Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering

Content

Chemical and Process Engineering | 2013 | No 3 September |

Abstract

The mathematical model of postproduction suspension concentration by microfiltration has been developed. This model describes a process conducted in a batch system with membrane washing by reverse flow of permeate. The model considerations concern filtration pseudocycles consisting of the filtration period and the membrane washing period. The balances of continuous phase volume, dispersed phase mass and energy, for each period of pseudocycle respectively, have been presented.

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Abstract

Electroflotation is used in the water treatment industry for the recovery of suspended particles. In this study the bubble formation and release of hydrogen bubbles generated electrolytically from a platinum cathode was investigated. Previously, it was found that both the growth rate and detachment diameter increased with increasing wire diameter. Conversely, current density had little effect on the released bubble size. It was also found that the detached bubbles rapidly increased in volume as they rose through the liquid as a result of decreasing hydrostatic pressure and high levels of dissolved hydrogen gas in the surrounding liquid. The experimental system was computationally modelled using a Lagrangian-Eulerian Discrete Particle approach. It was revealed that desorption of gaseous solutes from the electrolyte solution, other than hydrogen, may have a significant impact on the diameter variation of the formed bubbles. The simulation confirmed that liquid circulation, either forced or induced by the rising bubble plume, influences both the hydrogen supersaturation (concentration) in the neighbourhood of the electrode and the size of the resulting bubbles.

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Abstract

The paper presents results of coal behaviour during combustion in oxy-fuel atmosphere. The experiment was performed using 3 meter long Entrained Flow Reactor and 1 meter long Drop Tube Reactor. Three hard coals and two lignites were analysed in order to investigate NOx, SO2 emission and fly ash burnout. The measurements were performed along and at the outlet of a combustion chamber for one- and two - stage combustion. In the second stage of the experiment, kinetic parameters for nitrogen evolution during combustion in oxy - fuel and air were calculated and the division of nitrogen into the volatile matter and the char was measured. The conducted experiment showed that emissions in oxy - fuel are lower than those in air.

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Abstract

A numerical algorithm is presented for the filling process of a cylindrical column with equilateral cylinders. The process is based on simplified mechanics - the elements are added one by one until the mechanical equilibrium is reached. The final structure is examined with respect to the global and local porosity distribution. Oscillating radial porosity profile is obtained in accordance with experimental data.

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Abstract

A process capable of NOx control by ozone injection gained wide attention as a possible alternative to proven post combustion technologies such as selective catalytic (and non-catalytic) reduction. The purpose of the work was to develop a numerical model of NO oxidation with O3 that would be capable of providing guidelines for process optimisation during different design stages. A Computational Fluid Dynamics code was used to simulate turbulent reacting flow. In order to reduce computation expense a 11-step global NO - O3 reaction mechanism was implemented into the code. Model performance was verified by the experiment in a tubular flow reactor for two injection nozzle configurations and for two O3/NO ratios of molar fluxe. The objective of this work was to estimate the applicability of a simplified homogeneous reaction mechanism in reactive turbulent flow simulation. Quantitative conformity was not completely satisfying for all examined cases, but the final effect of NO oxidation was predicted correctly at the reactor outlet.

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Abstract

In this study, β-galactosidase enzyme from Kluyveromyces fragilis was immobilised on a commercial polyethersulfone membrane surface, 10 kDa cut-off. An integrated process, concerning the simultaneous hydrolysis-ultrafiltration of whey lactose was studied and working conditions have been fixed at 55°C and pH 6.9, the same conditions that are used for the industrial process of protein concentration. For the immobilisation, best results were obtained using 5% (v/v) of glutaraldehyde solution and 0.03 M galactose; the total activity recovery coefficient (TARC) was 44.2%. The amount of immobilised enzyme was 12.49 mg with a total activity of 86.3 LAU at 37°C, using 5% (w/v) lactose solution in phosphate buffer (100 mM pH 6.9).

The stability of the immobilised enzyme was approximately 585 fold higher in comparison with the stability of free enzyme. Multipoint covalent immobilisation improves the stability of the enzyme, thereby enhancing the decision to use the membrane as a filtering element and support for the enzyme immobilisation.

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Abstract

Binary vapour-liquid equilibrium of thymoquinone and carbon dioxide at the isothermal conditions was carried out at temperature 323.15 K and pressures from 6 to 10 MPa. The experimental data were fitted to the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. Results could be used for selection of process parameters in separation of volatiles from raw oil or for evaluation of existing separation technologies.

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Abstract

The paper presents the results of the mechanical, electrical, CCSEM and XRD measurements of hard coal, conducted in simulated conditions of sintering in atmospheres of O2/CO2,. The changes of the coal ash resistivity are correlated with the content of the oxides and with the sintering temperature determined by the mechanical test and Leitz method. The SEM-EDS analysis was conducted for deposits on the probe. The changes of the measured ash samples, observed during sintering process in O2/CO2 atmosphere, were discussed in the ash microstructure point of view.

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Abstract

In this study, the process of membrane cleaning by supercritical fluid extraction was investigated. Polypropylene microfiltration membranes, contaminated with oils, were treated in a batch process with a supercritical fluid (SCF). As extractant, pure supercritical carbon dioxide or supercritical carbon dioxide with admixtures of methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were used. Single-stage and multi-stage extraction was carried out and process efficiency was determined. The obtained results showed that addition of organic solvents significantly enhances the cleaning performance, which increases with increase of organic solvent concentration and decreases with increasing temperature. All three solvents showed a comparable effect of efficiency enhancement. The results confirmed that supercritical fluid extraction can be applied for polypropylene membrane cleaning.

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Abstract

Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were studied. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution mechanism in a spouted bed. Analyses included density, mercury porosimetry and adsorption. The remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by adsorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, heavy metals) through its bed. The differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej K. Biń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Board
Andrzej Burghardt (Chairman), Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Jerzy Bałdyga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Górak, T.U. Dortmund, Germany
Leon Gradoń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Jarzębski, Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Zdzisław Jaworski, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Władysław Kamiński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stefan Kowalski, Poznań University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Krasławski, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
Stanisław Ledakowicz, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Eugeniusz Molga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Alvin W. Nienow, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Andrzej Noworyta, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
Ryszard Pohorecki, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Stankiewicz, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Czesław Strumiłło, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stanisław Sieniutycz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Krzysztof Warmuziński, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Laurence R. Weatherley, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
Günter Wozny, T.U. Berlin, Germany
Ireneusz Zbiciński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland

Technical Editor
Barbara Zakrzewska, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Language Editor
Marek Stelmaszczyk, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland

 

Contact

Editorial Office
ul. Waryńskiego 1
00-645 Warszawa
Poland
email: andrzej.bin@outlook.com

 

Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via Internet site www.chpe.pl and its subfolder Authors Pathway or e-mail address andrzej.bin@outlook.com. When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles, which is available on the www.chpe.pl page in section Instructions for Authors.   

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
  • the manuscript mirror in PDF format,
  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
          3. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in concise style in a separate chapter. Presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable.
          4. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript text according to the template provided on the www.chpe.pl page. Their graphical form should be of vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, separate files containing each of the drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded onto the journal Web site in one of the following formats: bmp, gif, tiff, jpg, eps. Due to rigid editorial reasons, graphical elements created within MS Word and Excel are not acceptable. The final length of figures should be intended typically for 8 cm (single column) or 16 cm in special cases of rich-detail figures. The basic font size of letters in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final length.  

          Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs should be in gray scale. In case of coloured graphs or photo an additional payment of 300 PLN (72 €) per 1 page containing coloured figures on both sides, or 150 PLN (36 €) per page containing coloured figures on one side will be required.

          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

        5. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate title and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.

        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations

 

The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php.

Examples of citation for:

Articles
Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

Conferences
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

8. Payments

Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Andrzej K. Biń, email address: andrzej.bin@outlook.com.


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