Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Thermodynamics

Zawartość

Archives of Thermodynamics | 2017 | No 4 |

Abstrakt

Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P) technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

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Abstrakt

The paper covers problems of the owners of a fleet of long-operated conventional power plants that are going to be decommissioned soon in result of failing to achieve new admissible emissions levels or exceeding pressure elements design lifetime. Energoprojekt-Katowice SA, Siemens AG and Rafako SA presents their joint concept of the solution which is a 2on1 concept – replacing two unit by two ultra-supercritical boilers feeding one turbine. Polish market has been taken as an example.

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Abstrakt

Energy efficiency improvement and ecological safety of heat power plants are urgent problems, which require scientifically grounded approaches and solutions. These problems can be solved partly within the presented heat-and-power cycles by including contact energy exchange equipment in the circuits of existing installations. A significant positive effectis obtained in the contact energy exchange installations, such as gas-steam installation ‘Aquarius’ and the contact hydrogen heat generator that also can use hydrogen as a fuel. In these plants, the efficiency increases approximately by 10–12% in comparison with traditional installations, and the concentration of toxic substances, such as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in flue gas can be reduced to 30 mg/m3and to 5 mg/m3, respectively. Moreover, the plants additionally ‘generate’ the clean water, which can be used for technical purposes.

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Abstrakt

The aim of this document is to present the topic of modeling district heating systems in order to enable optimization of their operation, with special focus on thermal energy storage in the pipelines. Two mathematical models for simulation of transient behavior of district heating networks have been described, and their results have been compared in a case study. The operational optimization in a DH system, especially if this system is supplied from a combined heat and power plant, is a difficult and complicated task. Finding a global financial optimum requires considering long periods of time and including thermal energy storage possibilities into consideration. One of the most interesting options for thermal energy storage is utilization of thermal inertia of the network itself. This approach requires no additional investment, while providing significant possibilities for heat load shifting. It is not feasible to use full topological models of the networks, comprising thousands of substations and network sections, for the purpose of operational optimization with thermal energy storage, because such models require long calculation times. In order to optimize planned thermal energy storage actions, it is necessary to model the transient behavior of the network in a very simple way – allowing for fast and reliable calculations. Two approaches to building such models have been presented. Both have been tested by comparing the results of simulation of the behavior of the same network. The characteristic features, advantages and disadvantages of both kinds of models have been identified. The results can prove useful for district heating system operators in the near future.

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Abstrakt

Investigations of refrigerant condensation in pipe minichannels are very challenging and complicated issue. Due to the multitude of influences very important is mathematical and computer modeling. Its allows for performing calculations for many different refrigerants under different flow conditions. A large number of experimental results published in the literature allows for experimental verification of correctness of the models. In this work is presented a mathematical model for calculation of flow resistance during condensation of refrigerants in the pipe minichannel. The model was developed in environment based on conservation equations. The results of calculations were verified by authors own experimental investigations results.

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Abstrakt

The dynamic performance of cylindrical double-tube adsorption heat pump is numerically analysed using a non-equilibrium model, which takes into account both heat and mass transfer processes. The model includes conservation equations for: heat transfer in heating/cooling fluids, heat transfer in the metal tube, and heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. The mathematical model is numerically solved using the method of lines. Numerical simulations are performed for the system water-zeolite 13X, chosen as the working pair. The effect of the evaporator and condenser temperatures on the adsorption and desorption kinetics is examined. The results of the numerical investigation show that both of these parameters have a significant effect on the adsorption heat pump performance. Based on computer simulation results, the values of the coefficients of performance for heating and cooling are calculated. The results show that adsorption heat pumps have relatively low efficiency compared to other heat pumps. The value of the coefficient of performance for heating is higher than for cooling

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Abstrakt

The paper presents a neutronic analysis of the battery-type 20 MWth high-temperature gas cooled reactor. The developed reactor model is based on the publicly available data being an ‘early design’ variant of the U-battery. The investigated core is a battery type small modular reactor, graphite moderated, uranium fueled, prismatic, helium cooled high-temperature gas cooled reactor with graphite reflector. The two core alternative designs were investigated. The first has a central reflector and 30×4 prismatic fuel blocks and the second has no central reflector and 37×4 blocks. The SERPENT Monte Carlo reactor physics computer code, with ENDF and JEFF nuclear data libraries, was applied. Several nuclear design static criticality calculations were performed and compared with available reference results. The analysis covered the single assembly models and full core simulations for two geometry models: homogenous and heterogenous (explicit). A sensitivity analysis of the reflector graphite density was performed. An acceptable agreement between calculations and reference design was obtained. All calculations were performed for the fresh core state.

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Abstrakt

Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

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Abstrakt

The article discusses the operation of solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOC) developed in the Institute of Power Engineering as prospective key components of power-to-gas systems. The fundamentals of the solid oxide cells operated as fuel cells (SOFC – solid oxide fuel cells) and electrolysers (SOEC – solid oxide fuel cells) are given. The experimental technique used for electrochemical characterization of cells is presented. The results obtained for planar cell with anodic support are given and discussed. Based on the results, the applicability of the cells in power-to-gas systems (P2G) is evaluated.

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Abstrakt

Thermoacoustic refrigerator uses acoustic power to transport heat from a low-temperature source to a high-temperature source. The increasing interest in thermoacoustic technology is caused due to its simplicity, reliability as well as application of environmentally friendly working fluids. A typical thermoacoustic refrigerator consists of a resonator, a stack of parallel plates, two heat exchangers and a source of acoustic wave. The article presents the influence of the stack position in the resonance tube and the acoustic frequency on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerator with a standing wave driven by a loudspeaker, which is measured in terms of the temperature difference between the stack edges. The results from experiments, conducted for the stack with the plate spacing 0.3 mm and the length 50 mm, acoustic frequencies varying between 100 and 400 Hz and air as a working fluid are consistent with the theory presented in this paper. The experiments confirmed that the temperature difference for the stack with determined plate spacing depends on the acoustic frequency and the stack position. The maximum values were achieved for resonance frequencies and the stack position between the pressure and velocity node.

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Abstrakt

This paper provides some information about thermoelectric technology. Some new materials with improved figures of merit are presented. These materials in Peltier modules make it possible to generate electric current thanks to a temperature difference. The paper indicates possible applications of thermoelectric modules as interesting tools for using various waste heat sources. Some zero-dimensional equations describing the conditions of electric power generation are given. Also, operating parameters of Peltier modules, such as voltage and electric current, are analyzed. The paper shows chosen characteristics of power generation parameters. Then, an experimental stand for ongoing research and experimental measurements are described. The authors consider the resistance of a receiver placed in the electric circuit with thermoelectric elements. Finally, both the analysis of experimental results and conclusions drawn from theoretical findings are presented. Voltage generation of about 1.5 to 2.5 V for the temperature difference from 65 to 85 K was observed when a bismuth telluride thermoelectric couple (traditionally used in cooling technology) was used.

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Redakcja

Honorary Editor
Wiesław Gogół, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Editor-in-Chief
Jarosław Mikielewicz, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery PAS, Poland

Deputy
Marian Trela, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery PAS, Poland

Members of Editorial Commitee
Roman Domanski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Ziębik, Technical University of Silesia, Poland

Managing Editor
Jarosław Frączak, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery PAS, Poland

International Advisory Board
J. Bataille, Ecole Central de Lyon, Ecully, France
A. Bejan, Duke University,  Durham, USA
W. Blasiak, Royal Institute of Technology,  Stockholm, Sweden
G. P. Celata, ENEA,  Rome, Italy
M. W. Collins, South Bank University,  London, UK
J. M. Delhaye, CEA, Grenoble, France
M. Giot, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
D. Jackson, University of Manchester, UK
S. Michaelides, University of North Texas, Denton, USA
M. Moran, Ohio State University,  Columbus, USA
W. Muschik, Technische Universität, Berlin, Germany
I. Müller, Technische Universität, Berlin, Germany
V. E. Nakoryakov, Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk, Russia
M. Podowski, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, USA
M.R. von Spakovsky, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA

Kontakt

IFFM Publishers (Wydawnictwo IMP),

The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery,
Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland,
telephone: +48 58 6995141, fax: +48 58 3416144,
e-mail: jfrk@imp.gda.pl; now@imp.gda.pl

 

 

Instrukcje dla autorów

Archives of Thermodynamics publishes original papers which have not previously appeared in other journals. The language of the papers is English. No paper should exceed the length of 25 pages. All pages should be numbered. The plan and form of the papers should be as follows:
 

1. The heading should specify the title (as short as possible), author, his/her complete affiliation, town, zip code, country and e-mail. Please show the corresponding author. The heading should be followed by Abstract of maximum 15 typewritten lines.

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etc.
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`2` Rizzo F.I., Shippy D.I.: A method of solution for certain problems of transient heat conduction.
AIAA Journal 8(1970), No. 11, 2004–2009.
 
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