Applied sciences

Geodesy and Cartography


Geodesy and Cartography | 2017 | vol. 66 | No 1 |


A parcel is the most important object of real estate cadastre. Its primary spatial attribute are boundaries, determining the extent of property rights. Capturing the data on boundaries should be performed in the way ensuring sufficiently high accuracy and reliability. In recent years, as part of the project “ZSIN – Construction of Integrated Real Estate Information System – Stage I”, in the territories of the participating districts, actions were taken aimed at the modernization of the register of land and buildings. In many cases, this process was carried out basing on photogrammetric materials. Applicable regulations allow such a possibility. This paper, basing on the documentation from the National Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation Center and on the authors’ own surveys attempts to assess the applicability of the photogrammetric method to capture data on the boundaries of cadastral parcels. The scope of the research, most importantly, included the problem of accuracy with which it was possible to determine the position of a boundary point using photogrammetric surveys carried out on the terrain model created from processed aerial photographs. The article demonstrates the manner of recording this information in the cadastral database, as well as the resulting legal consequences. Moreover, the level of reliability of the entered values of the selected attributes of boundary points was assessed.
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The processing of cartographic data demands human involvement. Up-to-date algorithms try to automate a part of this process. The goal is to obtain a digital model, or additional information about shape and topology of input geometric objects. A topological skeleton is one of the most important tools in the branch of science called shape analysis. It represents topological and geometrical characteristics of input data. Its plot depends on using algorithms such as medial axis, skeletonization, erosion, thinning, area collapse and many others. Area collapse, also known as dimension change, replaces input data with lower-dimensional geometric objects like, for example, a polygon with a polygonal chain, a line segment with a point. The goal of this paper is to introduce a new algorithm for the automatic calculation of polygonal chains representing a 2D polygon. The output is entirely contained within the area of the input polygon, and it has a linear plot without branches. The computational process is automatic and repeatable. The requirements of input data are discussed. The author analyzes results based on the method of computing ends of output polygonal chains. Additional methods to improve results are explored. The algorithm was tested on real-world cartographic data received from BDOT/GESUT databases, and on point clouds from laser scanning. An implementation for computing hatching of embankment is described.
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In the following paper, geovisualisation will be applied to one spatial phenomenon and understood as a process of creating complementary visualisations: static two-dimensional, surface three-dimensional, and interactive. The central challenge that the researchers faced was to find a method of presenting the phenomenon in a multi- faceted way. The main objective of the four-stage study was to show the capacity of the contemporary software for presenting geographical space from various perspectives while maintaining the standards of cartographic presentation and making sure that the form remains attractive for the user. The correctness, effectiveness, and usefulness of the proposed approach was analysed on the basis of a geovisualisation of natural aggregate extraction in the Gniezno district in the years 2005–2015. For each of the three visualisations, the researchers planned a different range of information, different forms of graphic and cartographic presentation, different use and function, but as far as possible the same accessible databases and the same free technologies. On the basis of the final publication, the researchers pointed out the advantages of the proposed work flow and the correctness of the detailed flowchart.
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The base map provides basic information about land to individuals, companies, developers, design engineers, organizations, and government agencies. Its contents include spatial location data for control network points, buildings, land lots, infrastructure facilities, and topographic features. As the primary map of the country, it must be developed in accordance with specific laws and regulations and be continuously updated. The base map is a data source used for the development and updating of derivative maps and other large scale cartographic materials such as thematic or topographic maps. Thanks to the advancement of science and technology, the quality of land surveys carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) matches that of traditional surveying methods in many respects. This paper discusses the potential application of output data from laser scanners (point clouds) to the development and updating of cartographic materials, taking Poland’s base map as an example. A few research sites were chosen to present the method and the process of conducting a TLS land survey: a fragment of a residential area, a street, the surroundings of buildings, and an undeveloped area. The entire map that was drawn as a result of the survey was checked by comparing it to a map obtained from PODGiK (pol. Powiatowy Ośrodek Dokumentacji Geodezyjnej i Kartograficznej – Regional Centre for Geodetic and Cartographic Records) and by conducting a field inspection. An accuracy and quality analysis of the conducted fieldwork and deskwork yielded very good results, which provide solid grounds for predicating that cartographic materials based on a TLS point cloud are a reliable source of information about land. The contents of the map that had been created with the use of the obtained point cloud were very accurately located in space (x, y, z). The conducted accuracy analysis and the inspection of the performed works showed that high quality is characteristic of TLS surveys. The accuracy of determining the location of the various map contents has been estimated at 0.02-0.03 m. The map was developed in conformity with the applicable laws and regulations as well as with best practice requirements.
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Time series of weekly and daily solutions for coordinates of permanent GNSS stations may indicate local deformations in Earth’s crust or local seasonal changes in the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The errors of the determined changes are relatively large, frequently at the level of the signal. Satellite radar interferometry and especially Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a method of a very high accuracy. Its weakness is a relative nature of measurements as well as accumulation of errors which may occur in the case of PSI processing of large areas. It is thus beneficial to confront the results of PSI measurements with those from other techniques, such as GNSS and precise levelling. PSI and GNSS results were jointly processed recreating the history of surface deformation of the area of Warsaw metropolitan with the use of radar images from Envisat and Cosmo- SkyMed satellites. GNSS data from Borowa Gora and Jozefoslaw observatories as well as from WAT1 and CBKA permanent GNSS stations were used to validate the obtained results. Observations from 2000–2015 were processed with the Bernese v.5.0 software. Relative height changes between the GNSS stations were determined from GNSS data and relative height changes between the persistent scatterers located on the objects with GNSS stations were determined from the interferometric results. The consistency of results of the two methods was 3 to 4 times better than the theoretical accuracy of each. The joint use of both methods allows to extract a very small height change below the level of measurement error.
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Unmanned aerial vehicles are increasingly being used in close range photogrammetry. Real-time observation of the Earth’s surface and the photogrammetric images obtained are used as material for surveying and environmental inventory. The following study was conducted on a small area (approximately 1 ha). In such cases, the classical method of topographic mapping is not accurate enough. The geodetic method of topographic surveying, on the other hand, is an overly precise measurement technique for the purpose of inventorying the natural environment components. The author of the following study has proposed using the unmanned aerial vehicle technology and tying in the obtained images to the control point network established with the aid of GNSS technology. Georeferencing the acquired images and using them to create a photogrammetric model of the studied area enabled the researcher to perform calculations, which yielded a total root mean square error below 9 cm. The performed comparison of the real lengths of the vectors connecting the control points and their lengths calculated on the basis of the photogrammetric model made it possible to fully confirm the RMSE calculated and prove the usefulness of the UAV technology in observing terrain components for the purpose of environmental inventory. Such environmental components include, among others, elements of road infrastructure, green areas, but also changes in the location of moving pedestrians and vehicles, as well as other changes in the natural environment that are not registered on classical base maps or topographic maps.
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The objective of the paper was the hydrological analysis, in terms of categorizing main watercourses (based on coupled catchments) and marking areas covered by potential impact of the occurrence and activities of the European beaver Castor fi ber . At the analysed area – the Forest District Głogów Małopolski there is a population of about 200 beavers in that Forest District. Damage inflicted by beavers was detected on 33.0 ha of the Forest District, while in the area of 13.9 ha the damage was small (below 10%). The monitoring of the beavers’ behaviour and the analysis of their influence on hydrology of the area became an important element of using geoinformationtools in the management of forest areas. ArcHydro ArcGIS Esri module was applied, as an integrated set of tools for hydrographical analysis and modelling. Further steps of the procedure are hydrologic analyses such as: marking river networks on the DTM, filling holes, making maps of the flow direction, making the map of the accumulation flow, defining and segmentation of streams, marking elementary basins, marking coupled basins, making dams in the places, where beavers occur and localization of the area with a visible impact of damming. The result of the study includes maps prepared for the Forest District: the map of main rivers and their basins, categories of watercourses and compartments particularly threatened by beaver’s foraging.
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MP estimation is a method which concerns estimating of the location parameters when the probabilistic models of observations differ from the normal distributions in the kurtosis or asymmetry. The system of Pearson’s distributions is the probabilistic basis for the method. So far, such a method was applied and analyzed mostly for leptokurtic or mesokurtic distributions (Pearson’s distributions of types IV or VII), which predominate practical cases. The analyses of geodetic or astronomical observations show that we may also deal with sets which have moderate asymmetry or small negative excess kurtosis. Asymmetry might result from the influence of many small systematic errors, which were not eliminated during preprocessing of data. The excess kurtosis can be related with bigger or smaller (in relations to the Hagen hypothesis) frequency of occurrence of the elementary errors which are close to zero. Considering that fact, this paper focuses on the estimation with application of the Pearson platykurtic distributions of types I or II. The paper presents the solution of the corresponding optimization problem and its basic properties. Although platykurtic distributions are rare in practice, it was an interesting issue to find out what results can be provided by MP estimation in the case of such observation distributions. The numerical tests which are presented in the paper are rather limited; however, they allow us to draw some general conclusions.
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The TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement ( TanDEM-X) mission launched in 2010 is another programme – after the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000 – that uses space-borne radar interferometry to build a global digital surface model. This article presents the accuracy assessment of the TanDEM-X intermediate Digital Elevation Model (IDEM) provided by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) under the project “Accuracy assessment of a Digital Elevation Model based on TanDEM-X data” for the southwestern territory of Poland. The study area included: open terrain, urban terrain and forested terrain. Based on a set of 17,498 reference points acquired by airborne laser scanning, the mean errors of average heights and standard deviations were calculated for areas with a terrain slope below 2 degrees, between 2 and 6 degrees and above 6 degrees. The absolute accuracy of the IDEM data for the analysed area, expressed as a root mean square error (Total RMSE), was 0.77 m.
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Editorial office

Elżbieta Bielecka, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland

Editorial Advisory Board
Aleksandra Bujakiewicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Beata Medynska-Gulij, Adam Mickiewicz University (UAM), Poland
Edward Osada, University of Lower Silesia, Poland
Jan Krynski, Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (IGiK), Poland
Jerzy Rogowski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Zbigniew Wisniewski, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (UWM), Poland
Josef Adam, University of Technology and Economics, Hungary
Adam Chrzanowski, University of New Brunswick, Canada
Dorota Grejner-Brzezińska, The Ohio State University, USA
Jaakko Makinen, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Finland
Helmut Moritz, Graz University of Technology, Austria
Heinz Ruther, University of Cape Town, RSA
Michael Sideris, University of Calgary, Canada
Gabriel Strykowski, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Jaroslaw S. Yatskiv, Main Astronomical Observatory, Ukraine

Pawel Kamiński, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland

Technical Editors
Karolina Krawczyk, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland
Krzysztof Bielecki, Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy (WAT WIG), Poland



Elżbieta Bielecka

Instructions for authors

GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY is a semiannually journal publishing peer-reviewed articles with original solutions of theoretical, experimental or applicable problems in the field of geodesy, surveying engineering, cartography, photogrammetry and related disciplines. Besides original research papers, the journal includes commissioned review papers on topical subjects and special issues arising from chosen scientific symposia or workshops.
Legal requirements
The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners, that the rights of the third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Manuscript submission
Submission of the manuscript implies: that the work has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as a part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.
Articles should be submitted on line
In case the manuscript has more than one author its submission should include the list specifying contribution of each author to the manuscript with indicating who is the author of the concept, assumptions, research methodology, data processing. Major responsibility is of the author submitting the manuscript.
The Editor will counteract in GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY against Ghostwriting, i.e. when someone substantially contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but has neither been included to the list of authors nor his role is mentioned in the acknowledgements as well as Ghost authorship, i.e. when the author/co-author did not contribute to the manuscript or his contribution is negligible. Any detected case of Ghostwriting and Ghost authorship will be exposed and the appropriate subjects, i.e. employers, scientific organisations, associations of editors etc, will be informed.
Electronic submission of a manuscript
Use the template to format your paper.

Layout guidelines:- use a normal, plain Times Roman font for text, italics for textual emphasis, bold for mathematical vectors,
- use the table functions of your word processing program, not spreadsheets, to make tables,
- use the equation editor of your word processing program for equations,
- place all figures with figure legends and tables with table legends in the manuscript,
- submit also all figures as separate files.
Data format:
Save your manuscript in RTF or DOC Microsoft Word for Windows format.
Figures should be provided in the vector graphics or JPG or TIF (specifically for halftone illustrations) formats will be accepted. The filename should include the figure number. Figure legends should be included in the text and not in the figure file. Scanned line drawings should be digitised with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi relative to the final figure size. For digital halftones, 300 dpi is usually sufficient. Non-standard fonts used in the vector graphics must be included. Please do not draw with hairlines. The minimum line width is 0.2 mm (0.567 pt) relative to the final size.
Manuscript preparation
Manuscripts should be typed in single-line spacing throughout on the A4 sheet with 2.5 cm margins .
1. Title page:
- a concise and informative title
- the name(s) of the author(s)
- the name(s) and address(es) of the affiliation(s) of the author(s)
- the e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the communicating author
2. Abstract: the paper must be preceded by a sufficiently informative abstract presenting the most important results and conclusions.
3. Keywords: three to five keywords should be supplied.
4. Introduction: should state the purpose of the investigation and give a short review of the pertinent literature.
5. Main text: including method and input data (working details must be given concisely; well-known operations should not be described in detail); results presented in tabular or graph form, with appropriate statistical evaluation, discussion of results - statement of conclusions drawn from the work, conclusions.
6. Acknowledgements: should be brief and consist of grant or individuals that require acknowledgement.
The names of funding organizations or institutions providing data should be given in full.
7. References: the list of references should be in alphabetical order and should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications could only be mentioned in the text. References should consist of the complete list of authors and should be given in the following form:
In the text, references should be cited by author(s) last name and year: e.g. (Beutler, 2003a), (Featherstone and Kirby, 2000), (Schwarz et al., 1990), (Sjöberg et al., 2000; Strykowski, 2001b; 2002).
8. Formulae and symbols: must be written legibly and will be typeset in italics. One-layer indexing is preferable. Numbering of formulae, if necessary should be given in brackets fitted to the right margin.
9. Footnotes: to the text should be numbered consecutively and placed on the bottom of the page to which they refer. Footnotes to the tables should be indicated by superscript lowercase letters.
10. Illustrations and tables: all figures (photographs, graphs or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text and each numbered consecutively throughout. Lowercase roman letters should identify figure parts. Figure legends must be brief and must contain self-sufficient explanations of the illustrations. Each table should have a title and a legend explaining any abbreviation used in that table.
11. Units: SI units must be used.
12. Running head: consisting of at most 60 characters a concise banner representing the title of the article must be submitted by the author(s).
Proofreading is the responsibility of the author. Corrections should be clear; standard correction marks should be used. Corrections that lead to a change in the page layout should be avoided. The author is entitled to formal corrections only. Substantial changes in content, e.g. new results, corrected values, title and authorship are not allowed without the approval of the editor. In such case please contact the Editor-in-chief before returning the proofs.
References formatting
a. Journal Article (one author)
Nikora, V. (2006). Hydrodynamics of aquatic ecosystems: spatial-averaging perspective. Acta Geophysica, 55(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-006-0043-6.
b. Journal Article (two or more authors)
Cudak, M. and Karcz J. (2006). Momentum transfer in an agitated vessel with off-centred impellers. Chem. Pap. 60(5), 375-380. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-006-0068-y.
c. Journal article from an online database
Czajgucki Z., Zimecki M. & Andruszkiewicz R. (2006, December). The immunoregulatory effects of edeine analogues in mice [Abstract]. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12(3), 149-161. Retrieved December 6.
d. Book (one author)
Baxter, R. (1982). Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Academic Press.
e. Book (two or more authors)
Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. and Tansey R.G. (2001). Gardner’s art through the ages (11th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Harcourt College Publishers.
f. Book chapter or article in an edited book
Roll, W.P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley and H.L. Edge (Eds.), Philosophical dimensions of parapsychology (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press.
g. Proceedings from a conference
Field, G. (2001). Rethinking reference rethought. In Revelling in Reference: Reference and Information Services Section Symposium, 12-14 October 2001 (pp. 59-64). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Library and Information Association.
h. ebook
Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink DOI: 10.1007/b138965.
i. Report
Osgood, D. W., and Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS).
j. Government publication
Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. (1997). The national drug strategy: Mapping the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

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