Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2006 | vol. 46 | No 2 |

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Abstract

The leopard moth borer, Zeuzera pyrina L., is a cossid moth whose larvae bore into twigs, branches and trunks of various woody species, weakening and sometimes killing trees or shrubs. Recently it caused serious losses of apple trees in Bulgaria. In a three-year-old non-protected apple orchard in the Plovdiv region more than 30% of trees perished due to damage by this pest. In the nursery and in commercial orchards up to 5% of branches were injured. Main damage was observed in August and September. Both cossids, Zeuzera pyrina and Cossus cossus, damaged 15–20% of the stems in old commercial orchards and more than 60–70% in orchards without regular plant protection. In this study flight dynamics of Z. pyrina was monitored by two types of pheromone traps: Pherocon (Trécé, USA) – traps with sticky changeable bottom and Mastrap (Isagro, Italy) – dry funnel traps. The second type was more effective. Flight of moths lasted from mid-June to the beginning of September. Pheromone traps may be helpful in IPM systems, for signalling optimal time for spraying against this pest. Further studies are needed to determine correlation between the catches in pheromone traps and appearance of injuries.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hristina Kutinkova
Radoslav Andreev
Vesselin Arnaoudov
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Abstract

This paper presents a preliminary report of Fusarium wilt of Roselle in the Nigerian savanna. Soil and plant samples were collected from eight experimental plots where plants showed Roselle wilt symptoms. Samples were analyzed for the presence of nematodes and wilt pathogens. The wilt causative organism Fusarium oxysporum was isolated together with nematodes of different genera. However, nematodes of the genus Helicotylenchus, Scutellonema and Hoplolaimus appeared to occur in higher densities than the others.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ogechi N. Agbenin
M.O. Ogunlana
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Abstract

The resistance of winter wheat varieties to Puccinia recondite f. sp. tritici was investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2001–2003. Effectiveness of resistance genes was investigated at seedling, tillering and adult plant stages. Virulence tests done during the 2000–2003 period showed that the majority of Lr genes used in European wheat were not sufficiently efficient. However, testing of cultivars at the first leaf stage revealed that the Lr37 gene in combination with the other genes was very effective. The experimental cultivars were sown in 2 times: in autumn and spring, without vernalization. The main task of spring-sown nursery was to improve the effectiveness of the experiment and investigate the effect of different Lr genes of non-vernalized plants at tillering growth stage. The Lr37 gene was found to be the most effective at both adult plant stage and tillering growth stage. Disease severity and plant resistance type at tillering stage were stable in all experimental years, which is important for the breeding program. The investigations revealed that the correlations between resistance at seedling and the other two stages were up to r = 0.81 (significant at p = 0.01**). The correlations between leaf rust severity and varietal resistance type at tillering were very high (r = 0.86–0.91**) in the same year. The correlation of leaf rust severity at adult plant stage was strong (r = 0.78**) between 2001 and 2002, but too low for reliable selection of resistant cultivars in the other years. Spring-sown nursery was complementary to collect resistance data in the years unfavourable for leaf rust development.

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Authors and Affiliations

Žilvinas Liatukas
Vytautas Ruzgas
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Abstract

Trinexapac-ethyl is one of the newest growth regulators used in agriculture and horticulture. As a most growth retardants it acts by inhibiting gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. A field study was conducted to determine the effects of trinexapac-ethyl on growth of winter wheat. Trinexapac ethyl was used alone (75 g a.i./ha and 125 g a.i./ha) and in the mixture with chlorocholine chloride (50 g a.i./ha + 675 g a.i./ha) at the 2nd node stage. Trinexapac-ethyl and its mixture with CCC activity was weather dependent. Their influence on the crop was strictly related to the temperature and rainfall during an individual year of trials. Plant growth regulators much more influenced winter wheat plants in abundant rainfall and higher temperature conditions. Lodging was not observed during the experiment.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kinga Matysiak
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Abstract

Analyses of the ground waters in respect of presence of residues of plant protection products, i.e. active substances as well as environmental metabolites thereof are performed in the Institute of Plant Protection since the end of 80ties of the past Century. Based on the results obtained in 1993–1994 for 40 wells located in administrative territories of former Poznań, Toruń and Bydgoszcz voivodeships, in the vicinity of intensive agricultural production areas (orchards, farms), wells where significant amounts of residues of triazines group and dealkylated metabolites thereof had been found previously were qualified to further studies. There were 6 wells in which triazine residues were determined most often. Additionally, based on hydrogeological maps, directions of underflows in the areas of well’s locations were determined as well. The aim of the above was to find the additional places for sampling waters distant from pollution sources and estimation of the level of residues of target compounds depending on distance from the basic wells. Seven triazine compounds including basic active substances (atrazine, simazine) and their metabolites [desethyl atrazine, desisopropyl atrazine, desethyldesisopropyl atrazine, hydroxyatrazine and hydroxysimazine] were selected for the presented studies. Residues were analyzed using methodologies designed in the Institute, i.e. solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by determination by chromatographic techniques HPLC-PDA, GC-NPD and GC-MS. Generally, during 11 years of investigations (1993–2003) samplings were performed 52 times and 323 samples of groundwater including that from additional wells were analyzed. Most often residues of atrazine and deethylatrazine in wells located in environs of Poznań were detected.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Drożdżyński
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Abstract

In this paper we present the first occurrence of the Diabrotica virgifera Le Conte in Poland and the measures taken against this pest. The specimens of western corn rootworm were found in South-Eastern Poland (Podkarpackie voivodeship) at the end of August and in September of 2005.

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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Sahajdak
Paweł K. Bereś
Tomasz Konefał
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Abstract

Phytophthora citricola Sawada was detected from 3 water pools situated in 2 container- grown nurseries. The highest number of spots on rhododendron leaves were observed in June whereas the lowest in October. The use of water for plant sprinkling caused browning, yellowing of shoots and root rot of Buxus sempervirens, and blight of shoot tips of Thuja occidentalis and Rhododendron sp. The disease symptoms were observed already in June and the disease developed till the first decade of October. Losses caused by the species varied from 9 to 56%.

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Authors and Affiliations

Leszek B. Orlikowski
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Abstract

The bionomy and ecology of Amphorophora idaei (Bőrn.) on raspberry was studied under insectary conditions and in two rasberry farm plantations in 1997–2002. In 2001 and 2002 the development and fecundity of A. idaei under controlled conditions were also observed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Borowiak-Sobkowiak
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Abstract

In 1993–1997 the occurrence of Lepidoptera pests: Pieris rapae L., Pieris brassicae L., Mamestra brassicae L., and Plusia gamma L. were observed on the nine different late cabbage vegetables; Savoy cabbage cv. Vertus, white cabbage cv. Amager, red cabbage cv. Langendijker, brussel sprouts cv. Maczuga, cauliflower cv. Pionier, blue kohlrabi cv. Masłowa, white kohlrabi cv. Delikates, kale cv. Zielony Kędzierzawy and broccoli cv. Piast. The field observations showed that butterflies differentiated among host-species for oviposition. The butterfly females of all species preferred for oviposition the brussel sprouts and deposited a substantially larger number of eggs on leav es of them. Plant species with green leaves were more preferred than the red leaf ones.

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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Jankowska
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Abstract

One of the negative aspects of the intensive use of herbicides is related to the selection of resistant biotypes (Gasquez 2001). Of all biotypes resistant to herbicides, 93 species do not respond to sulfonylurea herbicides (ALS-inhibiting herbicides). The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme is the first step in biosynthesis of a branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine). In Poland the problem of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides has been discussed since 2001 (Rola and Marczewska 2002). Resistance tests of Apera spica-venti biotypes were conducted in the greenhouse conditions. Chlorsulfuron was applied at the four-leaf stage of development at rates ranging from 11.25 to 360 g/ha. In confirmation of resistance to chlorsulfuron as identified in biological tests, the chemical analyses were performed. The analyses investigated the influence of different doses of chlorsulfuron on free amino acids content in the aboveground part of resistant and susceptible Apera spica-venti. The analyses were carried out applying high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). The resistance of the biotype was confirmed in amino acids analysis. In the resistant biotype followed the increase of valine, leucine and isoleucine concentration in comparison with untreated plants and those susceptible to chlorsulfuron biotype.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Marczewska
Jerzy Sadowski
Henryka Rola
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Abstract

The paper reports results of investigations concerning the influence of saponin extract of quillaja on the food choice and development of Colorado potato beetle. Choice tests with the use of potato leaf discs treated and untreated with tested saponins’ extract were made. The influence of the presence of saponins on the food choice and intensity of insect feeding were observed. It was stated that saponins significantly restrain feeding and disturb development of this pest.

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Authors and Affiliations

Danuta Waligóra

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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