Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2011 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

The Histogram Test method is a popular technique in analog-to-digital converter (ADC) testing. The presence of additive noise in the test setup or in the ADC itself can potentially affect the accuracy of the test results. In this study, we demonstrate that additive noise causes a bias in the terminal based estimation of the gain but not in the estimation of the offset. The estimation error is determined analytically as a function of the sinusoidal stimulus signal amplitude and the noise standard deviation. We derive an exact but computationally difficult expression as well as a simpler closed form approximation that provides an upper bound of the bias of the terminal based gain. The estimators are validated numerically using a Monte Carlo procedure with simulated and experimental data.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

F. Alegria
Nestor Tiglao

Abstrakt

Owing to the dramatic change in the thermal conductivity of 4He when its temperature crosses the transition of superfluid (HeI) and normalfluid (HeII), a sealed-cell with a capillary is used to realize the lambda transition temperature, Tλ. A small heat flow is controlled through the capillary of the sealed-cell so as to realize the coexistence of HeI and HeII and maintain the stay of HeI/HeII interface in the capillary. A stable and flat lambda transition temperature "plateau" is obtained. Because there is a depression effect of Tλ caused by the heat flow through the capillary, a series of heat flows and several temperature plateaus are made and an extrapolation is applied to determine Tλ with zero heat flow. A rhodium-iron resistance thermometer with series number A34 (RIRT A34) has been used in 24 Tλ -realization experiments to derive Tλ with a standard deviation of 0.022mK, which proves the stability and reproducibility of Tλ.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

L. Yin
P. Lin
J. Zhao
X. Qi

Abstrakt

Signal analysis performed during surface texture measurement frequently involves applying the Fourier transform. The method is particularly useful for assessing roundness and cylindrical profiles. Since the wavelet transform is becoming a common tool for signal analysis in many metrological applications, it is vital to evaluate its suitability for surface texture profiles. The research presented in this paper focused on signal decomposition and reconstruction during roundness profile measurement and the effect of these processes on the changes in selected roundness profile parameters. The calculations were carried out on a sample of 100 roundness profiles for 12 different forms of mother wavelets using MATLAB. The use of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients allowed us to evaluate the relationship between the two chosen criteria for selecting the optimal mother wavelet.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Włodzimierz Makieła
Stanisław Adamczak

Abstrakt

This paper deals with the experimental validation of the suitability of the method for measuring radial variations of components on the process tool. The tests were conducted using a computerized PSA6, which was compared to a Talyrond 73. The results of measurement of roundness deviations as well as roundness profiles were analyzed for a sample of 70 shafts. The roundness deviations were assessed by determining the experimental errors, while the profiles obtained with the tested device were compared to those registered by the reference device using three correlation coefficients.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Stępień
Włodzimierz Makieła
Stanisław Adamczak
Adam Janusiewicz

Abstrakt

Air core solenoids, possibly single layer and with significant spacing between turns, are often used to ensure low stray capacitance, as they are used as part of many sensors and instruments. The problem of the correct estimation of the stray capacitance is relevant both during design and to validate measurement results; the expected value is so low to be influenced by any stray capacitance of the external measurement instrument. A simplified method is proposed that does not perturb the stray capacitance of the solenoid under test; the method is based on resonance with an external capacitor and on the use of a linear regression technique.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Mariscotti

Abstrakt

This paper describes the theoretical background of electromagnetic induction from metal objects modelling. The response function of a specific case of object shape - a homogenous sphere from ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic material is introduced. Experimental data measured by a metal detector excited with a linearly frequency-swept signal are presented. As a testing target various spheres from different materials and sizes were used. These results should lead to better identification of the buried object.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Josef Vedral
Jakub Svatoš
Pavel Fexa

Abstrakt

Inductive loop sensors are widely used for detection of presence, measurement of parameters as well as classification of vehicles. Vehicle classification may be performed based on their magnetic profiles. The magnetic profile is a signal which is proportional to the resultant of an impedance change of the sensor, caused by the measured object (the changes are minor - of the order of 1%). Generator and bridge circuits are most commonly used as conditioning circuits for such sensors. As a result we can obtain one output signal proportional to total changes of sensor parameters (R and L). In this paper, a modified bridge circuit that allows independent measurement of the components (R and L) of the sensor's impedance, has been proposed. With that provided, it is possible to receive broader information on the object, which allows higher classification resolution. This paper provides the concept of a circuit, model testing results, processing algorithms used and the test results of a real circuit.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zbigniew Marszałek
Ryszard Sroka
Marek Stencel

Abstrakt

Field programmable analog arrays (FPAA), thanks to their flexibility and reconfigurability, give the designers quite new possibilities in analog circuit design. The number of both academic projects on FPAA and applications of commercially available programmable devices is still growing. This paper explores the properties and parameters of two most popular FPAA circuits: the AnadigmVortex AN221E04 and AnadigmApex AN231E04 from the Anadigm company. The research conducted by the authors led to the discovery of some undocumented features of these devices. Several applications for audio processing were built and tested. The results show that these circuits can be used in medium-demanding audio applications. Thanks to dynamic reconfigurability, they also allow to build an universal analog audio signal processor. These circuits can also act as a versatile platform for rapid prototyping and educational purposes.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Falkowski
Andrzej Malcher

Abstrakt

Automation in experiments carried out on animals is getting more and more important in research. Computers take over laborious and time-consuming activities like recording and analysing images of the experiment scene. The first step in an image analysis is finding and distinguishing between the observed animals and then tracking all objects during the experiment. In this paper four tracking methods are presented. Quantitative and qualitative figures of merit are applied to confront those methods. The comparison takes into consideration the level of correct object recognition during different disturbances, the speed of computation, requirements as to the frame rate and image illumination, quality of recovering from occluded situations and others.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Magdalena Mazur-Milecka
Antoni Nowakowski

Abstrakt

In this paper, an experimental surface roughness analysis in milling of tungsten carbide using a monolithic torus cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool is presented. The tungsten carbide was received using direct laser deposition technology (DLD). The depth of cut (ap), feed per tooth (fz) and tool wear (VBc) influence on surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz) were investigated. The cutting forces and accelerations of vibrations were measured in order to estimate their quantitative influence on Ra and Rz parameters. The surface roughness analysis, from the point of view of milling dynamics was carried out. The dominative factor in the research was not feed per tooth fz (according to a theoretical model) but dynamical phenomena and feed per revolution f connected with them.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paweł Twardowski

Abstrakt

The paper presents a heuristic approach to the problem of analog circuit diagnosis. Different optimization techniques in the field of test point selection are discussed. Two new algorithms: SALTO and COSMO have been introduced. Both searching procedures have been implemented in a form of the expert system in PROLOG language. The proposed methodologies have been exemplified on benchmark circuits. The obtained results have been compared to the others achieved by different approaches in the field and the benefits of the proposed methodology have been emphasized. The inference engine of the heuristic algorithms has been presented and the expert system knowledge-base construction discussed.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Pułka

Abstrakt

The converging-diverging structure is introduced to extend the lower limit of measurement of vortex flowmeters. As a compact device, the converging-diverging vortex flowmeter is proposed and designed, and its performance is studied experimentally. It is found that, first of all, an up to 51% extension of the lower measurement limit can be realized through the converging-diverging structure, compared with conventional vortex flowmeters; second, the converging-diverging vortex flowmeter with a trapezoidal bluff body has a larger Strouhal number and smaller pressure loss. The results suggest that the converging-diverging vortex flowmeter provides an alternative device especially suitable for the measurement of low-velocity fluids.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zhiqiang Sun

Abstrakt

The method of a phase shift angle measurement using conditional averaging of delayed signal absolute value (CAAV) is presented in this paper. The input sinusoidal signal x(t) is without noise. White noise with normal distribution and band limited to low frequencies has been applied as disturbance of delayed sinusoidal signal z(t). Noise n(t) - N(0, σn) is added to the delayed signal - the noised and delayed signal z(t) is obtained. The phase angle shift is proportional to time location of CAAV's minimum (minimum of the characteristic of conditional averaging of delayed signal's absolute value). The phase angle shift can be determined on the basis of conditional averaging value of elaborated algorithm. The characteristics of conditional average of delayed signal's absolute value in the surrounding of the minimum of this function (the results of practical investigations and theoretical calculation) are presented. The experimental variance of characteristic CAAV in surroundings of the minimum (obtained from practical investigations and calculation) is illustrated in the paper. The algorithms of conditional averaging have been elaborated and practically realized in the LabVIEW environment.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Adam Kowalczyk
Anna Szlachta

Abstrakt

An electronic system and an algorithm for estimating pedestrian geographic location in urban terrain is reported in the paper. Different sources of kinematic and positioning data are acquired (i.e.: accelerometer, gyroscope, GPS receiver, raster maps of terrain) and jointly processed by a Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm based on the particle filtering scheme. These data are processed and fused to estimate the most probable geographical location of the user. A prototype system was designed, built and tested with a view to aiding blind pedestrians. It was shown in the conducted field trials that the method yields superior results to sole GPS readouts. Moreover, the estimated location of the user can be effectively sustained when GPS fixes are not available (e.g. tunnels).

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Przemysław Barański
Maciej Polańczyk
Pawel Strumillo

Abstrakt

A practical method with high accuracy in generation and application of error values for calibration of current transformer test sets is described. A PC-controlled three-phase power source with a standard wattmeter is used for generating the nominal and error test currents while an electronically compensated current comparator is used to provide summation and subtraction of them, precisely. With this method, any ratio error and phase displacement values could be generated automatically and nominal and test currents could be grounded on the test set safely. Because of its high accurate ratio and phase error generating capability, any type of test set regardless of its operating principles could be calibrated.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Hüseyin Çaycı

Redakcja

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief
Ryszard SZPLET
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: ryszard.szplet@wat.edu.pl

Vice Editor-in-Chief
Paweł KWIATKOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: pawel.kwiatkowski@wat.edu.pl

Technical Editor and Webmaster

Dominik SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: dominik.sondej@wat.edu.pl

Language Editor

Andrzej ŁUKASZEWICZ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: andrzej.lukaszewicz@wat.edu.pl


International Programme Committee


Andrzej ZAJĄC,
Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland
Bruno ANDO
University of Catania, Italy
Martin BURGHOFF
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
Marcantonio CATELANI
University of Florence, Italy
Numan DURAKBASA
Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Janusz GAJDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
Domenico GRIMALDI
University of Calabria, Italy
Laszlo KISH
Texas A&M University, USA
Juha KOSTAMOVAARA
University of Oulu, Finland
Eduard LLOBET
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Alex MASON
Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Janusz MROCZKA
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
Antoni ROGALSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
Wiesław WOLIŃSKI
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Associate Editors

Sławomir CIĘSZCZYK
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: s.cieszczyk@pollub.pl
Albin CZUBLA
Central Office of Measure, Poland
e-mail: albin.czubla@gum.gov.pl
Vladimir DIMCHEV
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
e-mail: vladim@feit.ukim.edu.mk
Krzysztof DUDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: kduda@agh.edu.pl
Agnieszka IWAN
Military University of Land Forces, Poland
e-mail: agnieszka.iwan@awl.edu.pl
Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: ireneusz.jablonski@pwr.wroc.pl
Jacek JAKUBOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jacek.jakubowski@wat.edu.pl
Jussi-Pekka JANSSON
University of Oulu, Finland
e-mail: jussi.jansson@oulu.fi
Mieczysław JESSA
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: mieczyslaw.jessa@put.poznan.pl
Piotr KANIEWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: piotr.kaniewski@wat.edu.pl
Piotr KISAŁA
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: p.kisala@pollub.pl
Manoj KUMAR
Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India
e-mail: my.hunn.manoj@gmail.com
Grzegorz LENTKA
Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
e-mail:lentka@eti.pg.edu.pl
Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ
Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: czeslaw.lukianowicz@tu.koszalin.pl
Rosario MORELLO
University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
e-mail: rosario.morello@unirc.it
Fernando PUENTE LEÓN
University Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: f.puente@me.com
Hamid M. SEDIGHI
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
e-mail: h.msedighi@scu.ac.ir
Petr SEDLAK
Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: sedlakp@feec.vutbr.cz
Tadeusz SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: tadeusz.sondej@wat.edu.pl
Mirosław SZMAJDA
Opole University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: m.szmajda@po.edu.pl
Michał STRZELECKI
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: michal.strzelecki@p.lodz.pl
Grzegorz ŚWIRNIAK
Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: grzegorz.swirniak@pwr.wroc.pl
Michał WIECZOROWSKI
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jmichal.wieczorowski@put.poznan.pl
Jacek WOJTAS
Military University of Technology, Poland

Kontakt

E-mail: metrology@wat.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.wat.edu.pl

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Military University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics
gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2
00-908 Warsaw
Poland

Instrukcje dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).
Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

Polityka Open Access

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

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