Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Thermodynamics

Zawartość

Archives of Thermodynamics | 2020 | vol. 41 | No 2 |

Abstrakt

Flow mechanism under roughened solar air heater is quite complex. This paper is an effort towards determining the governing equations for heat transfer and friction factor for inclined spherical balls roughened ducts. With the availability of these equations, it is easier to predict the thermal and thermohydraulic performance of such roughened solar air heaters. The governing equations are derived based on the experimental data generated under actual outdoor condition at the test rig designed and fabricated at the terrace of the Mechanical Engineering Department, the National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur in India, in terms of roughness and flow parameters. Maximum augmentation in Nusselt number and friction factor for varying relative roughness pitch, relative roughness height, spherical ball height to diameter ratio, and angle of attack was respectively found to be of the order of 2.1 to 3.54 times, 1.87 to 3.21 times, 2.89 to 3.27 times and 1.74 to 3.56 times for Nusselt number and 0.84 to 1.79 times, 1.46 to 1.91 times, 1.67 to 2.34 times and 1.21 to 2.67 times for friction factor in comparison to non-roughened duct. The optimum roughness parameters under present investigation have been found.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ramesh Murmu
Parmanand Kumar
Hari N. Singh

Abstrakt

This paper describes the simulation, exergy analysis and comparison of two commonly applied liquefaction of technologies natural gas, namely: propane precooled mixed refrigerant process (C3MR) and dual mixed refrigerant process (DMR) alongside two modifications of each employing end flash systems. The C3MR and DMR process schemes were simulated using the commercial software to mathematically model chemical processes. These schemes were then analysed using energy and exergy calculations to determine their performances. The exergy efficiency for the C3MR processes without end flash system, with simple end flash system and extended end flash system were evaluated as 29%, 31%, and 33%, respectively, while the exergy efficiency for the DMR processes without end flash system, with simple end flash system, and extended end flash system were evaluated as 26%, 25.5%, and 30%, respectively. The results achieved show that the extended end flash system versions of the schemes are most efficient. Furthermore, the exergy analysis depicted that the major equipment that must be enhanced in order to improve the cycle exergy efficiencies are the compressors, heat exchangers, and coolers.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Oluwagbemisola Akinsipe
Ambrose Anozie
Damilola Babatunde

Abstrakt

An experimental investigation was performed on the thermal performance and heat transfer characteristics of acetone/zirconia nanofluid in a straight (rod) gravity-assisted heat pipe. The heat pipe was fabricated from copper with a diameter of 15 mm, evaporator-condenser length of 100 mm and adiabatic length of 50 mm. The zirconia-acetone nanofluid was prepared at 0.05–0.15% wt. Influence of heat flux applied to the evaporator, filling ratio, tilt angle and mass concentration of nanofluid on the heat transfer coefficient of heat pipe was investigated. Results showed that the use of nanofluid increases the heat transfer coefficient while decreasing the thermal resistance of the heat pipe. However, for the filling ratio and tilt angle values, the heat transfer coefficient initially increases with an increase in both. However, from a specific value, which was 0.65 for filling ratio and 60–65 deg for tilt angle, the heat transfer coefficient was suppressed. This was attributed to the limitation in the internal space of the heat pipe and also the accumulation of working fluid inside the bottom of the heat pipe due to the large tilt angle. Overall, zirconia-acetone showed a great potential to increase the thermal performance of the heat pipe.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Amin Abdolhossein Zadeh
Shima Nakhjavani

Abstrakt

In this paper, the two-temperature thermoelasticity model is proposed to a specific problem of a thermoelastic semi-infinite solid. The bounding plane surface of the semi-infinite solid is considered to be under a non-Gaussian laser pulse. Generalized thermoelasticity analysis with dual-phase-lags is taken into account to solve the present problem. Laplace transform and its inversion techniques are applied and an analytical solution as well as its numerical outputs of the field variables are obtained. The coupled theory and other generalized theory with one relaxation time may be derived as special cases. Comparison examples have been made to show the effect of dual-phase-lags, temperature discrepancy, laser-pulse and laser intensity parameters on all felids. An additional comparison is also made with the theory of thermoelasticity at a single temperature.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ashraf M. Zenkour
Ahmed E. Abouelregal

Abstrakt

A new expression is proposed to calculate the earth-energy of an earth-air-pipe heat exchanger during winter heating for three kinds of soil in France. An analytical model is obtained by using numerical computation developed in Scilab – a free open source software. The authors showed the comparison between their simple analytical model and experimental results. They showed the influence of different parameters to specify the size of the heat exchanger.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Vincent M.F. Molcrette
Vincent A.R. Autier

Abstrakt

This work investigates the effect of Reynolds number, nanoparticle volume ratio, nanoparticle size and entrance temperature on the rate of entropy generation in Al2O3 /H2O nanofluid flowing through a pipe in the turbulent regime. The Reynolds average Navier-Stokes and energy equations were solved using the standard k-ε turbulent model and the central composite method was used for the design of experiment. Based on the number of variables and levels, the condition of 30 runs was defined and 30 simulations were run. The result of the regression model obtained showed that all the input variables and some interaction between the variables are statistically significant to the entropy production. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis result shows that the Reynolds number, the nanoparticle volume ratio and the entrance temperature have negative sensitivity while the nanoparticle size has positive sensitivity.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

O.G. Fadodun
B.A. Olokuntoye
A.O. Salau
Adebimpe A. Amosun

Abstrakt

A general model of the equations of generalized thermo-microstretch for an infinite space weakened by a finite linear opening mode-I crack is solved. Considered material is the homogeneous isotropic elastic half space. The crack is subjected to a prescribed temperature and stress distribution. The formulation is applied to generalized thermoelasticity theories, using mathematical analysis with the purview of the Lord-Şhulman (involving one relaxation time) and Green-Lindsay (includes two relaxation times) theories with respect to the classical dynamical coupled theory (CD). The harmonic wave method has been used to obtain the exact expression for normal displacement, normal stress force, coupled stresses, microstress and temperature distribution. Variations of the considered fields with the horizontal distance are explained graphically. A comparison is also made between the three theories and for different depths for the case of copper crystal.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Khaled Lotfy
Alaa Abd El-Bary
Mohamed Allan
Marwa H. Ahmed

Abstrakt

Numerical predictions of heat transfer under laminar conditions in a square duct with ribs are presented in this paper. Ribs are provided on top and bottom walls in a square duct in a staggered manner. The flow rates have been varied between Reynolds number 200 and 600. Various configurations of ribs by varying length, width and depth have been investigated for their effect on heat transfer, friction factor and entropy augmentation generation number. Further artificial neural network integrated with genetic algorithm was used to minimize the entropy augmentation generation number (performance factor) by selecting the optimum rib dimensions in a selected range. Genetic algorithm is compared with microgenetic algorithm to examine the reduction in computational time for outlay of solution accuracy.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Pavan K. Konchada
Bhatti Sukhvinder
Siddhartha Relangi
Rambhadriraju Chekuri

Abstrakt

As in many thermal processing technologies, there is a delicate balance between productivity and quality during ingot cooling process. Higher cooling velocities increase productivity but also create higher temperature gradients inside the ingot. Such a fast cooling does not leave sufficient time to establish the equilibrium within the solid, thus the final metal structure is strongly affected by the set up cooling mode throughout the liquid metal solidification. The first intention in this paper is to compare between three cooling modes in order to identify the required mode for a continuous casting process. Then, we study the influence of heat transfer coefficient on metal liquid-to-solid transition through the spray-cooled zone temperature and the metal latent heat of solidification. A gray iron continuous casting process subjected to water-sprays cooling was simulated using the commercial software for modeling and simulating multiphysics and engineering problems. The primary conclusions, from the obtained results, show the forcefulness of water spray cooling regarding standard cooling. Afterward, we highlight the great influence of heat transfer coefficient on the location of transition region as well as the relationship between heat transfer coefficient, wall outer temperature, latent heat dissipation, and the solidification time.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Hocine Mzad
Abdessalam Otmani

Abstrakt

Most of the formulations regarding the characteristics of a shell and tube heat exchanger have a common assumption; namely that the baffle plates are equidistant. This assumption fails to cater the real world scenario for defective baffles as the alteration in a shell and tube heat exchanger invalidates the equidistant baffle spacing of the plates. In this regard, a small six baffles heat exchanger was modeled in the computational fluid dynamics software package and studied by removing each baffle plate one at a time. Effect of removing each baffle plate on the temperature, pressure, heat transfer coefficient, and total heat transfer rate was recorded. It was observed that variation in the pressure drop for the same number of baffle plates varies along the axial order of the plates. The change in pressure drop due to the removal of the baffle plate near the inlet and the outlet was lowest and reaches a maximum in the axial center. It was also found that the plates below the radial center contribute higher towards the overall heat transfer as compared to those above.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Abdullah Aziz
Shafique Rehman

Abstrakt

The characteristic of nano sized particles mass flux conditions are engaged in this investigation. Here we assume that the nano sized particle flux is zero and the nano sized particle fraction arranged itself on the boundary layer. With this convincing and revised relation, the features of Buongiorno relation on three-dimensional flow of Carreau fluid can be applied in a more efficient way. The governing partial differential equations of continuity, momentum, energy and concentration equations which are transmitted into set of pair of nonlinear ordinary differential equations utilizing similar transformations. The numeric solutions are acquired by engaging the bvp4c scheme, which is a finite-difference code for solving boundary value problems. A parametric study is accomplished to demonstrate the impact of Prandtl number,Weissenberg numbers, radiation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter and Lewis number on the fluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number within the boundary layer. From this we find the way in which magnetic parameter contributes to the increase in local skin fraction, and the decrease in the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in these cases. The effects of the velocity temperature and concentration profile are obtained and presented graphically.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

B. Madhusudhana Rao
Degavath Gopal
Naikoti Kishan
Saad Ahmed
Putta Durga Prasad

Abstrakt

The effect of shell side and coil side volume flow rate on overall heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness, pressure drop and exergy loss of shell and helical coil heat exchanger were studied experimentally under steady state conditions. The working fluid, i.e., water was allowed to flow at three different flow rates of 1, 2, and 3 l/min on shell side (cold water) and at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 l/min on coil side (hot water) for each shell side flow rate at the temperatures of 298±0.4K and 323±0.4K, respectively. The results found that the overall heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing both shell side and coil side volume flow rates. The inner Nusselt number significantly increased with the coil side Dean number.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Rajesh Kumar
Prakash Chandra
Prabhansu

Abstrakt

The performance of ten wickless heat pipes without adiabatic sections is investigated experimentally at low heat inputs 120 to 2000 W/m2 for use in solar water heaters. Three heat pipe diameter groups were tested, namely 16, 22, and 28.5 mm. Each group had evaporator lengths of 1150, 1300, and 1550 mm, respectively, with an extra evaporator length of 1800 mm added to the second group. The condenser section length of all heat pipes was 200 mm. Ethanol, methanol, and acetone were utilized as working fluids, at inventory of 25%, 50%, 70%, and 90% by evaporator volume respectively. The 22 mm diameter pipes were tested at inclination angles 30◦, 45◦, and 60◦. Other diameter groups were tested at 45◦ only. Experiments revealed increased surface temperatures and heat transfer coefficients with increased pipe diameter and evaporator length, and that increased working fluid inventory caused pronounced reduction in evaporator surface temperature accompanied by improved heat transfer coefficient to reach maximum values at 50% inventory for the selected fluids. Violent noisy shocks were observed with 70% and 90% inventories with the tested heat pipes and the selected working fluids with heat flux inputs from 320–1900 W/m2. These shocks significantly affected the heat pipes heat transfer capability and operation stability. Experiments revealed a 45◦ and 50% optimum inclination angle of fill charge ratio respectively, and that wickless heat pipes can be satisfactorily used in solar applications. The effect of evaporator length and heat pipe diameter on the performance was included in data correlations.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Hassan Naji Salman Al-Joboory

Abstrakt

The paper is devoted to some problems connected with last modification of EU directive on energy efficiency, viz.: free choice of the measure concerning the improvement of energy efficiency, i.e. final or primary energy consumption, corresponding energy savings or energy-consumption index; however without cumulative consumption or cumulative savings of primary energy. In EU directive it has been stressed the importance of measurements systems (reliable measurement information); but has not been recommended any advanced validation of measurements results, nor energy auditing or algorithms of calculating the energy savings due to improvement of energy efficiency concerning large industrial plants. Evaluation of complex buildings should be realized by means of the system method (input-output analysis). The separate problem is devoted to application of thermo-ecological approach in the analysis of complete results of improving the energy efficiency. Human activity is connected with the depletion of nonrenewable resources, including primary energy, due to not only production of consumer goods but also the necessity of compensating the unfavourable effects of harmful emissions from energy-technological processes. Therefore the index of energy-ecological efficiency has been proposed as the most competent evaluation of improvement energy efficiency of production processes and systems.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Ziębik
Wojciech Stanek

Redakcja

Honorary Editor
Wiesław Gogół, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Jarosław Mikielewicz, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery PAS, Poland

Editor-in-Chief
Dariusz Mikielewicz, Gdansk University of Technology, Poland

Deputy Editors
Piotr Lampart, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery PAS, Poland
Marian Trela, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery PAS, Poland

Members of Editorial Commitee
Roman Domanski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Ziębik, Technical University of Silesia, Poland
Ryszard Białecki, Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Managing Editor
Jarosław Frączak, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery PAS, Poland

International Advisory Board
J. Bataille, Ecole Central de Lyon, Ecully, France
A. Bejan, Duke University,  Durham, USA
W. Blasiak, Royal Institute of Technology,  Stockholm, Sweden
G. P. Celata, ENEA,  Rome, Italy
M. W. Collins, South Bank University,  London, UK
J. M. Delhaye, CEA, Grenoble, France
M. Giot, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
D. Jackson, University of Manchester, UK
S. Michaelides, University of North Texas, Denton, USA
M. Moran, Ohio State University,  Columbus, USA
W. Muschik, Technische Universität, Berlin, Germany
I. Müller, Technische Universität, Berlin, Germany
V. E. Nakoryakov, Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk, Russia
M. Podowski, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, USA
M.R. von Spakovsky, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA

Kontakt

Wydawnictwo IMP

The Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery PAS

Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland

telephone: +48 58 5225 141, fax: +48 58 3416 144

e-mail: jfrk@imp.gda.pl; now@imp.gda.pl; redakcja@imp.gda.pl

http://www.imp.gda.pl/archives-of-thermodynamics/

https://www.journals.pan.pl/ather

 

 

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Archives of Thermodynamics publishes original papers which have not previously appeared in other journals. The language of the papers is English. No paper should exceed the length of 25 pages. All pages should be numbered. The plan and form of the papers should be as follows:
 

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AIAA Journal 8(1970), No. 11, 2004–2009.
 
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