Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2010 | No 2 |

Abstrakt

A checkweigher is an automatic machine to measure the weight of in-motion products. It is usually located around the end of the production process and ensures the weight of a product within specified limits. Any products are taken out of line if their weights are out of the specified limits. It is usually equipped with an optical device. It is used to make a trigger to set the time duration to allow a product to move completely on the weigh belt for sampling the weight. In this paper, a new method of mass measurement for checkweighers is proposed which uses just signal processing without the optical device. The effectiveness of the method is shown through experiments. Also a possibility of faster estimation of weight is shown.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Kengo Fukuda
Koji Yoshida
Tetsuya Kinugasa
Morihito Kamon
Yoichiro Kagawa
Toshiro Ono

Abstrakt

This paper considers the problem of reconstructing a class of generalized sampled signals of which a special case occurs in, e.g., a generalized sampling system due to non-ideal analysis basis functions. To this end, we propose an improved reconstruction system and a reconstruction algorithm based on generalized inverse, which can be viewed as a reconstruction method that reduces reconstruction error as well. The key idea is to add an additional channel into a generalized sampling system and apply the generalized inverse theory to the reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the approach is applied, respectively, to an oscilloscope, which shows the proposed method yields better performance as compared to the existing technique.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zhu Zhaoxuan
Wang Houjun
Wang Zhigang
Zhang Hao

Abstrakt

A real narrowband noise signal representation in the form of an analytical signal in the Hilbert space is presented in the paper. This analytical signal is illustrated in a variable complex plane as a mark with defined amplitude, phase, pulsation and instantaneous frequency. A block diagram of a broadband product detector in a quadrature system is presented. Measurement results of an autocorrelation function of a noise signal are shown and the application of such solution in a noise radar for precise determination of distance changes as well as velocities of these changes are also presented. Conclusions and future plans for applications of the presented detection technique in broadband noise radars bring the paper to an end.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Waldemar Susek
Bronisław Stec

Abstrakt

In this paper, a comparison analysis of three different algorithms for the estimation of sine signal parameters in two-channel common frequency situations is presented. The relevance of this situation is clearly understood in multiple applications where the algorithms have been applied. They include impedance measurements, eddy currents testing, laser anemometry and radio receiver testing for example. The three algorithms belong to different categories because they are based on different approaches. The ellipse fit algorithm is a parametric fit based on the XY plot of the samples of both signals. The seven parameter sine fit algorithm is a least-squares algorithm based on the time domain fitting of a single tone sinewave model to the acquired samples. The spectral sinc fit performs a fitting in the frequency domain of the exact model of an acquired sinewave on the acquired spectrum. Multiple simulation situations and real measurements are included in the comparison to demonstrate the weaknesses and strong points of each algorithm.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Pedro Ramos
Fernando Janeiro
Tomáš Radil

Abstrakt

Paper deals with the new localizer GLOP2 designed for detection of the miners trapped in underground hard coal mines. The results of a field test conducted in coal mine BOBREK show that the presented localizer allows for efficient measurement of the distance between a trapped miner and the rescuer in the range of up to 15 m.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Burnos
Janusz Gajda
Piotr Maj

Abstrakt

Many studies have been developed aiming to improve digital filters realizations, recurring to intricate structures and analyzing probabilistically the error's behavior. The work presented in this paper analyzes the feasibility of fixed-point implementation of classical infinite impulse response notch filters: Butterworth, Chebyshev I and II, and elliptic. To scrutinize the deformations suffered for distinct design specifications, it is assessed: the effect of the quality factor and normalized cut-off frequency, in the number of significant bits necessary to represent the filter's coefficients. The implications brought to FPGA implementation are also verified. The work focuses especially on the implementation of power line notch filters used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in biomedical signals. The results obtained, when quantizing the digital notch filters, show that by applying second-order sections decomposition, low-order digital filters may be designed using only part of double precision capabilities. High-order notch filters with harsh design constraints are implementable using double precision, but only in second-order sections. Thus, it is revealed that to optimize computation time in real-time applications, an optimal digital notch filter implementation platform should have variable arithmetic precision. Considering these implementation constraints, utmost operation performance is finally estimated when implementing digital notch filters in Xilinx Virtex-5 field-programmable gate arrays. The influence of several design specifications, e.g. type, and order, in the filter's behavior was evaluated, namely in regard to order, type, input and coefficient number of bits, quality factor and cut-off frequency. Finally the implications and potential applications of such results are discussed.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Eduardo Pinheiro
Octavian Postolache
Pedro Girão

Abstrakt

Nowadays a geometrical surface structure is usually evaluated with the use of Fourier transform. This type of transform allows for accurate analysis of harmonic components of surface profiles. Due to its fundamentals, Fourier transform is particularly efficient when evaluating periodic signals. Wavelets are the small waves that are oscillatory and limited in the range. Wavelets are special type of sets of basis functions that are useful in the description of function spaces. They are particularly useful for the description of non-continuous and irregular functions that appear most often as responses of real physical systems. Bases of wavelet functions are usually well located in the frequency and in the time domain. In the case of periodic signals, the Fourier transform is still extremely useful. It allows to obtain accurate information on the analyzed surface. Wavelet analysis does not provide as accurate information about the measured surface as the Fourier transform, but it is a useful tool for detection of irregularities of the profile. Therefore, wavelet analysis is the better way to detect scratches or cracks that sometimes occur on the surface. The paper presents the fundamentals of both types of transform. It presents also the comparison of an evaluation of the roundness profile by Fourier and wavelet transforms.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Stępień
Włodzimierz Makieła
Stanisław Adamczak

Abstrakt

This paper presents a study of the Fourier transform method for parameter identification of a linear dynamic system in the frequency domain using fractional differential equations. Fundamental definitions of fractional differential equations are briefly outlined. The Fourier transform method of identification and their algorithms are generalized so that they include fractional derivatives and integrals.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tomasz Janiczek
Janusz Janiczek

Abstrakt

The present work offers new equations for phase evaluation in measurements. Several phase-shifting equations with an arbitrary but constant phase-shift between captured intensity signs are proposed. The equations are similarly derived as the so called Carré equation. The idea is to develop a generalization of the Carré equation that is not restricted to four images. Errors and random noise in the images cannot be eliminated, but the uncertainty due to their effects can be reduced by increasing the number of observations. An experimental analysis of the errors of the technique was made, as well as a detailed analysis of errors of the measurement. The advantages of the proposed equation are its precision in the measures taken, speed of processing and the immunity to noise in signs and images.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Pedro Magalhaes
Perrin Neto
Cristina Magalhães

Abstrakt

The interesting properties of a class of expanding systems are discussed. The operation of the considered systems can be described as follows: the input signal is processed by a linear dynamic converter in subsequent time intervals, each of them is equal to Ti. Processing starts at the moments n · Ti, always after zeroing of converter initial conditions. For smooth input signals and a given transfer function of the converter one can suitably choose Ti and the gain coefficient in order to realize the postulated linear operations on input signals, which is quite different comparing it to the operation realized by the converter. The errors of postulated operations are mainly caused by non-smooth components of the input signal. The principles for choice of system parameters and rules for system optimization are presented in the paper. The referring examples are attached too.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Adam Żuchowski

Abstrakt

The possibility or even necessity of revising definitions of some of the base units of the present SI has been discussed over the past 15 years. The last General Conference of Weights and Measures (2007) recommended to redefine the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin, and the mole using fixed values of the fundamental constants by the time of the next General Conference in 2011. This paper is a review of proposals of new definitions of units of mentioned quantities and arguments voting for particular variants of definitions. Most relevant papers for this review have been published by Metrologia, the international journal appointed at the BIPM, and many other useful pieces of information are available on www pages of the BIPM. The author notes that not only new definitions have been discussed but as well as the set of the base units of the SI. It means a replacement of the ampere by the volt or the kelvin by the joule. Decisions concerning new definitions are not made and the discussions are still open.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Waldemar Nawrocki

Abstrakt

The use of surface analysis to investigate brake elements shows how a pair in contact works and wears out during regular operation. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the asperities from initial state to a moment when further use of the drum and shoe is not possible. Between exchange of vital brake elements a truck with total mass exceeding 3.5 tons can cover as many as 300 000 kilometres. Use of brakes during the first 1000 kilometres after maintenance should be rather gentle with possibly intensive use of engine brake installed in the truck itself, because if this rule is not adhered to it may lead to a significant decrease of the braking force and on the surface of the pair in contact a layer will appear that is not possible to wear off and that will make it impossible to stop a truck using brakes. In that condition the shoe should be immediately replaced and the drum should be remachined (by turning) to a repair dimension. In the paper the condition and analysis of a surface after different course of exploitation was presented.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Wieczorowski
Robert Mrozek
Paweł Andrałojć

Abstrakt

Referring to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), the paper proposes a theoretical contribution to assess the uncertainty interval, with relative confidence level, in the case of n successive observations. The approach is based on the Chi-square and Fisher distributions and the validity is proved by a numerical example. For a more detailed study of the uncertainty evaluation, a model for the process variability has been also developed.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marcantonio Catelani
Andrea Zanobini
Lorenzo Ciani

Redakcja

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief
Ryszard SZPLET
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: ryszard.szplet@wat.edu.pl

Vice Editor-in-Chief
Paweł KWIATKOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: pawel.kwiatkowski@wat.edu.pl

Technical Editor and Webmaster

Dominik SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: dominik.sondej@wat.edu.pl

Language Editor

Andrzej ŁUKASZEWICZ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: andrzej.lukaszewicz@wat.edu.pl


International Programme Committee


Andrzej ZAJĄC,
Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland
Bruno ANDO
University of Catania, Italy
Martin BURGHOFF
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
Marcantonio CATELANI
University of Florence, Italy
Numan DURAKBASA
Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Janusz GAJDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
Domenico GRIMALDI
University of Calabria, Italy
Laszlo KISH
Texas A&M University, USA
Juha KOSTAMOVAARA
University of Oulu, Finland
Eduard LLOBET
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Alex MASON
Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Janusz MROCZKA
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
Antoni ROGALSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
Wiesław WOLIŃSKI
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Associate Editors

Sławomir CIĘSZCZYK
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: s.cieszczyk@pollub.pl
Albin CZUBLA
Central Office of Measure, Poland
e-mail: albin.czubla@gum.gov.pl
Vladimir DIMCHEV
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
e-mail: vladim@feit.ukim.edu.mk
Krzysztof DUDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: kduda@agh.edu.pl
Agnieszka IWAN
Military University of Land Forces, Poland
e-mail: agnieszka.iwan@awl.edu.pl
Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: ireneusz.jablonski@pwr.wroc.pl
Jacek JAKUBOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jacek.jakubowski@wat.edu.pl
Jussi-Pekka JANSSON
University of Oulu, Finland
e-mail: jussi.jansson@oulu.fi
Mieczysław JESSA
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: mieczyslaw.jessa@put.poznan.pl
Piotr KANIEWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: piotr.kaniewski@wat.edu.pl
Piotr KISAŁA
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: p.kisala@pollub.pl
Manoj KUMAR
Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India
e-mail: my.hunn.manoj@gmail.com
Grzegorz LENTKA
Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
e-mail:lentka@eti.pg.edu.pl
Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ
Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: czeslaw.lukianowicz@tu.koszalin.pl
Rosario MORELLO
University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
e-mail: rosario.morello@unirc.it
Fernando PUENTE LEÓN
University Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: f.puente@me.com
Hamid M. SEDIGHI
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
e-mail: h.msedighi@scu.ac.ir
Petr SEDLAK
Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: sedlakp@feec.vutbr.cz
Tadeusz SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: tadeusz.sondej@wat.edu.pl
Mirosław SZMAJDA
Opole University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: m.szmajda@po.edu.pl
Michał STRZELECKI
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: michal.strzelecki@p.lodz.pl
Grzegorz ŚWIRNIAK
Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: grzegorz.swirniak@pwr.wroc.pl
Michał WIECZOROWSKI
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jmichal.wieczorowski@put.poznan.pl
Jacek WOJTAS
Military University of Technology, Poland

Kontakt

E-mail: metrology@wat.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.wat.edu.pl

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Military University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics
gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2
00-908 Warsaw
Poland

Instrukcje dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).
Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

Polityka Open Access

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

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