Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | Journal of Plant Protection Research | Journal of Plant Protection Research | Journal of Plant Protection Research |

Abstract

The rules and guidelines for integrated pest management specified in Annex III, sections 2

and 3, state “General principles of integrated pest management”: Harmful organisms must

be monitored by adequate methods and tools, where available. Such adequate tools should

include observations in the field as well as scientifically sound warnings, forecasting and

early diagnostic systems, where feasible, as well as advice from professionally qualified advisors.

As part of Multiannual Programs, the Institute of Plant Protection – NRI in Poznań

has been carrying out work and research for many years to develop or modify guidelines for

monitoring short- and long-term forecasting of pest occurrence on crops. These guidelines

are extremely helpful for farmers and advisers in determining the optimum date of chemical

control of pests on plants. Regularly revised and improved the guidelines deal with pests

which currently pose a threat to crops. They are developed according to the latest scientific

findings and are successfully promoted among professional users and agricultural advisors.

These guidelines are standardized to include descriptions of species, life cycles, symptoms

of damage/infestation of crops, methods of observation targeted at warning of the need

for plant protection treatments, and threshold values of harmfulness. All guidelines include

extensive photographic material. Guidelines for the monitoring of pests on orchard

plants, vegetables and others are prepared at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation

− NRI in Puławy and the Institute of Pomology in Skierniewice. Guidelines for about

80 pests of crops are available for public use in the on-line Pest Warning System (Platforma

Sygnalizacji Agrofagów, www.agrofagi.com.pl).

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Abstract

Morocco is basically an agricultural country; almost 40% of the workforce is employed in

this sector. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-inhabiting pathogen which can infect more than

300 plant species, although most host species are symptomless. Until relatively recently,

X. fastidiosa was primarily limited to North and South America, but in 2013 a widespread

epidemic of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in

southeastern Italy, and later several cases of X. fastidiosa outbreaks have been reported

in other European countries (France, Germany and Spain). Following these recently confirmed

findings of X. fastidiosa in the European Union, this bacterium has become a serious

threat to the Moroccan flora. The national phytosanitary authorities have adopted several

measures to prevent the introduction of X. fastidiosa into the national territory by deciding,

inter alia, to suspend importation of host plant species to the bacterium from infected

areas. This paper presents the phytosanitary risk of this bacterium in Morocco.

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Abstract

Barley phylloplane is seriously colonized by Drechslera graminea, the causal agent of leaf

stripe disease in the hos. The present study involved the elucidation of alterations induced

in the protein content of the host due to Drechslera infection. Naturally growing barley

plants were obtained from fields and Drechslera graminea was isolated and identified from

diseased plants’ leaves. After identification and preparation of the pure culture, the pathogen

was inoculated on plants grown under aseptic and controlled laboratory conditions.

Changes in the total soluble cytoplasmic proteins and defense enzymes of the host such

as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), phenylalanine lyase (PAL) and tyrosine

ammonia lyase (TAL) were observed up to 5 h after inoculation. The results demonstrated

a significant effect of the pathogen on the cytoplasmic protein expression of the host as well

as in its defense system.

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Abstract

Ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, is a serious disease of common and

narrow-leaved ash in Europe. The resistance of individual trees seems to be important for

the maintenance of ash in European forests. In this in situ wound inoculation study, the

susceptibility and differences in resistance to H. fraxineus between Fraxinus excelsior and

F. angustifolia clones were assessed. Neither of the tested clones revealed total resistance

to ash dieback; variety between the tested clones was observed. Differences in necroses

lengths were significant between clones and between two ash species. Longer necroses were

formed in F. angustifolia than in F. excelsior. Some clones exhibiting some resistance to the

pathogen were identified.

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Abstract

This study was executed to investigate the potential of agar-agar, a nontoxic and non-degradable

gelling agent, as a promising coating agent to improve and protect banana fruit

against fungal postharvest diseases i.e., crown, finger, neck and flower end rots which are

caused by fungal isolates of Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium moniliforme. Coated-ba-nana

fruit samples with different concentrations of agar-agar suspension particularly at

2.0 g · l−1 exhibited a significant reduction in incidence and severity of postharvest diseases

compared to untreated fruit. Banana fruits dipped in agar suspension at 2.0 g · l−1 for 5, 10

and 15 min showed significant reduction in disease incidence and severity. Moreover,

application of agar suspension as a coating agent at 2.0 g · l−1 significantly decreased

weight loss (%), firmness loss (%), and soluble solid concentration of banana fruit for

15 days at 25 ± 2°C. Scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed that the fruit

coated with agar colloid at 2.0 g · l−1 had significantly fewer cracks and showed smoother

surfaces than untreated fruit. This explains the quality improvement in agar-coated fruit

compared to uncoated fruit. Overall, agar colloid, a safe coating agent, could be used to

protect banana fruit against postharvest rot diseases and extend fruit storage life during

ripening and storage.

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Abstract

This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate on physiological parameters of a common ornamental plant Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta). The herbicide was applied in the following doses: 720 g ⋅ ha–1 (standard field dose), 144 g ⋅ ha–1, 28.8 g ⋅ ha–1, and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1, in the form of a spraying treatment of plants in a specialist spraying chamber. The net assimilation rate and leaf greenness index were then determined. Herbicide application in the sublethal doses, i.e. below 720 g ⋅ ha–1, caused disorders in both analyzed physiological parameters of plants. The glyphosate dose of 144 g ⋅ ha–1 elicited transient disorders in the leaf greenness index. In turn, the use of the lower doses (28.8 g ⋅ ha–1 and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1) caused a short-term increase in the net photosynthesis rate in the plants which was accompanied by a decreased value of the leaf greenness index. Study results demonstrated the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate as a stress factor in parameters associated with the process of photosynthesis in plants.

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Abstract

Early blight disease caused by Alternaria sp. is one of the most devastating diseases of

Solanaceous crops widely distributed in Sudan. The aim of this study was to determine the

genetic variation among different Alternaria isolates recovered from different Solanaceae

crops showing typical symptoms of early blight disease. Infected leaves of tomato, potato,

eggplant and pepper were collected from different geographical zones in Sudan. The recovered

fungal isolates were identified to the genus level based on cultural and morphological

characteristics. Five representative isolates were sent to the CABI Bioscience, U.K. for confirmation.

The genetic relationship among the isolates was determined using the amplified

fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) technique and the generated data were used to

create similarity matrices using the PAST 3.01 software package. Dendrograms were constructed

based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficients. A total of 70 fungal isolates was recovered

from the tested plants and all of them showed morphological characteristics typical

of Alternaria spp. The conidia appeared in multiple-branched chains with spore sizes in

the range of 2.38−13.09 μm × 12.30−43.63 μm. Therefore, the isolates were identified as

Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl. The identification was then confirmed by CABI.AFLPbased

dendrogram which revealed five clusters with a significant cophenetic correlation

coefficient (r = 0.834) between the dendrogram and the original similarity matrix irrespective

of their geographical origins. Eighteen (75%) of the Alternaria isolated from tomato

leaves were clustered together in cluster I and five isolates formed two separate clusters,

viz. cluster IV (T-Kh5 and T-H1) and cluster V (T-H4 and T-Med2). The remaining isolate,

T-Am5, grouped with one of the potato isolates in cluster III. The other isolates which were

recovered from potato, pepper and eggplants were all separated from the tomato isolates

in the largest cluster.

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Abstract

Aphids are one of the most important economic pests and vectors of viral diseases in crops. Brevicoryne brassicae L., one of the most serious aphid pests in Brassicaceae, if not controlled, often reaches very high densities. The present study compared the systemic effects of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous Melia azedarach L., Peganum harmala L., Calendula officinalis L. and Otostegia persica Boissier extracts with two systemic pesticides, acetamiprid and pirimicarb (at the maximum label-recommended rate). Population growth percentages of B. brassicae through leaf spraying under greenhouse conditions were assessed. The chemicals were sprayed on one of the leaves in greenhouse condition. The results indicated that all the plant extracts have systemic effects at different levels. Among different extracts, O. persica ethanolic extract, P. harmala methanolic extract and M. azedarach aqueous extract resulted in a reduction of the B. brassicae population.

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Abstract

Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting many plants but Mentha viridis L., and Mentha piperita L., were low in number of infestation. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the resistance of M. viridis and M. piperita plants against T. urticae by studying the external shape and internal contents of those plants. For morphological studies, dried leaves were covered with gold utilizing an Edwards Scan coat six sputter-coater. For histological studies, arrangements of Soft Tissue technique were used. For phytochemical studies, the plants were cut, dried and then high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. While feeding the mites were collected from the area between oily glands, trichomes and respiratory stomata in both mint species. The most important leaf structures in aromatic plants are the oily glands found on the external part of the leaves (both upper and lower epidermis). The number of oil glands in M. viridis leaves was greater than in M. piperita; the trichomes on the epidermis of M. viridis were greater in number than in M. piperita; the spongy mesophyll in M. viridis was much thicker than in M. piperita. The essential oils in the leaves of both mint species contained 71 compounds representing 99.61% of the total oil constituents identified from M. viridis before infestation, and 90.95% after infestation, and about 99.65% from M. piperita before infestation, and 99.98% after infestation.

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Abstract

The use of suitable mass rearing methods is crucial to establish successful inundative or

inoculative biological control programs. The development of an artificial diet considerably

reduces costs of mass rearing. In this study, the efficacy of a new meridic artificial

diet for rearing the predatory bug, Orius albidipennis (Het., Anthocoridae), was studied.

The artificial diet was composed of some natural materials including lamb liver, hen yolk,

whey protein, honey, royal jelly and some specific vitamins. To determine the artificial diet

efficacy life table parameters of the bugs, using the two-sex life table method, fed artificial

and factitious diets, Ephestia kuehniella egg + date palm pollen, were compared. Results

showed that O. albidipennis could complete its life stages and reproduce when reared on the

recommended artificial diet. However, its fecundity and survival rate when fed the artificial

diet was lower than the controls. Overall, due to lower production costs the artificial diet

can be recommended for mass rearing of O. albidipennis despite the lower fecundity and

survival rate.

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Abstract

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate (H1) and fluazifop- -P-butyl (H2) herbicides with adjuvants on the common reed without cutting and at two different cutting levels (10 and 30 cm). The adjuvants were urea, nitric acid and sulfonic acid. The relative importance value (RIV), leaf chlorophyll content and plant density were determined to assay the efficacy of herbicides. Glyphosate treatment only (H1a) was more effective than fluazifop-P-butyl (H2a) on reeds without cutting and at the 10 cm cutting level. However, no significant difference was observed between them at the 30 cm cutting level. A positive effect of plant cutting occurred on the efficacy of all herbicides applied alone or in a tank mix with adjuvants. Furthermore, the 10 cm cutting level was more effective in eradication of reeds than the 30 cm cutting level. The adjuvants significantly improved the efficacy of the recommended (Hb) and half recommended (Hc) herbicide rates in comparison to being used alone on uncut reeds. The reduction percentages were 94.5, 86.99, 76.61 and 69.94 for H1b, H1c, H2b and H2c treatments, respectively. However, the adjuvants did not improve the glyphosate effect at different levels of cutting. Conversely the reduction percentage of reeds was improved by the recommended rate of fluazifop-P-butyl with adjuvants (H2b) to 92.77% and 84.62% at 10 and 30 cm cutting levels, respectively.
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Abstract

Toxicity and physiological alterations were determined in Pseudococcus viburni nymphs treated with Artemisia annua methanolic extract. The leaf dipping bioassay showed LC50 values of 0.287% and 0.194% 24 and 48 hours post-exposure. Activities of general esterases were significantly higher in the control nymphs than in those which had been treated except for the 48 h time interval using α-naphtyl acetate. The activity of glutathione S-transferase using CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) in the control nymphs, was significantly higher than in the control at both time intervals while no significant difference was observed after 24 h in addition to the higher enzymatic activity in the treated nymphs after 48 h. All three aminotransferases were significantly more active in the control nymphs except for time intervals of 24 h for γ-glutamyl transferase and 48 h for alanine aminotransferase. Higher activities of lactate dehydrogenase, acid- and alkaline phosphatase were found in the control nymphs than in treated nymphs for all time intervals. Activities of the enzymes involved in the antioxidant system including catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was increased in the treated nymphs compared to the control. Results of the current study demonstrated toxic effects of A. annua methanolic extract on P. viburni nymphs causing mortality and physiological turbulences.

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Abstract

The increased cultivation of highbush blueberry in Poland has been paralleled with enhanced

damage to this crop by different pests and diseases, including soft scales. We have

carried out trials to assess methods for controlling soft scales of the genus Parthenolecanium

in highbush blueberry grown in open fields or under a plastic tunnel, with an approach

based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. The reduction of Lecanium

scale population using alternative products, with mechanical mechanisms of action, was

similar to that achieved with treatments of different formulations of neonicotinyl-based

pesticides; sometimes they were even more effective on protected crops. Control programs

on plantations with a large population of Lecanium scales based on the application of these

alternative products in spring and at harvest time and chemical compounds in autumn resulted

in a very high efficacy and are considered the most suitable strategies to assure yields

without residues and a reduced impact on the environment.

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Abstract

In this study, the effect of six commercial biocontrol strains, Bacillus pumilus INR7, B. megaterium P2, B. subtilis GB03, B. subtilis S, B. subtilis AS and B. subtilis BS and four indigenous strains Achromobacter sp. B124, Pseudomonas geniculate B19, Serratia marcescens B29 and B. simplex B21 and two plant defense inducers, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) were assessed on suppression of wheat take-all disease. Treatments were applied either as soil drench or sprayed on shoots. In the soil drench method, the highest disease suppression was achieved in treatment with strains INR7, GB03, B19 and AS along with two chemical inducers. Bacillus subtilis S, as the worst treatment, suppressed take-all severity up to 56%. Both chemical inducers and bacterial strains AS and P2 exhibited the highest effect on suppression of take-all disease in the shoot spray method. Bacillus subtilis S suppressed the disease severity up to 49% and was again the worst strain. The efficacy of strains GB03 and B19 decreased significantly in the shoot spray method compared to the soil drench application method. Our results showed that most treatments had the same effect on take-all disease when they were applied as soil drench or sprayed on aerial parts. This means that induction of plant defense was the main mechanism in suppressing take-all disease by the given rhizobacteria. It also revealed that plant growth was reduced when it was treated with chemical inducers. In contrast, rhizobacteria not only suppressed the disease, but also increased plant growth.

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Abstract

Several species of Solanum produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity. In

the present study, the inhibitory activity of Solanum chrysotrichum, S. erianthum, S. torvum

and S. rostratum against phytopathogenic Curvularia lunata was determined. Methanol extracts

from roots, stems, leaves and fruits were evaluated by the method of mycelial inhibition

on agar and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on a liquid

medium. To increase the antimicrobial activity, the combined activity of the most active

extracts for each phytopathogen was also determined (a combination of intra and interspecies

extracts). The results showed that 12 of the 16 methanolic extracts of Solanum species

had antifungal effects against C. lunata. The extracts of S. rostratum and S. erianthum

developed the highest activity (~80% inhibition and 28.4 MIC μg . ml–1), even, equal to or

greater than, the reference fungicide. The mixture of the active extracts of S. chrysotrichum

and S. torvum increased their activity. Various extracts affected the macro and microscopic

morphology and most of them reduced the number of conidia of the fungus. This resulted

in the capacity to control the vegetative growth and reproduction of C. lunata, the causal

fungus of corn leaf spot disease.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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