Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Zawartość

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2005 | vol. 45 | No 4 |

Abstrakt

The paper attempts to assess the extent of crop loss in rubber plantations in India, measured in terms of loss in latex and timber output and thereby to examine the comparative economics of plant protection measures against Phytophtora spp. induced abnormal leaf fall (ALF). The specific objectives were: a) to examine the extent of loss in latex and timber output in unsprayed plots vis-a-vis sprayed plots across prominent rubber clones; b) estimate the value of loss in latex and timber output across clones between sprayed and unsprayed plots; c) examine the comparative economics of plant protection measures in terms of the incremental costs and the incremental returns from sprayed plots across clones; and d) reflect upon the policy imperatives with respect to region specific Research and Development (R&D) interventions on plant protection measures in India. The study brings out significant clonal differences in loss of latex and timber output in the absence of prophylactic spraying against ALF. The observed clonal differences with respect to feasibility of plant disease control measures indicate the need for region and clone-specific recommendations for plant protection measures in India instead of the currently followed unilateral prescription with due allowance to the costs and potential benefit accrued from the control measures. The study also highlight the need for evolving interventions and agro-management/ plant protection measures for minimising the incidence of tree casualty in rubber plantation, as it amounts to loss of potential income from latex and timber from rubber plantations in India, dominated by the smallholder sector

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Pozhamkandath K. Viswanathan
Tharian George Kadavil
Chakkasseril Kuruvilla Jacob

Abstrakt

Ability of five strains of Trichoderma pseudokoningii (antagonists) to suppress radial growth of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (= Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon) was examined in vitro These were T. pseudokoningii strai n1 (IMI 380933), strain 2 (IMI 380937), strain 3 (IMI 3809 39), strain 4 (IMI 380940) a nd strain 5 (IMI 380941). Each strain was paired with pathogen by inoculating at opposite ends of 9 cm petri plates using three pairing methods. Gradings were assigned to varied growth inhibition of pathogen by antagonists and analysed using GLM procedure (SAS). Growth suppression of F. verticillioides by all strains of T. pseudokoningii was significantly different (R2 = 0.98, p = 0.05) from control in all pairing methods. It differed significantly (p > 0.0003) among the strains in all pairing methods. Growth suppression also differed significantly among (p>0.0001) and within (p > 0.018) pairing methods. Growth suppression was best when antagonists were inoculated before pathogen. Suppression mechanisms include mycoparasitism and competition for space and nutrients. T. pseudokoningii strains 3 and 4 had the best (p = 0.05) growth suppression of F. verticillioides and could be used as biocontrol agents for endophytic F. verticillioides in maize plant. This experiment was conducted in the search for resedent microorganisms that might be capable of checking F. verticillioides within maize plant by competitive exclusion in subsequent experiment.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ayodele Adegboyega Sobowale
Kitty Francies Cardwell
Adegboyega Christopher Odebode
Ranajit Bandyopadhyay
Segun Gbolagade Jonathan

Abstrakt

Phytophthora cambivora was isolated from the bark lesions of two 10- and 15-year-old of analysed alder trees. Additionally, Botrytis cinerea, 3 Fusarium species, Mucor spp., P. alni and Trichoderma spp. were recovered from diseased tissues. Isolates of P. cambivora from six plant species, used for inoculation of alder seedlings and plant parts, cause dthe development of necrosis. Isolate from Chamaecyparis lawsoniana was the weakest pathogen whereas those from Abies alba, Acer pennsylvanicum and Alnus glutinosa were the strongest.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Leszek B. Orlikowski
Tomasz Oszako

Abstrakt

Studies undertaken in 2002–2004 on ‘Golden Delicious’ apple fruits showed the presence of amino acids on the surface of their skin. Amount of total free amino acids ranged from 2.5 to 3.0 mg/L. In in vitro bioassays it was found that amino acids as a basic source of nitrogen did not activate germination of conidia of Peltaster fructicola (Johnson). However amino acids stimulated elongation of germ tubes and early hyphal growth. It was confirmed that fruit washings also contained sugars that stimulated both conidial germination and germ tube elongation. We proved also that different carbon to nitrogen proportions significantly affected P. fructicola growth. Proportions of C:N were evaluated according to newly introduced amino acid sugar index (ASI)

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Beata Wrona
Mark Gleason

Abstrakt

A nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Polish laboratory culture), SeMNPV (P), morphologically similar to the viral bioinsecticide virus Spod-XR, was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis based on three conserved baculovirus genes, polh, lef-8 and pif-2, showed the highest homology of SeMNPV (P) to Mamestra brassicae (Mb) MNPV and M. configurata (Maco) MNPV, and much less to SeMNPV (Spod-XR). These findings were confirmed by genomic DNA restriction profile analyses. Bioassays revealed that SeMNPV isolated from the commercial bioinsecticide Spod-XR was themost infectious for S. exigua, while the infectivity of SeMNPV (P) and MbMNPV was significantly lower. These data suggest that SeMNPV (P) is a variant of MbMNPV.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Agata Jakubowska

Abstrakt

The presented studies revealed the usefulness of spruce oil, basil oil, juniper oil and clove oil in monitoring of the occurrence of pea leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard). While using above mentioned oils on yellow sticky traps, it was found that the number of trapped insects increased significantly. In relation to the control (traps without any addition of aromatic substance), the increase amounted to: 561.33%, 287.95%, 159.74% and 130.77%, respectively.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Romuald Górski

Abstrakt

Evaluation offruits and leaves ofseventeen apple cultivars in respect of their attraction as food for caterpillars of leafroller species occurring in an experimental apple orchard was carried out over 1995 to 1998 in the Institute of Pomology and Floriculture at Skierniewice. The highest levels ofinjuries were observed on two cultivars: ‘Ligol’ and ‘Elstar’. High number ofinjured fruits was noted on the following cultivars: ‘Gala’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Cortland’, ‘Idared’, ‘Lodel’ and ‘Szampion’. By far the number of injured fruits was lower on ‘Lobo’ and ‘Jonathan’, and the least on ‘Rubinette’, ‘Starkrimson’ and ‘Gloster’. Significant differences in the number of caterpillars settled down in leaf/flower clusters ofparticular cultivars during the vernal period were also confirmed. In each season the highest number ofcaterpillars of Pandemis heparana and Archips rosana were observed on leaves of‘Alwa’. To cultivars whose leaves were also readily settled down by the two aforementioned species were: ‘Jonathan’, ‘Cortland’, ‘Ligol’, ‘Lobo’, ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Elstar’. Relatively less caterpillars were observed on leaves of‘Arlet’, ‘Gloster’, ‘Szampion’, ‘Starkrimson’, ‘Pilot’, ‘Pinowa’ and ‘Rubinette’.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zofia Płuciennik
Remigiusz W. Olszak

Abstrakt

In 1993–1997 the occurrence of cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) and predators from Cecidomyiidae, Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae was observed on the nine different late cabbage vegetables; Savoy cabbage cv. ‘Vertus’, white cabbage cv. ‘Amager’, red cabbage cv. ‘Langendijker’, brussel sprouts cv. ‘Maczuga’, cauliflower cv. ‘Pionier’, blue kohlrabi cv. ‘Masłowa’, white kohlrabi cv. ‘Delikates’, kale cv. ‘Zielony Kędzierzawy’ and broccoli cv. ‘Piast’. Among the examined predators only the cecidomyiid – Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. (Cecidomyiidae) played an important role in reducing the number of cabbage aphids. The cruciferous species had no impact on the density of A. aphidimyza population, and females laying eggs. The size of aphid colonies on cabbage leaves played the most important role.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Beata Jankowska

Abstrakt

Chemical plant protection is still an indispensable method in effective potato protection against Colorado potato beetle – CPB – (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) in Poland. This species is able to develop strong resistance against all active substances used in chemical and biological insecticides. The phenomenon of resistance is variable in time and in space. Therefore the objective of the study was to determine the present susceptibility level of Polish populations of CPB to main groups of insecticides recommended in Poland for CPB control.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paweł Węgorek

Abstrakt

In this paper we present the first identification of the Tomato clack ring virus isolated from zucchini with mosaic and deformation of leaves in Poland. Immunosorbent electron microscopy, ELISA test and IC-RT-PCR confirmed the identification of TBRV. RNA extracted from purified virus (size about 7.4 kb and 4.6 kb) was characteristic to this virus.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Henryk Pospieszny
Natasza Borodynko

Redakcja

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Kontakt

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instrukcje dla autorów

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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