Applied sciences

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences


Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | 2008 | vol. 56 | No 1 |


The concept of strong stability is extended for positive and compartmental linear systems. It is shown that: 1) the asymptotically stable positive and compartmental systems are strongly stable if the eigenvalues of the system matrix are distinct, 2) electrical circuits consisting of resistances, capacitances (inductances) and source voltages are strongly stable.

Go to article


Evolutionary computing and algorithms are well known tools of optimisation that are utilized for various areas of analogue electronic circuits design and diagnosis. This paper presents the possibility of using two evolutionary algorithms - genetic algorithm and evolutionary strategies - for the purpose of analogue circuits yield and cost optimisation. Terms: technologic and parametric yield are defined. Procedures of parametric yield optimisation, such as a design centring, a design tolerancing, a design centring with tolerancing, are introduced. Basics of genetic algorithm and evolutionary strategies are presented, differences between these two algorithms are highlighted, certain aspects of implementation are discussed. Effectiveness of both algorithms in parametric yield optimisation has been tested on several examples and results have been presented. A share of evolutionary algorithms computation cost in a total optimisation cost is analyzed.

Go to article


The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the printed circuit board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 μm or 25/25 μm technology are real. Existing technologies are unable to offer acceptable solution. Recently the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges. LDI is a process of imaging electric circuits directly on PCB without the use of a phototool or mask. Our laboratory system for Laser Direct Imaging is designed for tracks and spaces on PCB with minimum width distance of 50/50 μm. In comparison with conventional photolithography method, this technology is much better for 50/50 μm track and spaces. In our research we used photoresist with resolution 50 μm, but in case of using laser photoresists with better resolution (e.g. 25 μm) it will be possible to image tracks in super-fine-line technology (25/25 μm). The comparison between two technology of creating mosaic pattern tracks on PCB proved that laser imaging is promising technology in high density interconnects patterns, which are widely use in multilayered PCB and similar applications.

Go to article


The aim of this paper is to present a new approach to the problem of silicon integrated spiral inductors modeling. First, an overview of models and modeling techniques is presented. Based on 3D simulations and published measurement results, a list of physical phenomena to be taken into account in the model is created and based on it, the spiral inductor modeling by frequency sampling method is presented. To verify the proposed method a test circuit, containing 6 spiral inductors was designed and integrated in a silicon technology. The parameters of the spiral inductors from the test circuit were next measured and compared with simulations results. The comparison for one of those six spiral inductors is presented in the article.

Go to article


This paper presents methods for optimal test frequencies search with the use of heuristic approaches. It includes a short summary of the analogue circuits fault diagnosis and brief introductions to the soft computing techniques like evolutionary computation and the fuzzy set theory. The reduction of both, test time and signal complexity are the main goals of developed methods. At the before test stage, a heuristic engine is applied for the principal frequency search. The methods produce a frequency set which can be used in the SBT diagnosis procedure. At the after test stage, only a few frequencies can be assembled instead of full amplitude response characteristic. There are ambiguity sets provided to avoid a fault tolerance masking effect.

Go to article


In modern microelectronics progress has been made towards low power ultra large-scale integration (ULSI), and nano-structure devices such as single electron transistors and quantum dots. In this technology application of new materials, which includes high-κ dielectrics for the MOSFET transistors, with extraordinary purity and uniformity is required. Failure analysis and reliability investigations of such films very often requires highresolution local measurements of electrical surface parameters. This kind of experiments can be performed using conductive atomic force microscopy, which provides simultaneous measurement of surface topography and current ?owing through the investigated layer. In order to acquire reliable data, there was designed a precise measurement and control system, which included a low-noise current-to-voltage converter of picoampere resolution, a scanning stage with control electronics and a data acquisition system. In the paper we describe the architecture of the designed and applied experimental set-up. We also present results of simultaneous measurements of topography and current on gold and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG).

Go to article


The phase composition of the cement paste phase of concrete containing fly ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) was studied. The motivation was to broaden the knowledge concerning the microstructure and the durability of concrete containing new by-products from the power industry. Several air-entrained concrete mixes were designed with constant water to binder ratio and with substitution of a part of the cement by CFBC fly ash (20%, 30% or 40% by weight). X-ray diffraction tests and thermal analysis (DTG, DTA and TG) were performed on cement paste specimens taken from concrete either stored in water at 18° C or subjected to aggressive freeze-thaw cyclic action. The evaluation of the phase composition as a function of CFBC fly ash content revealed significant changes in portlandite content and only slight changes in the content of ettringite. The cyclic freeze-thaw exposure did not have any significant influence on the phase composition of concrete with and without the CFBC fly ash.

Go to article


The paper deals with a multiple fault diagnosis of DC transistor circuits with limited accessible terminals for measurements. An algorithm for identifying faulty elements and evaluating their parameters is proposed. The method belongs to the category of simulation before test methods. The dictionary is generated on the basis of the families of characteristics expressing voltages at test nodes in terms of circuit parameters. To build the fault dictionary the n-dimensional surfaces are approximated by means of section-wise piecewise-linear functions (SPLF). The faulty parameters are identified using the patterns stored in the fault dictionary, the measured voltages at the test nodes and simple computations. The approach is described in detail for a double and triple fault diagnosis. Two numerical examples illustrate the proposed method.

Go to article


The course of design of an optocoupler's PSpice macromodel including noise sources is described. The PSpice macromodel is proposed for the low frequency range. The PSpice model of a MOSFET transistor was applied as the noise source type 1/fα in an optocoupler PSpice macromodel. In the enhanced macromodel the value of an exponent α can be changed in the range of 0.8-1.25.

Go to article


The results presented here are twofold. First, a heuristic algorithm is proposed which, through removing some unnecessary arcs from a digraph, tends to reduce it into an adjoint and thus simplifies the search for a Hamiltonian cycle. Second, a heuristic algorithm for DNA sequence assembly is proposed, which uses a graph model of the problem instance, and incorporates two independent procedures of reducing the set of arcs - one of them being the former algorithm. Finally, results of tests of the assembly algorithm on parts of chromosome arm 2R of Drosophila melanogaster are presented.

Go to article


The paper presents Gupta's relational decomposition technique expanded on linguistic level. It allows to reduce the hardware cost of the fuzzy system or the computing time of the final result, especially when referring to First Aggregation Then Inference (FATI) relational systems or First Inference Then Aggregation (FITA) rule systems. The inference result of the hierarchical system using decomposition technique is more fuzzy than of the classical system. The paper describes a linguistic decomposition technique based on partitioning the knowledge base of the fuzzy inference system. It allows to decrease or even totally remove a redundant fuzziness of the inference result.

Go to article

Editorial office


T. Kaczorek, Warsaw University of Technology

Deputy Editor-in Chief:

M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology
A. Rogalski, Division IV Technical Sciences PAN

Board of Co-editors:

Artificial and Computational Intelligence
S. Osowski and B. Sawicki, Warsaw University of Technology

BiomedicalEngineering and Biotechnology
A. Liebert and R. Maniewski, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN


Civil Engineering
L. Czarnecki, Building Research Institute, ITB, Warsaw

Control,Robotics and Informatics
J. Klamka and A. Babiarz, Silesian Technical University

A. Borkowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics
M. Mrozowski and A. Lamęcki, Gdansk University of Technology

W. Woliński, Warsaw University of Technology

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics
A. Styczek, and A. Tylikowski, Warsaw University of Technology

MaterialsScience and Nanotechnology
B. Major and P. Czaja, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAN
T.A. Kowalewski and B. Blachowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

PowerSystems and Power Electronics
M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

International Editorial Advisory Board

I.V. Alexandrov, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Russia
R. Asthana, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, USA
Xu Binshi, China Association of Plant Engineering, Beijing, P.R. China
F. Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark

C. Cecati, University of L’Aquila, Italy

A. Cichocki, RIKEN Institute, Tokyo, Japan

M. David, National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France
R. Ebner, Materials Centre Leoben, Leoben, Austria
E. Fornasini, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

L.G. Franquelo, University of Seville, Spain

M. Gad-el-Hak, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

D. van Gemert, Catholic University Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium

L. Keviczky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
V. Kučera, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

R. Kennel, Technical University Munich, Germany

E. Levi, Liverpool John Moore University, UK
G. Maier, Technical University of Milan, Milan, Italy

K.F. Man, City University of Hong Kong,
H.A. Mang
, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria
H. Mihashi, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan
S. Mindess, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
D.A. Mlynski, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
A.S. Nowak, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

K. Ohnishi, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan
A. Öberg, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

W. Pedrycz, University of Alberta, Canada
S. Przemieniecki, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA
M. Razeghi, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
J. Rodriguez, Technical University of Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso, Chile
J.V. Sloten, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

B.M. Wilamowski, University of Auburn, Alabama, USA
W. Włosiński, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
A.L. Yarin, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA

Du Xiangwan, Chinese Academy of Engineering, China
J. Żurada, Department of Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, USA


Editorial Office:
Pałac Kultury i Nauki,
Wydział IV PAN,
PL 00-901 Warszawa
tel.: +48(22) 182 60 45
Mrs Ewa Trojanowska

Instructions for authors

About the Journal

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form ( is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred:

• Artificial and Computational Intelligence,
• Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology,
• Civil Engineering,
• Control, Informatics and Robotics,
• Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics,
• Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics,
• Material Science and Nanotechnology,
• Power Systems and Power Electronics.


General data:


Format of the journal – A4 printed and electronic form,

Paper type – thick (chalk overlay) paper,

Colourfulness – full colour at an extra charge,

The volume of the journal – 250 pages (ca 30 papers) + 4 cover pages,

Frequency of publication – quarterly,

ISSN: 0239-7528 (print version),

ISSN: 2300-1917 (on line version),

DOI: 10.24425/bpasts




Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech.

ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci.,


Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS


Journal Metrics:


JCR Impact Factor 2018:                                                                 1.361

5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017:                                                 0.319
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017:                     1.005
CiteScore 2017:                                                                              1.27

The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017:      25 points

Manuscript types:

Invited reviews presenting the state of the knowledge and/or devoted to novel topics,
• Refereed research papers reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,
• Refereed papers in special issues/sections serving as conference proceedings arranged by guest editors.


Submission Policy


All manuscripts submitted for publication should be original. Manuscripts published or under consideration for publication elsewhere should not be submitted and will not be considered. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, a, nd that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher.


 Manuscript submission for review

The Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech is now employing a Web-based manuscript submission and peer-review tracking system called Editorial System. Authors must submit their manuscript electronically on the web From this entry page, access can be obtained to all information required for the submission of a manuscript. First‐time users must create an Author’s account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. All manuscripts receive individual identification codes that should be used in any correspondence with regard to the publication process. For the authors already registered in the Editorial System it is enough to enter their username and password to login as an author (Sign in). Author(s) will be notified about registration and manuscript review process by e-mail.
The manuscripts must be uploaded as a single PDF file.
If you experience difficulties with the manuscript submission website, please contact the Editorial Office of the Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech (Mrs Ewa Trojanowska: or Mrs Anna Jurkiewicz of authors and their affiliation should be removed from the manuscripts for the review process in order to have a fair evaluation of their manuscript. All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The Corresponding Author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process.

 Manuscript preparation

1. The manuscript should be written in clear and concise English (UK version).

2. For manuscript preparation please use the Word or LaTeX template available in the Information for Authors on

3. Please remember, that in the .pdf version of the manuscript uploaded in the Editorial System for evaluation process, author(s) name(s) and affiliation should be removed.

4. Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal for style if possible.

Manuscript decision and Proofs:

Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of four outcomes: Accept, Minor Revisions, Major Revisions, and Reject. Manuscripts requiring "Minor Revision" not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Major Revision" evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. Normally, manuscripts that receive a "Major Revision" decision have only one additional chance for revision and the revised version should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style.

Transfer of Copyright Agreement

Once the paper is initially accepted, the authors are assumed to have transferred the copyright of the paper to the publisher. Please fill the Form, available on the webpage

Sign it, and add to the final version of the manuscript as separate .pdf file.

Proofs will be sent to the author (first named author if no corresponding author is identified of multi-authored papers) and should be returned within48 hours of receipt.

Fees for printing the article

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors are invited so a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article. In addition, each color page will be charged an additional fee according to the current cost of printing. Otherwise, the paper will be printed in black-white.

More details see in Information for Authors:

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more