mandatory Polish acoustic standard PN-B-02151-4:2015-06. Also the speech intelligibility measured by the speech transmission index was very poor, in the extreme case STI = 0:31. This situation (very characteristic for most of Polish schools) became the basis for the first such comprehensive acoustic treatment of the whole school building in Poland. This intervention allowed to meet PN-B-02151-4:2015-06 demands almost in every room accessible for students. This case gave an excellent opportunity to assess the influence of improved room acoustics on teachers’ and students’ performance and wellbeing.

Measurements of the equivalent sound level LAeq, reverberation time T and STI speech transmission index were made before and after acoustic treatment. The questionnaire survey used the Acoustic Change Feelings Scale (ACFS-S, ACFS-T) for teachers and students. 378 students, and 44 teachers were included in the study. Both students’ and teachers’ answers show significant improvement of their performance and wellbeing. Positive changes were noticed in students’ level of concentration, short memory capacity and pace of work. After acoustic treatment students (both in teachers’ and their own opinion) can better hear and understand teachers’ instructions and are much more capable of task fulfilling. Both teachers and students observed clear reduction of aggression level. Teachers reported considerable drop in students’ fatigue and their own voice effort.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Irena Polewczyk
Mikołaj Jarosz

Abstrakt

Research work on the design of robust multimodal speech recognition systems making use of acoustic and visual cues, extracted using the relatively noise robust alternate speech sensors is gaining interest in recent times among the speech processing research fraternity. The primary objective of this work is to study the exclusive influence of Lombard effect on the automatic recognition of the confusable syllabic consonant-vowel units of Hindi language, as a step towards building robust multimodal ASR systems in adverse environments in the context of Indian languages which are syllabic in nature. The dataset for this work comprises the confusable 145 consonant-vowel (CV) syllabic units of Hindi language recorded simultaneously using three modalities that capture the acoustic and visual speech cues, namely normal acoustic microphone (NM), throat microphone (TM) and a camera that captures the associated lip movements. The Lombard effect is induced by feeding crowd noise into the speaker’s headphone while recording. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) models are built to categorise the CV units based on their place of articulation (POA), manner of articulation (MOA), and vowels (under clean and Lombard conditions). For validation purpose, corresponding Hidden Markov Models (HMM) are also built and tested. Unimodal Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems built using each of the three speech cues from Lombard speech show a loss in recognition of MOA and vowels while POA gets a boost in all the systems due to Lombard effect. Combining the three complimentary speech cues to build bimodal and trimodal ASR systems shows that the recognition loss due to Lombard effect for MOA and vowels reduces compared to the unimodal systems, while the POA recognition is still better due to Lombard effect. A bimodal system is proposed using only alternate acoustic and visual cues which gives a better discrimination of the place and manner of articulation than even standard ASR system. Among the multimodal ASR systems studied, the proposed trimodal system based on Lombard speech gives the best recognition accuracy of 98%, 95%, and 76% for the vowels, MOA and POA, respectively, with an average improvement of 36% over the unimodal ASR systems and 9% improvement over the bimodal ASR systems.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sadasivam Uma Maheswari
A. Shahina
Ramesh Rishickesh
A. Nayeemulla Khan

Abstrakt

The purpose of this work is to present a theoretical analysis of top orthogonal to bottom arrays of conducting electrodes of infinitesimal thickness (conducting strips) residing on the opposite surfaces of piezoelectric slab. The components of electric field are expanded into double periodic Bloch series with corresponding amplitudes represented by Legendre polynomials, in the proposed semi-analytical model of the considered two-dimensional (2D) array of strips. The boundary and edge conditions are satisfied directly by field representation, as a result. The method results in a small system of linear equations for unknown expansion coefficients to be solved numerically. A simple numerical example is given to illustrate the method. Also a test transducer was designed and a pilot experiment was carried out to illustrate the acoustic-wave generating capabilities of the proposed arrangement of top orthogonal to bottom arrays of conducting strips.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jurij Tasinkevych
Ihor Trots
Ryszard Tymkiewicz

Abstrakt

The brain is subject to damage, due to ageing, physiological processes and/or disease. Some of the damage is acute in nature, such as strokes; some is more subtle, like white matter lesions. White matter lesions or hyperintensities (WMH) can be one of the first signs of micro brain damage. We implemented the Acoustocerebrography (ACG) as an easy to use method designed to capture differing states of human brain tissue and the respective changes.

Aim: The purpose of the study is to compare the efficacy of ACG and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to detect WMH in patients with clinically silent atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods and results: The study included 97 patients (age 66.26 ± 6.54 years) with AF. CHA2DS2-VASc score (2.5 ±1.3) and HAS BLED (1.65 ± 0.9). According to MRI data, the patients were assigned into four groups depending on the number of lesions: L0 – 0 to 4 lesions, L5 – 5 to 9 lesions, L10 – 10 to 29 lesions, and L30 – 30 or more lesions. Authors found that the ACG method clearly differentiates the groups L0 (with 0–4 lesions) and L30 (with more than 30 lesions) of WMH patients. Fisher’s Exact Test shows that this correlation is highly significant (p < 0:001).

Conclusion: ACG is a new, easy and cost-effective method for detecting WMH in patients with atrial fibrillation

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wioletta Dobkowska-Chudon
Mirosław Wrobel
Emilia Frankowska
Arkadiusz Zegadlo
Andrzej Krupienicz
Andrzej Nowicki
Robert Olszewski

Abstrakt

In order to solve the problem of large error of delay estimation in low SNR environment, a new delay estimation method based on cross power spectral frequency domain weighting and spectrum subtraction is proposed. Through theoretical analysis and MATLAB simulation, among the four common weighting functions, it is proved that the cross-power spectral phase weighting method has a good sharpening effect on the peak value of the cross-correlation function, and it is verified that the improved spectral subtraction method generally has a good noise reduction effect under different SNR environments. Finally, the joint simulation results of the whole algorithm show that the combination of spectrum subtraction and crosspower spectrum phase method can effectively sharpen the peak value of cross-correlation function and improve the accuracy of time delay estimation in the low SNR environment. The results of this paper can provide useful help for sound source localization in complex environments.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Feng Bin
Xu Lei

Abstrakt

The exact measurement of multiphase flow is an important and essential task in the oil and petrochemical related industries. Several methods have already been proposed in this field. In the existing methods, flow rate measurement depends on the fluid flow pattern. Flow pattern recognition requiring calibration has created instability in such systems. In this paper, a imple and reliable method is proposed which is based on ultrasonic tomography. It is free from calibration and instability problems that existing methods have. The obtained data from a 32-digit array of ultrasonic sensors have been used and the two-phase flow rate including liquid and gas phases have been calculated through a simple algebraic algorithm. Simulation results show that while applying this method the measurement technique is independent from the fluid flow pattern and the system error is decreased. For the proposed algorithm, the average amount of the spatial imaging error (SIE) for a bubble at different positions inside the pipe is about 5%.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Omid Qorbani
Esmaeil Najafi Aghdam

Abstrakt

Thermoacoustic converters are devices for direct conversion of acoustic energy into thermal energy in the form of temperature difference, or vice versa – for converting thermal energy into an acoustic wave. In the first case, the device is called a thermoacoustic heat pump, in the second – thermoacoustic engine. Thermoacoustic devices can use (or produce) a standing or travelling acoustic wave. This paper describes the construction and properties of a single-stage thermoacoustic engine with a travelling wave. This kind of engine works using the Stirling cycle. It uses gas as a working medium and does not contain any moving parts. The main component of the engine is a regenerator equipped with two heat exchangers. Most commonly, a porous material or a set of metal grids is used as a regenerator. An acoustic wave is created as a result of the temperature difference between a cold and a hot heat exchanger. The influence of working gas, and such parameters as static pressure and temperature at heat exchanger on the thermoacoustic properties of the engine, primarily its efficiency, was investigated. The achieved efficiency was up to 1.4% for air as the working medium, which coincides with the values obtained in other laboratories. The efficiency for argon as working gas is equal to 0.9%.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Dobrucki
Bartłomiej Kruk

Abstrakt

The diversity of wave modes in the magnetic gas gives rise to a wide variety of nonlinear phenomena associated with these modes. We focus on the planar fast and slow magnetosound waves in the geometry of a flow where the wave vector forms an arbitrary angle θ with the equilibrium straight magnetic field. Nonlinear distortions of a modulated signal in the magnetic gas are considered and compared to that in unmagnetised gas. The case of acoustical activity of a plasma is included into consideration. The resonant three-wave non-collinear interactions are also discussed. The results depend on the degree of non-adiabaticity of a flow, θ, and plasma-β.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anna Perelomova

Abstrakt

Parameters of surface acoustic waves (SAW) are very sensible to change of physical conditions of a propagation medium. In the classical theory formulation, the waves are guided along the boundary of semi-infinity solid state and free space. A real situation is more complex and a medium commonly consists of two physical components: a solid substrate and a gaseous or liquid environment. In the case of stress-free substrate, the strongest impact on SAW properties have surface electrical and mechanical conditions determined by solids or liquids adhering to the boundary. This impact is utilised for constructing sensors for different gases and vapours e.g. (Jakubik et al., 2007; Hejczyk et al., 2011; Jasek et al., 2012). The influence of gaseous environment on the SAW properties is usually very weak and ignored. However, in certain condition it can be significant enough to be applied to sensor construction. In general, it concerns Rayleigh wave devices where energy leakage phenomenon is perceptible, especially when the gas being detected considerably changes the density of environment. The paper presents the results of experiments with oxygen-nitrogen mixture. Their primary aim was focused on finding the dependence of resonant frequency and attenuation in SAW resonator on parameters and concentrations of the gas in the environment.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mateusz Pasternak
Krzysztof Jasek
Michał Grabka
Tomasz Borowski

Abstrakt

Due to its unique features, the metal foam is considered as one of the newest acoustic absorbents. It is a navel approach determining the structural properties of sound absorbent to predict its acoustical behavior. Unfortunately, direct measurements of these parameters are often difficult. Currently, there have been acoustic models showing the relationship between absorbent morphology and sound absorption coefficient (SAC). By optimizing the effective parameters on the SAC, the maximum SAC at each frequency can be obtained. In this study, using the Benchmarking method, the model presented by Lu was validated in MATLAB coding software. Then, the local search algorithm (LSA) method was used to optimize the metal foam morphology parameters. The optimized parameters had three factors, including porosity, pore size, and metal foam pore opening size. The optimization was applied to a broad band of frequency ranging from 500 to 8000 Hz. The predicted values were in accordance with benchmark data resulted from Lu model. The optimal range of the parameters including porosity of 50 to 95%, pore size of 0.09 to 4.55 mm, and pore opening size of 0.06 to 0.4 mm were applied to obtain the highest SAC for the frequency range of 500 to 800 Hz. The optimal amount of pore opening size was 0.1 mm in most frequencies to have the highest SAC. It was concluded that the proposed method of the LSA could optimize the parameters affecting the SAC according to the Lu model. The presented method can be a reliable guide for optimizing microstructure parameters of metal foam to increase the SAC at any frequency and can be used to make optimized metal foam.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mohammad Javad Jafari
Ali Khavanin
Touraj Ebadzadeh
Mahmood Fazlali
Mohsen Niknam Sharak
Rohollah Fallah Madvari

Abstrakt

Noise is one of the most significant factors which not only disturbs working conditions, but has a large impact on workers’ health. This problem has existed in industries since the beginning and, despite technical and other solutions, it has not been solved. There is a large number of papers, supported with very detailed analyses, that investigate noise levels in industry or contain questionnaires about the impact of noise on workers’ overall health and work abilities. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the global picture of sustainability and the development of strategies for improving the quality of working environment, with special attention to the generation of noise in different production processes in thirteen different industries in Novi Sad, Serbia. The paper also seeks to examine the advantages and drawbacks of the implemented protective methods and to provide some recommendations for their better implementation in order to contribute to solving this significant problem of today.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Uranija Kozmidis Luburić
Selena Dušan Samardžić
Robert Lakatoš
Aleksandra Mihailović
Milka Veselinović

Abstrakt

Scattering of sound waves in two stepped cylindrical duct which walls are coated with different acoustically absorbent materials is investigated by using Wiener-Hopf technique directly and by determining scattering matrices. First, by using Fourier transform technique we obtain a couple of modified Wiener-Hopf equations whose solutions involve four sets of infinitely many unknown expansion coefficients providing systems of linear algebraic equations. Then we determine scattering matrices of the problem and we state the total transmitted field by using generalized scattering matrix method. Numerical results are compared for different parameters.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ayşe Tiryakioglu
Ahmet Demir

Abstrakt

This research highlights the vibration analysis on worm gears at various conditions of oil using the experimental set up. An experimental rig was developed to facilitate the collection of the vibration signals which consisted of a worm gear box coupled to an AC motor. The four faults were induced in the gear box and the vibration data were collected under full, half and quarter oil conditions. An accelerometer was used to collect the signals and for further analysis of the vibration signals, MATLAB software was used to process the data. Symlet wavelet transform was applied to the raw FFT to compare the features of the data. ANN was implemented to classify various faults and the accuracy is 93.3%.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Narendiranath Babu Thamba
Kiran Kamesh Thatikonda Venkata
Sathvik Nutakki
Rama Prabha Duraiswamy
Noor Mohammed
Razia Sultana Wahab
Ramalinga Viswanathan Mangalaraja
Ajay Vannan Manivannan

Abstrakt

Cavitation is an essential problem that occurs in all kinds of pumps. This cavitation contributes highly towards the deterioration in the performance of the pump. In industrial applications, it is very vital to detect and decrease the effect of the cavitation in pumps. Using different techniques to analysis and diagnose cavitation leads to increase in the reliability of cavitation detection. The use of various techniques such as vibration and acoustic analyses can provide a more robust detection of cavitation within the pump. In this work therefore, focus is put on detecting and diagnosing the cavitation phenomenon within a centrifugal pump using vibration and acoustic techniques. The results obtained from vibration and acoustic signals in time and frequency domains were analysed in order to achieve better understanding regarding detection of cavitation within a pump. The effect of different operating conditions related to the cavitation was investigated in this work using different statistical features in time domain analysis (TDA). Moreover, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique for frequency domain analysis (FDA) was also applied. Furthermore, the comparison and evaluation system among different techniques to find an adequate technique incorporating for accuracy and to increase the reliability of detection and diagnosing different levels of cavitation within a centrifugal pump were also investigated.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ahmed Ramadhan Al-Obaidi

Abstrakt

In this paper, a frame structure based on the locally resonant (LR) mechanism of phononic crystals (PCs) is designed on account of the wide application of frame structures in high-rise buildings, and the band structures, displacement fields of eigenmodes, and transmission power spectrums of corresponding finite structure are calculated by finite element (FE) method. Numerical results and further analysis demonstrate that a full band gap with low starting frequency can be opened by the frame structure formed by periodically combining soft and hard materials, and the starting frequency can be further lowered with the adjustment of corresponding geometric parameters, which provides a theoretical basis for the studies on vibration insulation and noise reduction of high-rise buildings.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yukun Wang
Denghui Qian
Jinghong Wu
Feiyang He

Redakcja

Editorial Board
Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej Nowicki (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Barbara Gambin (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Associate Editors
Genaral linear acoustics and physical acoustics
• Wojciech P. Rdzanek (University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów)
• Anna Snakowska (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Architectural acoustics
• Tadeusz Kamisiński (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Musical acoustics and psychological acoustics
• Andrzej Miśkiewicz (The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music, Warszawa)
• Anna Preis (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)
Underwater acoustics and nonlinear acoustics
• Grażyna Grelowska (Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk)
Speech, Computational acoustics and signal processing
• Ryszard Gubrynowicz (Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Warszawa)
Ultrasonics, transducers and instrumentation
• Krzysztof Opieliński (Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław)
Electroacoustics
• Jan Żera (Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa)
Noise control and environmental acoustics
• Jan Adamczyk (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
• Mirosław Meissner (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
• Janusz Kompała (Central Mining Institute, Katowice)
Secretary
• Izabela Ewa Mika

Kontakt

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Author Guidelines
• Manuscripts intended for publication in Archives of Acoustics should be submitted in pdf format by an on-line procedure.
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o why the paper is submitted to ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS,
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