Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2007 | vol. 47 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The aim of the study carried out during 2002–2004 was to assess the effects and economic effectiveness of application of fungicides and insecticides in winter triticale crops. Its leaves were attacked by pathogenic fungi in 43.2% to 52.2% and the damage to leaf blade surfaces by cereal leaf beetle (Oulema spp.) ranged from 23.6% to 34.4%. The effectiveness of applied fungicides ranged from 44.7% to 90.8%, and that of insecticides was within 70.1% and 94.4%. The saved crops were evaluated for PLN 198 to 1 171 per ha. The cost coverage ratio ranged from 0.7 to 9.9 and the treatment profitability index ranged from 0.9 to 7.4. Cost index in percentage ranged from 0.8 to 8.5, with its average value of 4.2.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zdzisław Kaniuczak
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Abstract

The efficacy of solar heat in the control of bacterial soft rot of potato tubers was investigated in Maiduguri, semi-arid region of Northeastern Nigeria. Artificially contaminated tubers were exposed to solar heat for duration of 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. The results showed that exposures for 120 and 180 minutes gave the highest control of the disease, although during the hot dry season (mean temperature at exposure was 54.6°C) exposure even for 30 minutes gave satisfactory control of the disease. Solar heat can therefore be used to control of bacterial soft rot of potato tubers.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bulus Shapshi Bdliya
Humphrey Umaru Haruna
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Abstract

In order to assess the economic benefits of reduced fungicide application for the control of paprika diseases under dryland conditions, on-farm experiments were conducted in the Chinyika Resettlement Area in the Eastern province of Zimbabwe in the 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 seasons. The six fungicide application regimes that were assessed include: weekly interval sprays; Sulphur at 2 weeks after transplanting (WAT) and copper oxychloride-Mancozeb mixture at 6 WAT; spraying after scouting; alternating Sulphur and copper oxychloride- Mancozeb every two weeks; Acibenzolar-s-methyl and unsprayed check. Parameters recorded were disease severity and yield; after harvest an economic analysis was performed. The highest added profit of Z$ 75 930/ha was recorded in the weekly sprayed plots which was not statistically different (p > 0.05) from Z$ 59 410/ha achieved by alternating copper oxychloride and Mancozeb fortnightly at Dengedza site in 2000/2001 season. There were no statistical differences (p > 0.05) between spraying after scouting and Acibenzolar-s-methyl application treatments as they added the least profits of Z$ 990/ha and Z$ 17 250/ha respectively at the same site in the same season. These have serious implications for smallholder farmers in terms of cost savings. Neither were there differences (p > 0.05) in added profits from different spraying regimes at Dengedza site in the 2001/2002 rainy season.

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Authors and Affiliations

Maxwell Handiseni
Julia Sibiya
Vincent B. Ogunlela
Irene Koomen
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Abstract

Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean is a destructive disease of soybean in Iran. During 1998–2005, 142 isolates from soil and diseased soybean plants were collected and tested. Race identification was made possible by inoculating Rps differential soybean cultivars and lines. Of the 142 isolates tested, 110 isolates belonged to race 1 and 32 isolates belonged to race 3. Race 1 was domi nant in soil and diseased plant samples. There was no variability in virulence of Phytophthora sojae between the areas surveyed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Abbas Mohammadi
Azizollah Alizadeh
Mansore Mirabolfathi
Naser Safaie
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Abstract

An evaluation of the effect of four host plants on biological parameters of Maconellicoccus hirsutus and efficacy of Anagyrus kamali was conducted in the laboratory. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Hibiscus sabdariffa produced M. hirsutus with life cycles which were 1–2 days shorter than those of M. hirsutus reared on Solanum tuberosum, and Cucurbita pepo L. Egg to adult M. hirsutus survival was lowest in C. pepo (8.8%) and highest for H. sabdariffa (21.8%). C. pepo, H. rosa-sinensis and H. sabdariffa produced a more female biased M. hirsutus sex ratio from single ovisacs, than S. tuberosum. Although adult M. hirsutus females exhibited variation in size and longevity on the host plants tested, total fecundity was not significantly different. Life cycle of both sexes and offspring sex ratio of A. kamali emerging from M. hirsutus cultured on the four host plants were statistically similar. M. hirsutus infested H. rosa-sinensis and H. sabdariffa produced A. kamali with significantly higher fecundity (post emergence adult counts) and lower longevity compared to the other host plants. Females with largest femur (Mean length = 0.2950 ± 0.0053 mm) were produced by M. hirsutus infested H. rosa-sinensis. A. kamali efficacy measured by percent parasitization and percent adult eclosion was statistically similar for all M. hirsutus infested host plants tested.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anand Persad
Ayub Khan
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Abstract

The tomato yellow leaf curl virus infecting tomato plants in Tanzania is reported to be different from the Old World geminiviruses. A study was initiated to investigate the transmission properties of the virus such as, acquisition feeding time, inoculation feeding time, persistence of virus in the vector, mechanical inoculation, seed and graft transmission. Results obtained indicate that the virus is transmitted persistently by Bemisia tabaci Genn., but neither mechanically – nor seed-transmissible. Minimum acquisition and inoculation time was 30 minutes. It is concluded that the properties of the agent causing the yellow leaf curl symptoms in tomato plants from different regions of Tanzania are similar and mimic those of tomato yellow leaf curl Begomovirus species studied elsewhere.

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Authors and Affiliations

Boniface D. Kashina
Robert B. Mabagala
Anatolia A. Mpunami
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Abstract

Observations on the incidence, harmfulness and some elements of Cameraria ohridella control on white horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) were carried out in Wrocław, Poland, in 2001–2003. Three generations of the pest developed on A. hippocastanum. The leaf infestation by pest’s larvae increased systematically throughout the spring-summer season. Cultural control by removing the fallen leaves was suggested. Using this procedure, the abundance of the pest was considerably reduced, therefore, the percentage of the leaf damage was lower and the trees lost these leaves later in the season.

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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Kukuła-Młynarczyk
Michał Hurej
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Abstract

In the four-year experiment the impact of four different winter barley varieties and selected two- and three-component mixtures were tested. Reduced dosages of fungicides on disease reduction in the mixtures compared with pure stands were evaluated. The studies were carried out at two sites: Experimental Station for Variety Testing Słupia Wlk. (Wielkopolska region) and Plant Breeding Station Bąków (Opole District). Observations on powdery mildew occurrence during the vegetation season were done every 7–10 days. In order to compare the disease occurrence levels on different cultivars in pure stands and on their mixtures combined with different fungicide treatments the Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) was evaluated. On the base of the AUDPC values the reduction of powdery mildew occurring in the mixtures due to epidemiological and ecological factors functioning in mixed stands were also evaluated. On the base of obtained results it can be stated that winter barley variety mixtures combined with different fungicide treatments do reduce the powdery mildew incidence comparing to pure stands and winter barley variety mixtures can constitute an alternative way of growing winter barley, especially at low-input and ecological agriculture.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Tratwal
John Law
Haidee Philpott
Andy Horwell
Jane Garner
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Abstract

In the four-year experiment the impact of four different barley varieties and selected two-and three-component mixtures were tested. The studies were carried out at two sites: Experimental Station for Variety Testing Słupia Wlk. (Wielkopolska region) and Plant Breeding Station Bąków (Opole District) during four growing seasons (2001/2002–2004/2005). The aim of the studies was to evaluate the yield through growing barley variety mixtures in combination with reduced use of fungicide and application dose rates. Positive effects (1–15% yield increase in mixtures compared to pure stands) were observed. On the base of obtained results it can be stated that winter barley variety mixtures can constitute an alternative way of growing winter barley, especially at low-input and ecological agriculture.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Tratwal
John Law
Haidee Philpott
Andy Horwell
Jane Garner
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Abstract

Observations were carried out in apple orchards and nurseries of the Plovdiv region (Central-South Bulgaria), aimed at determining specific composition, population density and economic importance of particular species of aphids, in the years 2004–2006. By surveys, carried out at 15-day intervals, the appearing species were identified and the degree of damage determined. Six species of aphids were found: Aphis spiraecola Patch., A. pomi Deg., Dysaphis plantaginea Pass., D. devecta Wlk. Rhopalosiphum insertum Wlk. and Eriosoma lanigerum Hsm. A. spiraecola, a poliphagous pest, was probably brought with the plant material from Greece and was identified in Bulgaria for the first time. It is similar to A. pomi and may be distinguished only by the microscopic investigation. Aphis spiraecola replaced almost completely A. pomi in the region studied. Its population was particularly high in nurseries. In the bearing orchards D. plantaginea was the most important aphid. Some tendency to an increase of population and damage caused by D. devecta was also noted. The other species had not any economic importance. E. lanigerum was present only in the orchards where no chemical control was applied.

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Authors and Affiliations

Radoslav Andreev
Donka Rasheva
Hristina Kutinkova

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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