Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2011 | No 3 |

Abstrakt

This paper is devoted to multiple soft fault diagnosis of analog nonlinear circuits. A two-stage algorithm is offered enabling us to locate the faulty circuit components and evaluate their values, considering the component tolerances. At first a preliminary diagnostic procedure is performed, under the assumption that the non-faulty components have nominal values, leading to approximate and tentative results. Then, they are corrected, taking into account the fact that the non-faulty components can assume arbitrary values within their tolerance ranges. This stage of the algorithm is carried out using the linear programming method. As a result some ranges are obtained including possible values of the faulty components. The proposed approach is illustrated with two numerical examples.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Tadeusiewicz
Stanisław Hałgas

Abstrakt

This paper is devoted to the problem of the appearance of a stagnation region during Karman vortex shedding. This particular phenomenon has been addressed by G. Birkhoff in his model of vortices generation. Experimental results obtained by various research methods confirm the existence of a stagnation region. The properties of this stagnation region have been described based on experimental findings involving flow visualisation and hot-wire anemometry. Special attention has been paid to the relationship between the existence of a slit in the bluff body and the size of the stagnation region. The slit takes over the role of the stagnation region as an information channel for generating vortices.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Grzegorz Pankanin

Abstrakt

This paper presents an example of practical use of Prony's method for monitoring of power waveform fundamental harmonic fluctuations, which is required for the analysis of window synchronizations in frequency analyses in power monitoring systems. The example presented offers verification of the authors' theoretical considerations published earlier in articles about Prony's method and its opportunities for practical use for real life signals. The investigations shown are based on the least squares Prony's method, which, in connection with digital filtrations, enables estimations of fundamental frequency at the rate of even tens of times per one fundamental harmonic period.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Janusz Mroczka
Jarosław Zygarlicki

Abstrakt

This paper presents the general solution of the least-squares approximation of the frequency characteristic of the data window by linear functions combined with zero padding technique. The approximation characteristic can be discontinuous or continuous, what depends on the value of one approximation parameter. The approximation solution has an analytical form and therefore the results have universal character. The paper presents derived formulas, analysis of approximation accuracy, the exemplary characteristics and conclusions, which confirm high accuracy of the approximation. The presented solution is applicable to estimating methods, like the LIDFT method, visualizations, etc.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Józef Borkowski

Abstrakt

This paper presents a universal approximation of the unit circle by a polygon that can be used in signal processing algorithms. Optimal choice of the values of three parameters of this approximation allows one to obtain a high accuracy of approximation. The approximation described in the paper has a universal character and can be used in many signal processing algorithms, such as DFT, that use the mathematical form of the unit circle. One of the applications of the described approximation is the DFT linear interpolation method (LIDFT). Applying the results of the presented paper to improve the LIDFT method allows one to significantly decrease the errors in estimating the amplitudes and frequencies of multifrequency signal components. The paper presents the derived formulas, an analysis of the approximation accuracy and the region of best values for the approximation parameters.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Józef Borkowski

Abstrakt

Surface roughness parameter prediction and evaluation are important factors in determining the satisfactory performance of machined surfaces in many fields. The recent trend towards the measurement and evaluation of surface roughness has led to renewed interest in the use of newly developed non-contact sensors. In the present work, an attempt has been made to measure the surface roughness parameter of different machined surfaces using a high sensitivity capacitive sensor. A capacitive response model is proposed to predict theoretical average capacitive surface roughness and compare it with the capacitive sensor measurement results. The measurements were carried out for 18 specimens using the proposed capacitive-sensor-based non-contact measurement setup. The results show that surface roughness values measured using a sensor well agree with the model output. For ground and milled surfaces, the correlation coefficients obtained are high, while for the surfaces generated by shaping, the correlation coefficient is low. It is observed that the sensor can effectively assess the fine and moderate rough-machined surfaces compared to rough surfaces generated by a shaping process. Furthermore, a linear regression model is proposed to predict the surface roughness from the measured average capacitive roughness. It can be further used in on-machine measurement, on-line monitoring and control of surface roughness in the machine tool environment.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Murugarajan
G. Samuel

Abstrakt

Industrial applications require functional surfaces with a strictly defined micro-texture. Therefore engineered surfaces need to undergo a wide range of finishing processes. One of them is the belt grinding process, which changes the surface topography on a range of roughness and micro-roughness scales. The article describes the use of machined surface images in the monitoring process of micro-smoothing. Machined surface images were applied in the estimation of machined surface quality. The images were decomposed using two-dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform. The approximation component was analyzed and described by the features representing the geometric parameters of image objects. Determined values of image features were used to create the model of the process and estimation of appropriate time of micro-smoothing.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anna Zawada-Tomkiewicz
Ryszard Ściegienka

Abstrakt

The work presented here, concentrates on experimental surface roughness analysis in the milling of hardened steel using a monolithic torus mill. Machined surface roughness with respect to milling process dynamics has been investigated. The surface roughness model including cutter displacements has been developed. Cutting forces and cutter displacements (vibrations) were measured in order to estimate their quantitative influence on Ra and Rz parameters. The cutter displacements were measured online using a scanning 3D laser vibrometer. The influence of cutting speed vc on surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz) was also studied. The research revealed that real surface roughness parameters are significantly higher than those calculated on the basis of a kinematic-geometric basic model, and their values are strongly dependent on dynamic cutter displacements.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Szymon Wojciechowski

Abstrakt

Advanced metallic material processes (titanium) are used or developed for the production of heavily loaded flying components (in fan blade construction). The article presents one process for diagnosing the blade interior by means of laser ultrasonography. The inspection of these parts, which are mainly made of titanium, requires the determination of the percentage of bonded grain sizes from around 10 to 30 μm. This is primarily due to the advantages of a high signal-to-noise ratio and good detection sensitivity. The results of the research into the internal blade structure are attached.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paweł Swornowski

Abstrakt

Currently the high-precision event timers represent powerful tools for time measurement in various applications, including jitter measurement. Applied potential of this technology is illustrated by the example of clock jitter measurement and analysis based on the application of a high-precision event timer. The basic measurement procedures resulting in estimations of commonly used jitter parameters (such as accumulated jitter, period jitter, clock-to-clock jitter) are discussed. An approach to informal interpretation of statistical jitter characteristics based on theoretical jitter model and results of computer simulation is offered. Experimental results of jitter measurement and analysis for high-precision clock oscillators confirm the assumption that currently the event timing can provide for jitter measurement precision comparable with traditional oscilloscope-based techniques.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yuri Artyukh
Eugeny Boole

Abstrakt

The paper presents a procedure for correction of the error of an ECG signal, introduced by the skin-electrode interface. This procedure involves three main measuring-calculating stages: parametrical identification of the mathematical model of the interface, realized directly before the diagnostic measurements, registration of the signal at the output of electrodes as well as reconstruction of the input signal of the interface.

The first two stages are realized in the on-line mode, whereas the operation of signal reconstruction presents a numerical task of digital signal processing and is realized in the off-line mode through deconvolution of the registered signal with the transfer function of the skin-electrode interface.

The aim of the paper is to discuss in detail the procedure of parametric identification of the skin-electrode interface with the use of a computer system equipped with a DAQ card and LabVIEW software. The algorithm for error correction introduced by this interface is also presented.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Tomczyk

Abstrakt

In this paper, we propose a concept of a continuous-time filter of constant component that exhibits a very short response in the time domain if compared to the traditional time-invariant filter. The improvement of the filter dynamics was achieved as a result of the time-varying parameters which were introduced to the filter structure. Such a designed filter is then applied in a system which switches many distorted signals which should be filtered as fast as possible. The paper is of review nature and presents both a theoretical background of the proposed filter and the results of simulations.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jacek Piskorowski
Roman Kaszyński

Abstrakt

The error reduction technique, based on inverse transformation, for a shunt active resistance measurement using an ammeter and voltmeter is considered. When computing a corrected reading only multiplicative operations on two measurement results are used, namely squaring and division. The proposed method allows to increase re-sistance measurement accuracy by about two orders of magnitude what has been validated by both theoretical and experimental outcomes.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sergey Muravyov
Galina Zlygosteva
Valeriy Borikov

Abstrakt

This paper considers a method for indirect measuring the vertical displacement of wheels resulting from the road profile, using an inverse parametric data-driven model. Wheel movement is required in variable damping suspension systems, which use an onboard electronic control system that improves ride quality and vehicle handling in typical maneuvres. This paper presents a feasibility study of such an approach which was performed in laboratory conditions. Experimental validation tests were conducted on a setup consisting of a servo-hydraulic test rig equipped with displacement, force and acceleration transducers and a data-acquisition system. The fidelity and adequacy of various parametric SISO model structures were evaluated in the time domain based on correlation coefficient, FPE and AIC criteria. The experimental test results showed that inverse models provide accuracy of inversion, ranging from more than 70% for the ARX model structure to over 90% for the OE model structure.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Czop

Redakcja

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief
Ryszard SZPLET
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: ryszard.szplet@wat.edu.pl

Vice Editor-in-Chief
Paweł KWIATKOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: pawel.kwiatkowski@wat.edu.pl

Technical Editor and Webmaster

Dominik SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: dominik.sondej@wat.edu.pl

Language Editor

Andrzej ŁUKASZEWICZ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: andrzej.lukaszewicz@wat.edu.pl


International Programme Committee


Andrzej ZAJĄC,
Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland
Bruno ANDO
University of Catania, Italy
Martin BURGHOFF
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
Marcantonio CATELANI
University of Florence, Italy
Numan DURAKBASA
Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Janusz GAJDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
Domenico GRIMALDI
University of Calabria, Italy
Laszlo KISH
Texas A&M University, USA
Juha KOSTAMOVAARA
University of Oulu, Finland
Eduard LLOBET
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Alex MASON
Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Janusz MROCZKA
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
Antoni ROGALSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
Wiesław WOLIŃSKI
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Associate Editors

Sławomir CIĘSZCZYK
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: s.cieszczyk@pollub.pl
Albin CZUBLA
Central Office of Measure, Poland
e-mail: albin.czubla@gum.gov.pl
Vladimir DIMCHEV
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
e-mail: vladim@feit.ukim.edu.mk
Krzysztof DUDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: kduda@agh.edu.pl
Agnieszka IWAN
Military University of Land Forces, Poland
e-mail: agnieszka.iwan@awl.edu.pl
Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: ireneusz.jablonski@pwr.wroc.pl
Jacek JAKUBOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jacek.jakubowski@wat.edu.pl
Jussi-Pekka JANSSON
University of Oulu, Finland
e-mail: jussi.jansson@oulu.fi
Mieczysław JESSA
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: mieczyslaw.jessa@put.poznan.pl
Piotr KANIEWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: piotr.kaniewski@wat.edu.pl
Piotr KISAŁA
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: p.kisala@pollub.pl
Manoj KUMAR
Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India
e-mail: my.hunn.manoj@gmail.com
Grzegorz LENTKA
Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
e-mail:lentka@eti.pg.edu.pl
Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ
Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: czeslaw.lukianowicz@tu.koszalin.pl
Rosario MORELLO
University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
e-mail: rosario.morello@unirc.it
Fernando PUENTE LEÓN
University Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: f.puente@me.com
Hamid M. SEDIGHI
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
e-mail: h.msedighi@scu.ac.ir
Petr SEDLAK
Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: sedlakp@feec.vutbr.cz
Tadeusz SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: tadeusz.sondej@wat.edu.pl
Mirosław SZMAJDA
Opole University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: m.szmajda@po.edu.pl
Michał STRZELECKI
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: michal.strzelecki@p.lodz.pl
Grzegorz ŚWIRNIAK
Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: grzegorz.swirniak@pwr.wroc.pl
Michał WIECZOROWSKI
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jmichal.wieczorowski@put.poznan.pl
Jacek WOJTAS
Military University of Technology, Poland

Kontakt

E-mail: metrology@wat.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.wat.edu.pl

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Military University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics
gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2
00-908 Warsaw
Poland

Instrukcje dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).
Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

Polityka Open Access

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

Ta strona wykorzystuje pliki 'cookies'. Więcej informacji