Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | Journal of Plant Protection Research | Journal of Plant Protection Research | Journal of Plant Protection Research |

Abstract

There are few reports in literature about the selectivity of postemergence application of herbicides for the control of eudicotyledon weeds (broadleaf) in chickpea. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the selectivity of diphenyl-ether herbicides in chickpea influenced by the herbicides and application rates. A field experiment was conducted from February to June 2017 in Urutaí, state of Goiás, Brazil. Cultivar BRS Aleppo was used in the experiment. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement and three replications. The first factor was herbicides (fomesafen and lactofen) with the second factor being herbicide rate (50, 75, and 100% of referenced rate) plus an untreated check as a comparison. The applied rates of herbicides were 250 and 180 g ⋅ ha–1 of fomesafen and lactofen, respectively. The selectivity of herbicides was evaluated according to agronomic characteristics (plant population, height, dry matter, number of pods per plant and 100-grain weight) and yields. Both herbicides, regardless of dosage, were selective in chickpea cultivation, even exhibiting leaf necrosis symptoms with visible injuries below 20% with no effect on yield.

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Abstract

Globally more than 5.2 billion hectares of farming fields are damaged through erosion, salinity and soil deterioration. Many salt stress tolerant bacteria have plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics that can be used to overcome environmental stresses. Isolation and screening of salt-tolerant endophytes from Salicornia brachiata were achieved through surface sterilization of leaves followed by cultivation on 4% NaCl amended media. Performance of isolates towards indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, ammonia production, siderophore production and stress tolerance were determined. On the basis of the highest plant growth promoting activity, SbCT4 and SbCT7 isolates were tested for plant growth promotion with wheat and maize crops. In the present study, a total of 12 morphologically distinct salt-tolerant endophytic bacteria was cultured. Out of 12 isolates, 42% of salt-tolerant endophytes showed phosphate solubilization, 67% IAA production, 33% ACC-deaminase activity, 92% siderophore production, 41.6% ammonia production and 66% HCN production. A dendrogram, generated on the basis of stress tolerance, showed two clusters, each including five isolates. The bacterial isolates SbCT4 and SbCT7 showed the highest stress tolerance, and stood separately as an independent branch. Bacterial isolates increased wheat shoot and root dry weights by 60–82% and 50–100%, respectively. Similarly, improved results were obtained with maize shoot (27–150%) and root (80–126%) dry weights. For the first time from this plant the bacterial isolates were identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa SbCT4 and Bacillus subtilis SbCT7 based on phenotypic features and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Paenibacillus polymyxa SbCT4 and B. subtilis SbCT7 significantly improved plant growth compared to non-inoculated trials.

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Abstract

Polyphenol oxidase partial gene PG-PPO was cloned and characterized from Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) which showed 42% identity to a PPO sequence isolated from wheat at the region of Copper B with a score of 40 and e-value of 2.8. Multiple sequence alignment results revealed similarity to polyphenol oxidase (PPO) sequences from wheat, trifolium, lettuce, apricot, tobacco, tomato, pokeweed, apple, grape and poplar especially at the Copper B region of PPO. The 395 bp pearl millet PPO sequence was AT rich (53.3%) and contained the highly conserved amino acids of histidine-rich copper binding sites similar to PPO sequences from other crops. Results also indicated that PPO in pearl millet exists in multi copy. The role of the isolated PPO gene during pearl millet-downy mildew interaction was analyzed and the results showed significantly higher and rapid accumulation of PPO mRNAs in resistant pearl millet seedlings inoculated with Sclerospora graminicola in comparison to the susceptible control, demonstrating that the PPO plays a prominent role in pearl millet defense against pathogens, particularly downy mildew pathogen.

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Abstract

The association of phytoplasma was investigated in sand olive [Dodonaea viscosa ssp. Angustifolia (L. f.) J.G. West], cowpea [Vigna unguiclata (L.)] Wap and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants exhibiting witches broom, fasciation and little leaf symptoms, respectively. Sequence analysis of ~1.7 kb DNA fragments amplified by P1/P7 primer set confirmed the association of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ within symptomatic alfalfa, while ‘Ca. Phytoplasma cynodontis’ was associated within cowpea and sand olive.

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Abstract

Tomato is an economically important vegetable crop which is attacked heavily by insect pests leading to reduction of yield and quality of the fruits. Field experiments were carried out to investigate the dissipation of methomyl (a common insecticide) used mainly on tomato fruits. LC-MS/MS coupled with the QuEChERS method were used for the determination of methomyl. The results showed that the recovery using matrix-matched standards ranged from 87.8 to 101.3%, with relative standard deviation of 2.5 to 7.5%. Kinetics equation, Log R = log R0 – 0.434 Kt, was used to calculate the rate of degradation in tomato, soil and water. Residue half-life calculated using kinetic rate ranged from 1.95 to 1.63 days in tomato and soil, respectively. From the results it was concluded that tomato fruits can be safely harvested for consumption after 15 days of application based on estimated preharvest interval (PHI). It is advisable to re-estimate the PHI regularly owing to data from the EU and Codex.

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Abstract

The insecticidal efficiency of Ag-loaded 4A-zeolite (ZAg) and its formulations with Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (RO) was evaluated against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). For comparison, different rates of ZAg (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g ⋅ kg–1 wheat) were used solely and in a combination with LC50 concentrations of RO. Mortality was assessed after 7, 14, and 21 days of insect exposure to treated wheat. The progeny production was also evaluated. The use of ZAg accomplished a complete mortality (100%) on S. oryzae and 96.67% on R. dominica as well as 100% mortality of progeny against the two insect species after the longest exposing duration (21 days), at the highest rate (1 g ⋅ kg–1). On the other hand, the complete mortalities of ZAg formulations on S. oryzae were obtained after 14 d of treatment with F1 formulation (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.25 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) and after 7 days with the other tested formulations. In addition, the complete mortality on R. dominica was obtained only by F8 (0.059 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 1 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) formulation after 14 days of treatment. Concerning the efficiency of the examined formulations on the progeny of S. oryzae, F1 (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.25 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) and F2 (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.5 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) formulations recorded 100% mortality. In addition, F3 (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.75 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) and F4 (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 1 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) formulations suppressed the progeny production. Furthermore, the complete mortality of R. dominica progeny was obtained with F7 (0.059 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.75 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) and F8 (0.059 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 1 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) formulations. ZAg, especially its formulations with R. officinalis oil, had potential effects against two stored-product insects. F1 and F8 formulations could be treated efficiently on S. oryzae and R. dominica, respectively.

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Abstract

Root associated bacteria were isolated from Suaeda nudiflora and two isolates were selected for this study: rhizospheric Bacillus megaterium and endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These isolates were inoculated into maize variety Narmada Moti during its germination. TTC (2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) staining was used to confirm the association of the isolates with the maize root. The effects of these root associated bacteria were tested alone and in combinations for cell wall reinforcement and the induction of defense enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and β-1,3-glucanase in the presence of fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger in maize. The results indicated that the rhizospheric bacteria had a greater fight response to fungal infection than the endophhytic bacteria due to cell wall lignification as well as the rapid induction of higher concentrations of defense related enzymes.

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Abstract

In the present study, the effects of 10, 20, 30 ppm hormone mixtures (indole-3-acetic acid + gibberellic acid + kinetin) with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ppm zinc (Zn) concentrations alone and their mixtures on the cambial activity of sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris Miller) cuttings were investigated. Morphological and anatomical developments of the plants were observed. The leaves of the plants treated with zinc were found to be greener than the control. Plants treated with zinc faded earlier than the control. The cambial zone thickness, the cambial zone cell line, the radial and tangential lengths of the cambial zone cells decreased with increasing concentrations of zinc and increased with increasing concentrations of hormones. The radial and tangential wall widths of the cambial zone cells increased with increasing zinc concentrations and decreased with increasing hormone concentrations. As a result, in the 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ppm Zn concentrations, the cambial zone thickness decreased by 10, 28, 50 and 65%, respectively, compared to the control. Thirty ppm hormone mixture – H.M. (indole-3-acetic acid + gibberellic acid + kinetin) increased the cambial zone thickness by 65, 15, 5% in 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 Zn, respectively, compared to the control. It was found that plant hormones importantly improved the harmful effects of zinc on the cambial activity of the plant cuttings.

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Abstract

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), an important food crop in the world, is susceptible to many fungal pathogens including Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum causing Fusarium wilt and early blight diseases. Mycoparasitic fungi like Trichoderma encode chitinases, cell wall degrading enzymes, with high antifungal activity against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, a binary vector harboring endochitinase gene of ~1,000 bp was constructed and used to transform potato nodes through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Out of several primary transformants, two transgenic potato lines were verified for transgene insertion and integration by Southern blot. In a pot experiment for Fusarium resistance, the transgenic potato lines didn’t show any symptoms of disease, instead they remained healthy post infection. The transgenic potato lines exhibited 1.5 fold higher mRNA expression of endochitinase at 7 days as compared to 0 day post fungus inoculation. It was evident that the mRNA expression decreased over days of inoculation but was still higher than at 0 day and remained stable upto 30 days post inoculation. Similarly, for A. solani infection assay, the mRNA expression of the endochitinase gene was 3 fold higher 7 days post inoculation compared to expression at 0 day. Although the expression decreased by1.2 fold during subsequent days post infection, it remained stable for 30 days, suggesting that protection in transgenic potato plants against fungal pathogens was achieved through an increase in endochitinase transcript.

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Abstract

Genetically modified Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) leaves with typical symptoms of Alternaria early blight disease resembling that of tomato and potato were observed in the main cotton growing schemes in Sudan. Symptoms on leaves appeared as either brown 2leaf spot with gray centers or leaf blight with concentric rings. Pathogenicity tests using isolates with both symptoms showed that the isolated fungi were highly pathogenic to both G. hirsutum and G. barbadense cotton varieties. Alternaria alternata isolated from infected tomato and potato leaves with early blight symptoms was included for comparison. Microscopic examination showed that the mean length of conidia from cotton, tomato and potato isolates ranged from 26.25 to 45.45 μm, while the width ranged from 9.56 to 13.64 μm. The mean number of transverse septa among all isolates was 3.4 to 5.7 and the peak length ranged from 3.75 to 7.8 μm. Based on morphological characteristics the two isolates from cotton were identified as A. alternata. Genomic DNA was extracted directly from fungal cultures grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates using a Zymo Research Quick DNA kit. A species-specific primer using the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) PCR scoring indicated the presence of A. alternata using primer pair ITS4/ITS5. Amplifications of the internal transcribed spacer region of 600 bp revealed 100% identity of the isolated fungus from cotton with A. alternata from tomato and potato. These data oblige us to reconsider the presence of A. alternata in the four main cotton growing schemes in Sudan while these symptoms have always been described for tomato and potato early blight disease.

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Abstract

Rice blast is one of the most destructive rice diseases known to cause considerable yield losses globally. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are closely associated with rice plants and improve plant growth and health. To determine how isolated bacteria trigger rice growth, an assessment of phosphate solubilization and auxin production mechanisms was carried out in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the interactions between PGPR and Rhizophagus irregularis were evaluated in wildtype and CYCLOPS mutant plants to provide a sustainable solution against blast disease and reduce the amount of yield loss. Importantly, Bacillus subtilis UTSP40 and Pseudomonas fluorescens UTSP50 exhibited a suppressive effect on AMF colonization which shows the probable existence of a functional competition between AMF and PGPR to dominate the rhizosphere. On the other hand, R. irregularis decreased the biocontrol activity of B. subtilis UTSP40 in wild type, although this reduction was not significant in mutant plants. Results showed that the same defense-related genes were induced in the roots of wild type colonized by B. subtilis UTSP40 and R. irregularis. Therefore, plant cell programs may be shared during root colonization by these two groups of beneficial microorganisms.

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Abstract

Cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) are distributed globally and cause severe production losses of small grain cereals. To investigate the occurrence of cereal cyst nematodes in wheat-growing areas of Algeria, a survey was conducted and 27 cereal cyst nematode populations were collected. The populations were initially identified based on their morphological and morphometric characters, followed by molecular methods using speciesspecific primers, complemented by ITS-rDNA sequences. The morphological and morphometric features of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and cysts supported the presence of three Heterodera species: H. avenae, H. filipjevi and H. hordecalis. All morphological values of these distinct populations were very similar to those previously described for these species. Using species-specific primers for H. avenae and H. filipjevi, the specific bands of 109 bp and 646 bp confirmed the morphological identification of both species, respectively. In addition, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were sequenced to study the diversity of the 27 populations. These sequences were compared with those of Heterodera species available in the GenBank database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and re-confirmed the identity of the species. Nineteen sequences of ITS-rDNA were similar (99–100%) to the sequences of H. avenae published in the GenBank, six sequences were similar (99–100%) to H. hordecalis, and two were similar (98–99%) to H. filipjevi. The results of this study are of great value to breeding programs and extension services, where they will contribute to the design of control measures to keep damaging nematodes in check.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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