Nauki Techniczne

Chemical and Process Engineering


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2013 | No 2 June |


This article presents the results of scientific investigations on the thermal regeneration process of a sorbent of mineral origin sorbent using a retort burner. Diesel oil, a petroleum liquid, most often pervades the environment during different catastrophes. The investigated sorbent of mineral origin was used in the standard way that the Fire Service removes such petroleum liquids from the environment during disasters. For research purposes, a regeneration chamber with a retort burner was constructed. The first phase of the investigation was aimed at defining the physico-chemical features of the sorbent after subsequent cycles of the regeneration process. The second phase involved an analysis of the energy and ecological effects of the regeneration process. The results showed that the first three cycles of the regeneration process occurred under low emission conditions. The proposed regeneration method achieved a positive energetic effect with a functional heat stream with an average value of 12.4 kW (average efficiency of the regeneration chamber was 68 %). The method is very efficient, with regeneration rates between 7.2 kg/h and 8.4 kg/h. It requires only a short amount of time for the start-up and extinction of the regeneration chamber, and it is also flexible to changes in the process conditions.

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Whereas the use of biofuels has attracted increasing attention, the aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using sewage sludge as biofuel. Preparation of untreated and stabilised sludge with natural additives is described, as well as combusting method applied and experimental results of combusting are presented based on the assessment of composition of emitted pollutants and their concentrations in the exhaust gas. NOx formation in the exhaust gas has been analysed in depth. The results of investigations have shown that the use of dried sewage sludge possesses a positive energy balance. Therefore, the sludge may be used as fuel. The obtained experimental results demonstrate that during combustion, pollutant concentrations vary depending on oxygen content (O2), while formation of nitrogen oxides is strongly influenced by fuel-bound nitrogen. Also, a generalized equation of calculating fuel bound nitrogen conversion into NOx is presented.

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The aim of the paper is a comparative study of co-firing high shares of wooden and agro-biomass with hard coal under oxy-fuel and air conditions in the laboratory scale reactor for pulverised fuels. The investigations of co-combustion behaviour NOx and SO2 emission and burnout were carried out for selected blends. Detailed investigations were concentrated on determining the effect of dosing oxygen method into the burner on NOx emission. The paper presents the results of co-firing blends with 20 and 50% share of biomass by mass in air and oxy-combustion condition. Biomass oxy-cofiring integrated with CCS (CO2 capture) technology could be a carbon negative technology. The reduction of NOx emissions in the conditions of oxy-co-firing is dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the primary stream of oxidiser. A significant reduction of NOx was achieved in the case of low oxygen concentration in the primary stream for each investigated blends. Co-firing of biomass with coal in an oxygen enriched atmosphere enhances combustion behaviour, lowers fuel burnout and as a result increases of the boiler efficiency.

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This paper presents the results of research regarding measurements of the values of pressure drops during horizontal flow of gas-liquid and gas-liquid-liquid mixture through 180o pipe bends. The conducted insightful analysis and assessment during multi-phase flow in pipe bends has enabled to develop a new method for determination of their values. This new method for determining pressure drops ensures higher precision of calculation in comparison to other methods presented in literature and can be applied for calculation of these parameters during multi-phase flows in pipe bends with various geometries.

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The study presents the possible use of optoelectronic system for the measurement of values specific for hydrodynamics of two-phase gas very-high-viscosity liquid flow in vertical pipes. An experimental method was provided, and the findings were presented and analysed for selected values which characterise the two-phase flow.

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Scaling and corrosion associated with the use of natural hard water in cooling towers during recirculation pose great problems from both economical and technical points of view, such as decreased system efficiency and increased frequency of chemical cleaning. Treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. In this work, hybrid systems of salt precipitation (SP), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) were investigated, as potential pretreatment processes for wastewater reuse as cooling water in the planned Jordan nuclear power plants. The As-Samra wastewater was used to calculate the potential of carbonate and sulfate scale formation. The results were compared to scale potentials from Palo Verde wastewater. Four cases were investigated; SP, NF, SP-RO and NF-RO. The SP pretreatment cases showed the highest monovalent to divalent ratio because of a high removal of Ca and Mg and addition of Na from the chemicals of the SP step. The NF pretreatment cases, showed the lowest calcium sulfate scale potential and this potential decreases with the % pretreatment. The scale amount increases very slightly with concentration times when the SP and NF product is desalinated by RO step.

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The paper deals with numerical modelling of carbon dioxide capture by amine solvent from flue gases in post-combustion technology. A complex flow system including a countercurrent two-phase flow in a porous region, chemical reaction and heat transfer is considered to resolve CO2 absorption. In order to approach the hydrodynamics of the process a two-fluid Eulerian model was applied. At the present stage of model development only the first part of the cycle, i.e. CO2 absorption was included. A series of parametric simulations has shown that carbon dioxide capture efficiency is mostly influenced by the ratio of liquid (aqueous amine solution) to gas (flue gases) mass fluxes. Good consistency of numerical results with experimental data acquired at a small-scale laboratory CO2 capture installation (at the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze, Poland) has proved the reliability of the model.

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The article reports the results of measurements of the acoustic pressure of acoustic waves generated by acoustic dust cleaners mounted in the convection pass of the 670MWth Circulating Fluidised Bed boiler. Based on measurements carried out and the spectral analysis of recorded signals it was found that the level of acoustic pressure generated by acoustic cleaners for the frequency of 100 Hz was too low for the efficient cleaning of the heated surfaces of the reheater RH2 and superheater SH3.

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Knowledge of the fluid dynamic characteristics in a stirred vessel is essential for reliable design and scale-up of a mixing system. In this paper, 3D hydrodynamics in a vessel agitated by a Rushton turbine were numerically studied (with the help of a CFD computer program (CFX 13.0)). The study was carried out covering a wide Reynolds number range: 104 - 105. Computations, based on control volume method, were made using the k-ε model. Our main purpose was to investigate the effect of vessel configuration and agitation rates on the flow structure and power consumption. Three types of vessels were used: unbaffled, baffled and a vessel with slots placed at the external perimeter of its vertical wall. The effect of slot length has been investigated. The comparison of our predicted results with available experimental data shows a satisfactory agreement.

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Andrzej K. Biń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Board
Andrzej Burghardt (Chairman), Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Jerzy Bałdyga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Górak, T.U. Dortmund, Germany
Leon Gradoń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Jarzębski, Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Zdzisław Jaworski, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Władysław Kamiński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stefan Kowalski, Poznań University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Krasławski, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
Stanisław Ledakowicz, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Eugeniusz Molga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Alvin W. Nienow, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Andrzej Noworyta, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
Ryszard Pohorecki, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Stankiewicz, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Czesław Strumiłło, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stanisław Sieniutycz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Krzysztof Warmuziński, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Laurence R. Weatherley, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
Günter Wozny, T.U. Berlin, Germany
Ireneusz Zbiciński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland

Technical Editor
Barbara Zakrzewska, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Language Editor
Marek Stelmaszczyk, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland



Editorial Office
ul. Waryńskiego 1
00-645 Warszawa


Instrukcje dla autorów

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via Internet site and its subfolder Authors Pathway or e-mail address When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles, which is available on the page in section Instructions for Authors.   

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
  • the manuscript mirror in PDF format,
  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
          3. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in concise style in a separate chapter. Presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable.
          4. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript text according to the template provided on the page. Their graphical form should be of vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, separate files containing each of the drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded onto the journal Web site in one of the following formats: bmp, gif, tiff, jpg, eps. Due to rigid editorial reasons, graphical elements created within MS Word and Excel are not acceptable. The final length of figures should be intended typically for 8 cm (single column) or 16 cm in special cases of rich-detail figures. The basic font size of letters in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final length.  

          Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs should be in gray scale. In case of coloured graphs or photo an additional payment of 300 PLN (72 €) per 1 page containing coloured figures on both sides, or 150 PLN (36 €) per page containing coloured figures on one side will be required.

          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

        5. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate title and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.

        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations


The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at

Examples of citation for:

Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.


Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Andrzej K. Biń, email address:

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