Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2020 | vol. 60 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Weeds are one of the most important limiting factors in the production of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in Iran, especially in autumn sown chickpea. Weed density and biomass in autumn chickpea are seven and two and a half times higher than the spring chickpea, respectively. The weed damage to chickpea in Tabriz, Kermanshah and West Azerbaijan was estimated at 48.3, 57 and 36%, respectively. Sixty-four weed species were identified in chickpea fields. Convolvulus arvensis L. and Galium tricornutum Dandy have the highest presence in chickpea fields. Pyridate and linuron are the only herbicides registered for use in chickpea fields in Iran. However, research results show that fomesafen and isoxaflutole are the most appropriate herbicides for chickpea fields. Oxyfluorfen, imazethapyr, metribuzin, trifluralin, simazine, terbutryn and pendimethalin are the major herbicides studied in weed control research. The combination of herbicides and mechanical control is one of the effective methods to reduce weeds. Hand weeding and cultivation between rows are the most effective mechanical methods of weed control. High nitrogen enhances weed dry weight. Safflower and barley residues reduce weed populations and biomass. Barley-chickpea and wheat-chickpea intercropping systems increase chickpea yield together with proper weed control. In future research, more attention should be paid to surfactants to reduce the use of herbicides, rotation crops and integrated weed management in chickpea.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mozhgan Veisi
Eskandar Zand
Mehdi Minbashi Moeini
Kambiz Bassiri
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Abstract

Bread wheat is a major food crop on a global scale. Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become one of the largest biotic stresses and limitations for wheat production in the 21st century. Post 2000 races of the pathogen are more virulent and able to overcome the defense of previously resistant cultivars. Despite the availability of effective fungicides, genetic resistance is the most economical, effective, and environmentally friendly way to control the disease. There are two major types of resistance to stripe rust: all-stage seedling resistance (ASR) and adult-plant resistance (APR). Although both resistance types have negative and positive attributes, ASR generally is race-specific and frequently is defeated by new races, while APR has been shown to be race non-specific and durable over time. Finding genes with high levels of APR has been a major goal for wheat improvement over the past few decades. Recent advancements in molecular mapping and sequencing technologies provide a valuable framework for the discovery and validation of new sources of resistance. Here we report the discovery of a precise molecular marker for a highly durable type of APR – high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance locus in the wheat cultivar Louise. Using a Louise × Penawawa mapping population, coupled with data from survey sequences of the wheat genome, linkage mapping, and synteny analysis techniques, we developed an amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker LPHTAP2B on the short arm of wheat chromosome 2B, which cosegregates with the resistant phenotype. LPHTAP2B accounted for 62 and 58% of phenotypic variance of disease severity and infection type data, respectively. Although cloning of the LPHTAP2B region is needed to further understand its role in durable resistance, this marker will greatly facilitate incorporation of the HTAP gene into new wheat cultivars with durable resistance to stripe rust.

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Authors and Affiliations

Taras Nazarov
Xianming Chen
Arron Carter
Deven See
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Abstract

This study describes a newly developed index for predicting and forecasting the first (and potentially subsequent) timing of fungicide application against late blight in potato crops based on weather variables measured close to the crop. Inputs for index calculation were the following: daily minimum temperature, mean relative air humidity and daily precipitation. The decisive moment in the process of forecasting is the sum of daily index values for the previous 5 days. The index was tested in various localities of the Czech and the Slovak Republics for several years with a relatively high success rate exceeding the accuracy of previously applied strategies – NoBlight and negative prognosis. In comparison to the mentioned methods, the calculated index corresponded very well to long-term wet periods and indicated the first application date correctly. In years with no wet periods (in this case, 2015 and 2017), it allowed postponing the first application and reducing the number of required sprays during the growing season. The method does not depend on determining the emergence date, so it can be presented on the internet without cooperation with specific growers in a given locality, and thus supply information for a wider range of users. With knowledge about crop development and the degree of resistance to late blight of grown varieties, users can subsequently choose a specific fungicide and its application date.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomas Litschmann
Ervin Hausvater
Petr Dolezal
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Abstract

Strawberry plants showing symptoms of leaf spots and petiole lesions were collected from El Qalubya governorate, which is one of the most famous areas that extensively grows strawberry in Egypt. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize the causal pathogen of the disease. The isolated pathogen was identified as Paramyrothecium roridum (formerly known as Myrothecium roridum) based on its morphological characteristics and sequencing the partial rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS). A pathogenicity test using detached leaf assay revealed that P. roridum is a potential pathogen of strawberry. Symptoms started as small necrotic areas which expanded rapidly to macerate whole leaflets and petioles. In advanced stages of infection, dark olive green sporodochia were clearly distinguished on the infected tissues. Six strawberry cultivars showed different levels of susceptibility to P. roridum. Florida was the most resistant cultivar while Beauty, Camarosa, Fortuna and Sweet Charlie were susceptible. Festival showed a moderate level of susceptibility. An in vitro assay on the effect of the liquid culture filtrate of P. roridum on strawberry leaves showed that the filtrate caused damage to tissues and clear necrotic symptoms were developed. High performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) analysis on the filtrate of 10 day old P. roridum culture revealed the presence of various mycotoxins. The two major toxins detected were 8-alpha-hydroxyroridin H and myrothecin A in addition to other trichothecenes. Data also revealed the capability of P. roridum to produce polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulase (Cx) enzymes in liquid cultures. The activity of PG was found to be significantly correlated with the age of the growth culture. This is the first record of P. roridum on strawberry in Egypt.

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Authors and Affiliations

Maali Shaker Soliman
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Abstract

Black mold and green mold caused by Alternaria alternata and Penicillium digitatum, respectively, are the most important decay pathogens of tomato fruits during storage. Our research was aimed to control tomato phytopathogenic fungi A. alternata and P. digitatum in vitro and in vivo by using natural nanomaterials rosmarinic acid (RA-NPs) at concentrations of 0.3 and 0.6 mM, glycyrrhizic acid (GA-NPs) and glycyrrhizic acid ammounium salt (GAS-NPs) (0.1–0.2 mM). Characterizations of the tested nanoparticles were carried out by using dynamic light scattering which revealed that synthesized nanoparticles had particle sizes of less than 100 nm. In vitro studies revealed that the three tested nanoparticles reduced the growth of A. alternata and P. digitatum. Glycyrrhizic acid nanoparticles were the most effective in reducing the growth of the two tested pathogens followed by RA-NPs at 0.6 mM. Observations of A. alternata and P. digitatum by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed severe damage in the hyphae and deformities in the conidia due to the effect of the tested nanoparticles. In vivo results showed that, dipping tomato fruits as a post-harvest treatment in all of the tested nanoparticles at different concentrations, then stored at 10 ± 1°C and 90–95% relative humidity (RH) for 20 days greatly reduced the disease severity of infected fruits with the two tested pathogens. GA-NPs at 0.2 mM significantly reduced the development of black mold rot on tomato fruits. RA-NPs at 0.6 mM had the best effect in controlling P. digitatum of all naturally and artificially inoculated tomato fruits. Also, individual treatments of tomato fruits with RA-NPs, GA-NPs and GAS-NPs significantly reduced postharvest losses of fruit since they delayed decay and maintained fruit quality characteristics such as fruit firmness, titratable acidity and total soluble solids during cold storage.

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Authors and Affiliations

Fayz A. Abdel-Rahman
Ismail A.S. Rashid
Tahsin Shoala
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Abstract

The current survey was carried out to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen levels (0, 2.1, 3.0, 3.9 g ∙ pot–1 nitrogen as urea 46%) on tomato fruit worm Helicoverpa armigera on six common tomato cultivars (e.g., Kingston, Riogrand, Earlyurbana, Redston, Superstrain-B and Primoearly) under laboratory conditions [25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5% RH, 16 : 8 (L : D) h]. The mortality, developmental period of immature stages as well as the longevity and fecundity of adult stages were recorded. Data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex lifetable theory. The longest (24.21 ± 0.59 days) larval developmental period was recorded in Earlyurbana variety with zero nitrogen level and the shortest (15.44 ± 0.36 days) in Superstrain-B variety with the highest nitrogen level. Consequently, the net reproductive rate (R0) ranged from 35.7 ± 7.06 to 62.16 ± 18.9 offspring/female/individual in Redston variety with zero nitrogen level and in Superstrain-B variety with the highest nitrogen level, respectively. The lowest and highest values of the intrinsic rate (r) and finite rate of increase (l) were estimated for Redston variety with zero level of nitrogen (0.0712 ± 0.0065 and 1.0732 ± 0.0069 day–1) and Superstrain-B variety with the highest nitrogen fertilizer (0.1507 ± 0.0057 and 1.1629 ± 0.0066 day–1), respectively. The results demonstrated that nitrogen fertilizer influenced nearly all the life parameters of the pest which depended on the cultivars. Finally, it could be concluded that Kingston and Superstrain-B were suitable and Earlyurbana and Redston were unsuitable host plant cultivars for H. armigera.

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Authors and Affiliations

Fereshteh Salehi
Gholamhossein Gharekhani
Jalal Shirazi
Nahid Vaez
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Abstract

Due to inadequate efforts to reinforce nitrogen fixation capability of bean via symbiosis with rhizobia, improvement of bean productivity is still highly dependent on chemical fertilization. An advanced understanding of agro-ecosystem-bean-Rhizobium interaction is required to improve symbiosis efficiency. Thus, seasonal development of rhizobial nodulation was characterized according to 20 agro-ecological properties for 122 commercial bean fields. Principal component analysis identified soil texture as a major descriptor of agrosystem-bean-disease-Rhizobium interaction. Nonparametric correlation analysis indicated significant associations of root nodulation with bean class, fungicidal treatment of seed and soil, Fusarium root rot index, planting date and depth, soil texture, clay and sand content. Ordinal regression analysis demonstrated that rhizobial nodulation was improved by applying initial drought, heavier soil textures with greater organic matter and neutral pH, using herbicides and manure, growing white beans, irrigating every 7–9 days, later sowing in June, reducing disease and weed, shallower seeding, sowing beans after alfalfa, avoiding fungicidal treatment of seed and soil, and omitting urea application. This largescale study provided novel information on a comprehensive number of agronomic practices as potential tools for improving bean-Rhizobium symbiosis for sustainable legume production systems.

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Authors and Affiliations

Leila Tabande
Bita Naseri
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Abstract

Digitaria insularis (sourgrass) is a monocotyledon weed of difficult control and high invasive behavior. Atrazine is widely applied in the Americas to control weeds in maize culture, but its efficiency against D. insularis is limited. The incorporation of atrazine into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules increased the herbicidal activity against susceptible weeds; however, the potential of this nanoformulation to control atrazine-tolerant weeds including D. insularis has not yet been tested. Here, we evaluated the post-emergent herbicidal activity of nanoatrazine against D. insularis plants during initial developmental stages. The study was carried out in a greenhouse, using pots filled with clay soil. Plants with two or four expanded leaves were treated with conventional or nanoencapsulated atrazine at 50 or 100% of the recommended dosage (1,000 or 2,000 g ∙ ha−1), followed by the evaluation of physiological, growth, and control parameters of the plants. Compared with conventional herbicide, both dosages of nanoatrazine induced greater and faster inhibition of D. insularis photosystem II activity at both developmental stages. Atrazine nanoencapsulation also improved the control of D. insularis plants, especially in the stage with two expanded leaves. In addition, nanoatrazine led to higher decreases of dry weight of fourleaved plants than atrazine. The use of the half-dosage of nanoatrazine was equally or more efficient in affecting most of the evaluated parameters than the conventional formulation at full dosage. Overall, these results suggest that the nanoencapsulation of atrazine potentiated its post-emergent herbicidal activity against D. insularis plants at initial developmental stages, favoring the control of this atrazine-tolerant weed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bruno Teixeira Sousa
Anderson do Espírito Santo Pereira
Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto
Halley Caixeta de Oliveira
Giliardi Dalazen
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Abstract

Root-knot nematodes, genus Meloidogyne, are among the most plant damaging pathogens worldwide. The action of natural products against plant pathogens has been investigated to assess their effectiveness in the control of diseases. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the phytochemistry potential of the Ficus species for the control of Meloidogyne javanica. In vitro inhibitory activity assays were performed with crude ethanolic extracts of leaves and branches from 10 Ficus species. Among these, Ficus carica extracts exhibited strong paralysis activity against second stage juveniles (J2) (EC50 = 134.90 μg ∙ ml–1), after 72 hours. In addition, high efficacy was observed in egg-hatching inhibition at different embryonic stages. Microscopy analysis revealed severe morphological alterations in the nematode tissues at the J2 stage, as well as immotility of juveniles released from eggs in the presence of F. carica extracts. The efficacy of the treatments for the other species was very low. These differences were supported by the variation in the compound classes, mainly for alkaloids and metabolite profiles by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) when F. carica was compared with the other species. The results indicated that F. carica is a promising source for the isolation and identification of molecules capable of acting in the control of M. javanica.

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Authors and Affiliations

Janaína Roberta Alves
Jéssica Nunes de Assis
Caio Campos Araújo Pádua
Huarlen Márcio Balbino
Lucas Leal Lima
Angélica de Souza Gouveia
Camilo Elber Vital
Dalila Sêni Buonicontro
Leandro Grassi de Freitas
João Paulo Viana Leite
Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos
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Abstract

Biological diversity within a mixture field allows for better use of habitat and agro-technical conditions by the mixtures, which can be seen by higher and more stable yields than varieties sown separately. Our studies were conducted in the growing seasons 2011/2012–2014/2015 as field experiments with four winter barley varieties (Bombaj, Gil, Gregor, Bażant) and three, two- and three-component mixtures (Bombaj/Gil, Bombaj/Gregor, Gil/Gregor/Bażant). Seven different chemical treatments with fungicides were applied. The aim of this study was to compare the different varieties of winter barley with their mixtures for resistance to powdery mildew infection. To achieve this aim the logistic model for the analysis of data was used. Of the varieties under consideration, the best and the most resistant variety was Gregor, while the weakest and the most susceptible to diseases (powdery mildew) was Gil. This variety was also significantly weaker than any of the other mixtures taken into account. Moreover, it was so weak that when it was included in mixtures with other varieties, it weakened these mixtures as well.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Bakinowska
Anna Tratwal
Kamila Nowosad
Jan Bocianowski
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Abstract

Pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) (Aphelenchida: Parasitaphelencidae) is one of the most harmful agents in coniferous forests. The most important vectors of pine wood nematode are considered to be some Monochamus species (Col.: Cerambycidae), which had been forest insects with secondary importance before the appearance of B. xylophilus. However, the continuous spreading of the nematode has changed this status and necessitated detailed biological and climatological investigation of the main European vector, Monochamus galloprovincialis. The potential distribution area of M. galloprovincialis involves those areas where the risk of the appearance of pine wood nematode B. xylophilus is significant. The main objective of our analysis was to obtain information about the influencing effects of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the potential European range of B. xylophilus and its vector species M. galloprovincialis based on the connection between the mean temperature of July in Europe, the distribution of day-degrees of the vector and the NAO index. Our assessment was based on fundamental biological constants of the nematode and the cerambycid pest as well as the ECMWF ERA5 Global Atmospheric Reanalysis dataset. Our hypothesis was built on the fact that the monthly mean temperature had to exceed 20°C in the interest of an efficient expansion of the nematode. In addition, the threshold temperature of the vector involved in the calculations was 12.17°C, while the accumulated day-degree (DD) had to exceed the annual and biennial 370.57°DD for univoltine and semivoltine development, respectively. Our finding that a connection could be found between a mean temperature in July above 20°C and NAO as well as between the accumulated day-degrees and NAO can be the basis for further investigations for a reliable method to forecast the expansion of pine wood nematode and its vector species in a given year.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katalin Somfalvi-Tóth
Sándor Keszthelyi
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Abstract

In this short communication describing experiments carried out on the larvae of two insects, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (feeding on Euonymus japonicus Thunb.) and Dynaspidiotus britannicus Newstead (feeding on Laurus nobilis L.), we evaluate for the first time the efficiency of using DNA insecticides in the control of sap-sucking insects, including armored scale insects. Over a period of 10 days, high insect mortality was detected in both U. euonymi and D. britannicus, accompanied by a significant decrease in the concentration of target RNAs. At the same time, no visible changes were observed when the leaves of the host plants were subjected to treatment with DNA insecticides for one month. The results show the high efficiency of DNA insecticides used against hemipteran insect pests. It is noteworthy that the high efficiency of DNA insecticides and their low cost in comparison with RNA preparations provides a safe and extremely promising potential vehicle for the control of sap-sucking insects.

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Authors and Affiliations

Nikita Gal’chinsky
Refat Useinov
Ekaterina Yatskova
Kateryna Laikova
Ilya Novikov
Mikhail Gorlov
Natalya Trikoz
Alexander Sharmagiy
Yuri Plugatar
Volodymyr Oberemok

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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