Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2007 | vol. 47 | No 3 |

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Population studies on Arion lusitanicus, a slug species introduced into Poland, were carried out over the last decade. The slug occurs commonly in some areas and spreads out relatively quickly. It has an annual life cycle with eggs, and immature individuals overwinter. In the end of July A. lusitanicus begins copulation and three weeks later it lays eggs from which the first offspring hatch within a month. The copulation process and egg laying last until late fall. One A. lusitanicus can lay over 400 eggs. During the growing season there are two peaks of population density. This species feeds on plant material such as leaves, stems, bulbs, but also consumes animal material. The basic plant material are arable crops particularly vegetables and some species of agricultural crops, some fruit trees, ornamental plants, herbs and weeds. A. lusitanicus displays apparent food specialization and prefers certain cultivated and wild growing plants. A. lusitanicus shows large reproduction potential, wide food and ecologic tolerance, and is regarded as a serious pests occurring in home gardens.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jan Kozłowski
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The effect of cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Phaeoisariopsis personata on quality of groundnut haulm was assessed using official methods of analysis. The respective field experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons, while the laboratory analyses were carried out at the end of the seasons. The scale of 1–9 was used to determine severity of infection on randomly selected groundnut plants. The results showed that the year effect was not significant as related to haulm composition. However, severity of the disease was found to affect haulm composition either negatively or positively. Crude fibre, crude protein, fat and dry matter content of haulm were significantly lower in severely infected haulm samples compared to uninfected or less severely infected samples. While ash, moisture content and nitrogen free extracts (NFE) increased with increasing disease severity. The regression analysis showed that crude fibre, crude protein, fat and dry matter content were negatively related to cercospora leaf spot severity, while ash, moisture content and nitrogen free extracts showed positive relationship with increasing disease severity. Since infection by cercospora leaf spot pathogen lowers the quality of groundnut haulm, controlling the disease is necessary to ensure good quality of haulm at the end of the season.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Bulus Shapshi Bdliya
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The efficacy of Benlate 50 WP (benomyl), Bentex T (benomyl + thiram), Ridomil 72 WP (metalaxyl) and Trimangol 80 WP (maneb) applied as foliar spray in the control of cercospora leaf spot of groundnut in the sudan savanna of Nigeria was evaluated during the 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons. Three spray regimes (once, twice and thrice per season) were evaluated. Strip plot design with three replications was used in setting up the experiments. Ex-Dakar, a cercospora leaf spot susceptible groundnut variety was used as planting material. All the four fungicides significantly reduced the incidence and severity of cercospora leaf spot in both seasons. However, the application of Bentex T significantly better reduced the incidence and severity of the disease than the other fungicides. This was followed by application of Benlate 50 WP. Ridomil 72 WP and Trimangol 80 WP which gave moderate control of the disease. Three sprays with fungicides gave better control of the disease than one or two sprays in the season. The highest seed yield of 1 716 kg/ha and 2 263 kg/ha in 2002 and 2003, respectively, were obtained following treatment with Bentex T. The lowest yield of 962 kg/ha and 1 270 kg/ha in 2002 and 2003, respectively, were recorded from the control plots. Also the highest seed yield of 2 028 kg/ha and 2 672 kg/ha in 2002 and 2003, were obtained following three sprays compared to 939 kg/ha and 1 239 kg/ha in 2002 and 2003, respectively, for one spray in the season. The highest haulm yield of 6 131 kg/ha and 6 722 kg/ha in 2002 and 2003 was recorded from plots treated with Bentex T compared to 4 752 kg/ha and 5 166 kg/ha in 2002 and 2003, respectively, obtained from the control. Haulm yield of 6 355 kg/ha and 7 027 kg/ha in 2002 and 2003 were obtained following three sprays compared to 5 088 kg/ha and 5593 kg/ha in 2002 and 2003, respectively, recorded for the control. Bentex Tor Benlate 50 WP could be used to reduce the effect of cercospora leaf spot and improve groundnut production in the sudan savanna of Nigeria.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Bulus Shapshi Bdliya
Kyari Karabi Gwio-Kura
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Essential oils from four plants , i.e. geranium, rosa, lemon and mint were tested for their activity in vitro and in vivo against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli, the cause of root rot and wilt of beans. In vitro, they were found to have an inhibitory effect against the mycelial growth of R. solani and F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli. Complete inhibition in fungal growth was observed at a concentration of 4% of each essential oil and Topsin M at 400 ppm as well. In greenhouse the four essential oils were tested as seed coating and/or foliar spray. Results of seed coating at a concentration of 1% clearly demonstrate a good protection of emerged bean seeds against invasion of R. solani and F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli compared with the fungicide treatment. A similar trend was observed in a lower extent when the essential oils were applied as bean seeds coating followed by seedlings foliar spray under field conditions. Obvious yield increase as bean green pods, in all treatments, was significantly higher than in the control.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Nehal S. El-Mougy
Nadia G. El-Gamal
Mokhtar M. Abdel-Kader
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The antifungal effect of twenty powdered spice plants and their extracts at concentrations of 2, 4, 8 and 1, 3, 6%, respectively was evaluated in relation to the radial mycelial growth of various soilborne fungi causing damping-off disease. The spice powder or extract were added to the culture medium PDA to obtain the proposed concentrations. Concentration of 8% of powdered spices and 6% of their extracts were able to cause complete growth inhibition of major tested fungi. High significant inhibitory effect on radial fungal growth was observed for different concentrations of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannil), garlic (Allium sativum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Meanwhile, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana) and chamomile (Matricaria hamomilla) showed a low inhibitory effect on tested fungi. Moderate inhibitory effect was observed with the other tested spices. In the greenhouse, efficacy of spice plants as powder or their extracts in addition to the fungicide Rizolex-T used as seed dressings against faba bean damping-off incidence was evaluated in pot experiment using soil artificially infested with the disease agents (Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani). Spice extracts showed superior reducing effect on damping-off disease incidence at pre-emergence growth stage to that of powder treatments and Rizolex-T as well, while an opposite effect was observed at post-emergence growth stage. Carnation and cinnamon spices showed the highest protecting effect against disease incidence when applied as powder or extracts. It is interesting to note that spice plants as powder or extracts gave a similar effect to the fungicide Rhizolex-T in reducing damping-off incidence either at pre- or post-emergence stages of faba bean growth. Promising applicable technique could be suggested in the light of the results obtained. The use of spice plants as powder or extract for seed dressing might be considered as safe, cheep and easily applied method for controlling soilborne plant pathogens considering the avoidance of environmental pollution and the side effect of pesticide application.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Nehal S. El-Mougy
Mokhtar M. Abdel-Kader
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Two flour types (unpolished flour and polished one) and flour textures (grits and fine) of five cereal grains made up of millet, rice, wheat, sorghum and maize were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their susceptibility and progeny development in Tribolium castaneum in hot dry and cool humid seasons. T. castaneum thrived better during the cool humid season than the hot dry season. Polished flour was less susceptible to infestation and supported lower population of the beetles than unpolished flour. Index of susceptibility was 19.65–20.76% in unpolished flour and 18.89–19.76% in polished flour. The number of progeny that developed were 102.6–135.1 and 98.2–121.4 in unpolished and polished flours, respectively. Similarly, grit flour was significantly less susceptible than fine flour in both seasons. Rice, wheat and sorghum flours were less susceptible and supported significantly lower populations of T. castaneum than millet and maize flours in both seasons. Polished wheat flour supported least progeny number than the flour types of the other cereal grains. Conversely, significantly higher number of progeny developed in polished flour of millet and maize and unpolished flour of wheat. Millet fine flour and maize fine or grit flours were significantly more susceptible to infestation than flours of the other cereal grains.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Joy Mbaya Turaki
Buba Mburza Sastawa
Baba Gana Jugudum Kabir
Ndowa Ekoate Sunday Lale
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The effects of application of an artificial honeydew mixture of glucose, fructose and trehalose (GFT), honey and Bemisia tabaci nymph-extract as kairomonal sources in enhancing the foraging efficiency and performance of Eretmocerus sp. near furuhashii on cucumber plants were studied. Experiments were conducted in small greenhouses (4×3×3 m) using life table methods. Life table data indicated that the total mortality in B. tabaci immature cohorts in all treatments was in the order of fourth instar > first instar > second = third > egg > pupa cohorts. The tested kairomonal materials had a significant effect on the rate of parasitism (p > 0.0415) with 13.23, 9.04 and 10.54% higher than that of control in artificial honeydew of GFT, nymph-extract and honey treatments, respectively. B. tabaci egg/adult survival ratio was also significantly affected (p > 0.0001) by the tested kairomonal sources being lowest (22.91%) in nymph-extract treatment. Moreover, the tested kairomonal materials arrested significantly more parasitoids to colonize the treated plants comparing to control. Apparently, the tested materials were significantly effective in attracting the parasitoids up to 3 days after applications then significant difference was not found between treatments.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Nasser Said Mandour
Shun-xiang Ren
Bao-li Qiu
Felix Wäckers
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Gaeumannomyces graminis is an etiologic agent of take-all, economically important disease of cereals worldwide. A polymerase chain reaction with variety-specific primers was successfully used for detection of G. graminis var. tritici in plant tissue. Obtained results showed that this diagnostic method is a very sensitive and useful tool for detection of the pathogen even before disease symptoms arise. DNA polymorphism revealed by RAPD-PCR with three arbitrary primers was suitable for assessing genetic variation among Ggt isolates originating from wheat and rye.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Lidia Irzykowska
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The dominance, diversity and activity density of rove beetles were studied in Central European apple and pear orchards. Altogether 6 877 individuals, belonging to 271 species and 11 subfamilies were collected. Thirteen species presented a relative abundance from 9 to 2% and amounted to almost 56% of all staphylinids recorded. In dominance order they were: Dinaraea angustula (Gyllenhal), Omalium caesum Gravenhorst, Drusilla canaliculata (F.), Sphenoma abdominale Mannerheim, Palporus nitidulus (F.), Xantholinus linearis (Olivier), Dexiogya corticina (Erichson), Coprochara bipustulata L., Mocyta orbata (Erichson), Oligota pumilio Kiessenwetter, Xanthlinus longiventris (Olivier), Tachyporus hypnorum (F.) and Pycnota vicina (Kraatz). The alpha diversity of staphylinids for different environmental conditions was relatively similar but the Shannon-Weiner Index (H`) was higher than of other similar studies. However, the activity density was higher in pear, in sand and in abandoned plantations; under different environmental conditions this could not be considered uniform in time. After the cumulative studies on the population dynamics, one can conclude that the highest number of species can be found in spring and in summer. Species D. canaliculata and P. nitidulus presented the similar seasonal dynamics in orchards located in different environmental areas, while O. caesum had the same activity density both in apple and pear orchards.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Adalbert Balog
Viktor Markó
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

The investigation was conducted in 2004 and 2005 to test 28 sesame genotypes for resistance and susceptablity to Rhizoctonia solani under artificial infection conditions at the Plant Breeding Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. All screened sesame genotypes showed varied significant degrees of infestation with the root rot pathogen. It is worth to mention that some of sesame genotypes kept their resistance characterestic classes as moderately resistant (MR) or resistant (R) during the two successive seasons. Such genotypes might be useful for breeding programs due to stability of their resistant character as well as their seed yield. Phenotypic coefficients of variation (P.C.V.) and genotypic coefficients of variation (G.C.V.) were of high value regarding resistance characters during both seasons and comparable to seed yield character. The heritability estimates indicate that selection is a suitable way for picking up sesame genotypes that have high chance for resistance character to root rot disease (R. solani) with high seed yield potential. The genetic advance and heritability estimates in all cases supported the selection of some sesame genotypes to be used in next breeding programs for root rot resistance, they also showed a high seed yield potential.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Omar Abdul Rahman Abdul Wahid
Mohamed Abd El-Hamid Sayid Ahemad El-Bramawy
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Field trails were conducted to evaluate the economics of controlling cercospora leaf spot of groundnut using different fungicides. The experiments were laid out in a strip plot design with three replications at the Teaching and Research farm of the Department of Crop Protection, University of Maiduguri, sudan savanna of Nigeria during the 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons. Four fungicides namely: Benlate 50 WP, Trimangol 80 WP, Bentex T, and Ridomil 72 WP were applied as foliar sprays at three spray regimes while the control was left untreated. The application of the fungicides led to 20–50% reduction in the disease incidence and 15–22% reduction in disease severity and gave higher yield of seed and haulm than the control. The cost-benefit analysis revealed positive returns per hectare from the use of the fungicides for the control of disease in the study area. Application of Bentex T, for instance, gave 78.13% seed yield increase over the control which translated into a mean (two years) net profit of N52,267.50, N90,905.00 and N138,755.00 Nigerian Naira for one, two and three sprays, respectively, equivalent to $522.675, $909.05 and $1,387.55 per hectare. Even the least effective of the fungicides (Trimangol 80 WP) gave seed yield increase of 62.74% over the control which translated into a mean (two years) net profit of N41,287.50, N68,082.50 and N93,995.00 equivalent to $412.88, $680.83 and $939.95 per hectare for one, two and three sprays, respectively. Three sprays gave 115. 76% increase of yield over one spray and 39.35% yield increase over two sprays. These returns are attractive particularly to the farmers in the study area who grow the high yielding Ex-Dakar groundnut variety which is susceptible to cercospora leaf spot.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Bulus Shapshi Bdliya
Kyari Karabi Gwio-Kura
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex

Abstract

Six isolates of Trichoderma spp. (belonging to species; Trichoderma harzianum and T. longibrachiatum) were applied as seed or soil treatments to suppress damping-off of seedlings of ten cotton cultivars under greenhouse conditions. In most cases, cultivar x isolate interaction was a highly significant (p < 0.01) source of variation in the tested seedling growth parameters: incidence of disease, seedling height, and seedling dry weight. This interaction implies that a single isolate of Trichoderma can be highly effective in controlling the disease on a cotton cultivar but may have minimal efficiency in controlling the disease on another cultivar. It was also found that, in most cases, cultivar x isolate x application method was a highly significant source of variation (p < 0.01) in the tested growth parameters. Cotton cultivars showed differences in the disease reaction to the biocontrol agents. In the experiments evaluating the Trichoderma antagonists and their effect on seedling disease, a highly significant (p < 0.01) experimental treatment interaction was found. This interaction suggests that the outcome of cultivar x isolate interaction is markedly affected by the application method. Thus, the application method should be chosen to maximize the outcome of this interaction. The degree of the control of seedling disease in cotton differed according to the isolates of antagonists, the application method and cultivars.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Asran-Amal Abdel-Mongy

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more